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was obliged to work it out by addition- (and bread fall to 6d. the farmer would al labour, if perchance he could get get no sale for his produce. The landemployment ; in consequence of which owner reasoned thus :--' If foreign grain that labour, and every thing else used by should be allowed to come in so low, the individuals, cost the community at my tenant would, ere long, be ruined, least 15l. a year more than they did before. and
share of the interest upon the The community was at last induced to public debt, which now amounts to go to war with a neiglabouring community. 9001.- will come full upon ine, and my They fought and destroyed one another great extra reut, which was more than for a long time, till they were almost sutticient to meet it, will be entirely unable to go ou fighting, which led 'gone.:-)le then says to the attorney; them to agree to drop it. The managers this will never do; we must make a law of the community in question, boasted prohibiting foreign grain coming among of their unrivalled glory, and the mighty us till our own is at 80s. a quarter, things they had done; but they paid no which will keep the loaf always at 16d. attention to this material difference to 18d. and this will so efiectually probetween them and their opponents tect my farmer, that he can pay a very during the coutlict—ihat the enemy hiylı rent, anil, in this manier, my prowas throwing off a great load of debt, portion of the taxes will be distributert with which they had been previously among the whole community, except tlie incumbered, while they, on the other small proportion which attaches to the
, hand, were every day adding to theirs,' grain I consume.'--The attorney apwhich had already been too beary, and proves, and says, that there is another had actually amounted to 6051.--in ad financial reason for keeping the price at dition to the former 2001. and the first Sos. as cogent as any yet mentioned -viz. annual expence of 51.
the intus" of foreign grain at such a frio The grand question came 11:e to be. price, wond reduce ihe value of chary low is the 301. the interest of this cool article, and as the tim required to pay to be raisesi? --The answer was, in the the cabinet-maker and cutien the interest
manner as formerly-iwo fifilis, of their 9991. is generally raised by a per or 121. on the - land-owner, and three centage, if all our articles jall in price, fifths, or 181. on the members of the that per centage will lower also, and our community. Each again endeavoured means will be inswicient to pay our to lay it on his articles, but fou die first and natural annual ex
!!!ce oị 51.additional price drove away his custoa- 200 151. the interest of he 901, of ers, and diminished the usual demand. public debt. They thereto agree it is for The land-owner, however, had been more the advantage of their se ne of finance, fortunatę; for, on account of the diffi- as well as the lando er, that grain culty there was in the way, during the should be prohibited £m coming into war, of any grain coming in competition the community, till 1 ow prices are with that which his farmer produced, at 89s. per quarter, o: loaf above 16d. he bad nearly doubled his rents; and or 10d. This I cor .ve to be a plain although he thus raised the quartern and obvious view of one case, though, I loaf to the whole community to 10d. admit, not a complete one. But it is he thereby received much more than sutticient to suggest to every considerate was requisite to his proper- mind this equiry-Since it is admitted tion of the interest of the increased the grower oi corn cannot raise it with, debt. But, after
the peace, their advantage, unless he is protected against,
, former enemies of the neighbouring foreign grain coming in mder dus. community were able to, and did really, quarier, bow comes it that a British far. send into them grain at such a low price mer, who is allowed 10 have more capias would bring the quarteru loaf to 6d. I tal, more industry, and more science than. instead of 10d. at which it had been hept foreign famers, cannot produce corn, ever since the land-owner had raised his upon equally cheap terms. Why has vot, rent.--The farmer im nediately toid the the legislature made this intuicy ? Untii. land-owner, that he must be protected. this is ascertained, no effectual cure can, The land-owner consulted the attorney, applied to the existing evil, which is and they saw at once, that if the neighl- so much complained of. bouring grain was allowed to come in,
racle may be received by Catholics, we INSPIRED WRITINGS.
of the Protestant Church do not admit of evidence of this description. Besides,
if it was not till after three centuries had Mr. COBBETT.-In your Register of elapsed, that the Holy Spirit condesendthe 18th ult. a correspondent asks, by ed' to sanction the New Testament wriwhose authority those books (the New tings, it would follow that the Christians Testament Scriptures) " when formed into who lived prior to that period, were left
their present collective state, were de- in darkness and uncertainty as to the au“signated holy inspired writings?”-For thority of the sacred writings, and, consome time I was surprised that a question, sequently, without any stable foundatiinvolving so many importantconsequences, I on on which to rest their faith. This is a had not received a prompt and satisfac- view of the subject which no sincere betory answer, either from yourself, who liever can adopt, without charging the had already so powerfully advocated the Almighty with partiality, and wantonly cause of the established church, or from sporting with the feelings of the creaone of your "Fordhams, your Churchimen, tures he had made. The authority of or other staunch supporters of the faith, the author of Ecce Homo must, therewho so ably assisted you in your pious fore, have been rejected by all good opposition to the repeal of the penal protestants, even although it had not been statutes against the Unitarians; but, after thought necessary to put that work, some enquiry and con: iverable reilection, down for the safety of the protestant my surprise subsideri on finding, that church, and to preserve unshaken the no celebrated ecclesiastical historian, as faith of thousands, who might otherwise far as I have been able to discover, has have been staggered by a perusal of its attempted to fix a period when the books dangerous arguments, and the fearless composing the New Testament "
manner in which the writer discusses designated holy inspired writings." The the most important and interesting subauihor of Ecce Homo, who rcfers to
jects. Tillemont and other failers in proof of A writer of the name of Dodwell, in his his statement; but whose auihority has dissertations on Irenæus, says been overthrown by one of more weight “collection or canon of the books of the and general influence ; has asserted, that “ New Testament was made in the reign it was not till 325 years after the birth of “ of Trajan the Roman Emperor, more, Christ that those books were received “ than a century after Christ."- Dr. or acknowledged as inspired. His words Mills, who treated of this subject in the are; -“ At the end of three centuries beginning of last century, asserted, that (i. e. in the three hundred and twenty- " there
no collection made of “ fifth year of the Christian era) some
any books of Scripture, whether of “ bishops decided, that these four gos" epistles or gospels, till about 60 years
pels were the only ones which ought "after the death of Christ. Not of the “to be adopied, or which had been "epistles certainly; for concerning the “really inspired by the Holy Ghost. A “ authors and authority of some of these, “ miracle enabled them to discover
“ there were great disputes and doubts " this important truth,
" in the apostolical churches in the fols to be discerned, at time
lowing ages, which had never happened “ then not very remote from that of the “had any of the last surviving apostles apostles. They placed, it is said, pro- 's constituted a canon.
Nor of the four miscuously, books apocryphal and au- "gospels, the reading of which in the “thentic under an altar:- the Fathers “churches was not then determined and “ of the Council betook themselves to
agreed on.”--Another writer about the prayers, in order to obtain of the same period, Dr. Beveridge, saysLord iliat he would permit the false
Among all the more ancient writers of or doubtful books to remain under the “ ecclesiastical matters, you will hardly
altar, whilst those which were truly “ find two ihat agree in the same mum“ inspired by the Holy Ghost, should “ ber of canonical books.”-Again,
no place themselves above it, a circum
one can be ignorant that some of the siance which did not fail to occur." " truly canonical books of the apostles --in whatever light this pretended mi- were doubted of in the three first cen
so that a
".turies of Christianity."--I could multi- dividual, except inasmuch as it shews the ply authorities on this subject; but as falsehoods which have been had recours they all differ from one another, this to, in order to make up something like a would only tend the more to confirm defence of so disgraceful an expenditure what I have already stated, that no cer- of the public money, as is the giving of tain period has been agreed upon by the such sums to such a man. However, as numerous writers of church history, when it has been taken up in Parliament, I trust the books of the New Testament ** were the enquiries will not cease until the evil designated holy inspired writings.-1 is done away. I have already commucordially agree with your correspondent, nicated to you, that Sir John Downie
that if these books were more candidly played a principal part in the late tragedy
examined, and more rationally consi- of the restoration of the Inquisition, and “ dered, the truth and rationality of Chris- that Ferdinand, according to his custom,
tianity would be better - understood.” got tired of the man, and sent him to It must, at the same time, however, be Seville. General Morillo was about this acknowledged, that where a difficulty time appointed to the chief command of presents itself in the outset of this exami- the embryo espeilition to South America, nation, it cannot be expected that any and passed through Seville on his way to one can enter upon it, with an unbiassed Cadiz, to commence operations in the and unprejudiced mind, until that difti- organization of his army. It will be, perculty is removed. The point under dis- hap3, thought extraordinary here, but it cussion appears to me in that light. It is no less true, that a part of this army, involves, in my apprehension, all that is and one in which Ferdinand placed great desirable on earth. Upco it depends confidence, was a deputation of Prieste, the truth of our holy religion, the founda- consisting of a certain number of every tion of our faith, the hope of a future ex- order in Spain, lieaded by the new Ameo istence. I trust, therefore, that some rican Inquisitor General, Ramon Guiraqnis.
pen thay mine will take up the sub- Seville, which is only about 30 leagues ject, not only for the sake of consistency, distant from Cadiz, was appointeri 45 but that infidels, who are always on the the place of rendezvous. for these Prie sts. watch to take advantage, may be for eyer Sir John Downie, finding his appointirent silenced, and the divine authority of the of goaler, or (as he calls it in the paid for sacred writings established on an im- puff paragraplis in the Sun and Courier) moyable basis.
Inspector of the Palace, neither profita bles VERITAS. nor honourable, set to work immediately
with the Holy Brotherhood, and so well
succeeded with them that Ramon Gigil 2THE INQUISITION.
quiz wrote to tke Inquisitor General at SIR,--Since my last I perceive, by the Madrid, desiring that Downie night Morning Post and the Times newspa- be permitied to embark with the Expedipers, that Sir John Newport in the House tion, stating his devotion to the inter ests of Commons, and Lord Landsclovine in of the Holy Office, and that be would | 1.e the Lords, have taken up the Inquisition an excellent colaterpoise to the rough General, Sir John Downie.--The Chen- independence of the General in Chief, insa ceilor of the Exchequer, in defending the rillo. This officer, as I have already item of about 135,000l. of the public mo- stated, was originally a private ma: jne, ney, which has been paid to this man, and serving on board the Spanish Feet, independent of an annuity which he re- in the battle of Trafalgar, was taken priceived from the public, (for what is not soner, and confised on board one of the explained) stated as a sort of salvo, that prison siips at Portsmouth, until tie he was the brother of the late lamented breaking out of the Spanish revoli jon, Captain Downie, of the Navy, who was when he was sent lone with the wi ole killed on the Lakes in America. Tliis of the Spanish prisoners. Natur lily declaration produced a letter, which has boisterous and violeni, a man of war; lil been inserted in all the newspapers, con- a mountain raip, his only educatie 12, tradicting the assertion, and stating Sir which his guerilla avocations had 1 tot John Downie to be the son of a weaver, contributed much to soiten, he appeared in Renfrewshire:---Now this has nothing little disposed to submit bis operatic es whatever to do with the merits of the in- to the guidance of the priests, who ct xi
sidered their arprobation of every mea- course. Thus stood the expedition, when
. sure as a sine qui non to success.- after repeated disappointments it sailed; Ramon Guiraquiz was indefatigable in but, owing to some unexplained cause, it his applications in favour of Sir John has returned to port, and it is said its Downie, and at last succeeded; but not, destination is changed. What will now as the Chancellor of the Exchequer stat- become of Sir John Downie remains to ed, in getting him appointed a Lieutenant be seen. Perhaps he will return to the General on the staff of the expedition; Inspectorship of his Palace at Seville. his only rank is that of Brigadier and he is At all events, he has little chance of being inferior to all the stait officers em-employed in the regular Spanish army, ployed. On bis arrival at Cadiz, be where his Inquisition merits are very was recvived most coldly by Morillo, who, thoroughly understood, and properly apfrom bis resideace in England, (limited as preciated. it was) was enabled to form a pretty ac- The capture of Monte Video has placcurate judgment of General Sir John ed the whole eastern part of Spanish Downie. In addition to which, he con- America in the power of the Patriots. sidered him solely as an inquisition Gene. An army of 40,000 men, flushed with ral, and from his residing constantly with conquest, most of them “ Patriots of the the Priests, he received the Spanish nick- “ soil," accustomed to habits of freedom, name of “ El Inquisitore Ynglese.” For and detesting tyranny, either civil, relifive months, the expedition remained in gious, or military, would have laughed to preparation at Cadir. avoid suring the scorn Morillo's army of 8,000 men, even whole of that time, (so celi was the re- with the aid of his Holy Brotherhood Deception he met with on his reporting putation, the Pope's Bull with which they himself to General Morillo) he continued were furnished, and the threatened Auto with the reputation of the Inquisition at de Fé, which was to have been celebratSeville, and nerer once joined the army ed in honour of God, on their arrival in until its embarkation, when he arrived America. Morillo himself is known win the Holy Brethren, having with him never to have been at all sanguine of suca Lieutenant Steele of the Marines, and cess. The priests imagined, that their. was appointed to the same ship with fulmination of burning in this world, and Hamon Guiraquiz! This Lieut. Steele damnation in the next, would have effecleft England is the year 1813, having tually put down the efforts of the rebeen permitted by the Admiralty to enter volutionary party; and that quiet subthe Spanish service in the corps of Gene- mission to the “ San Benito,” would have ral Doyle, who being totally without been the immediate consequence of their officers, caine to England to recruit for first appearance. Cevallos, however, who them in the D:itish service; and finding is still at the head of the government at none to be got at in the regiments of the Madrid, began to find that the expedition line, he applied to the marines, where he would bave been a certain sacrifice, while succeeried in getting half a dozen, one of the ships, and their stores and equipments whom is Sir John Downie's follower, Lieut. would have been an important acquisition Steele, who, also, in imitation of his mas- to the revolutionists ; and it is understood ter, calls himself by some pompous desig- by the best inforined Spaniards here, that nation--if not General, certainly at least certain information was received of the Colonel.
complete establishment of the New GoGeneral Morillo looked upon these men vernment. However this may be, it is with suspicion :- he remembered, that certain that the expedition is suspended while he was bravely fighting at the head for the present; the troops have all disof his guerillas, Sir John Downie was embarked, and have occupied again their otherwise employed at Madrid; and old quarters at Cadiz, the Isla, St. Maria, perhaps judging not over favorably of and Puerto Real; and the priests have the man, who, notwithstanding that he returned, some of them to Seville, where owed his all to the late government, lad Ramon Guiraquiz has himself gone ; and been ungrateful enough to be a principal the remainder occupy the great convent operator in its destruction, he avoided all of the Dominicans, near the Water Gate. communicati with him, and left him to at Cadiz. In the mean time, the Inquithe society of his friends the priests, with sition is not idle:-All the revolutionists whom alone he had any sort of inter-) have been publicly excommunicated in
every church in Spain. All communica-l in conversation with them. One of the tion with them is denounced under the pro-proctors (who was of Trinity College) severest penalties, and a complete sepa- accompanied by the marshal of the univers ration is effected between the colonies tity, stopped the young women, and and the mother country. The evils which charged them with having been in cona this will produce, will no doubt be at versation with the gowesten. They in first, most severely felt, but the conse
vain denied the fact. The pro-proctor dequences must eventually be beneficial to sired them to follow him, which they dised both parties. All revolutionary govern- attended by the marshal. The gownsmen ments are liberal in their policy. They perceiving the young women were stopped, will no doubt invite all Europe to a free and supposing that it might have been trade, and thus commercial prosperity occasioned by their having apparently will be both given and received; while, been in their company, returned and on the other hand, Old Spain, where indo- begged leave to assure the pro-proctors lence and inactivity have so long been thai no blame whatever was imputable habitual, will give way to exertion. This to the young women ; but they were lewill arise from the scarcity of the pre- sired to go to their College, and the lecious metals, which the revolution must males were escorted to fixeter College, necessarily produce. Under the old sys
vhere the marshal learned that the Vice tem, so abundant was the supply of gold Chancellor was engaged, and would i det and silver, that little labour was necessary be spoken with. The pro-proctor upon to obtain support.
A most material being informed of this circumstance, dechange will now be produced, and I have sired they might be taken to the marshal's no doubt, that if the government is not house, and said that he would send the so stupidly blind to its own existence, as senior proctor to them. The marshal to still encourage the dominion of the obeyed the pro-proctor's directions, and priests, and the ignorance of the people, conducted them to his house, where the that a material alteration will take place senior proctor came soon afterward's. in the general habits and pursuits of the The young women asked what they lad whole nation.
been brought there for. The proctor said In my next letter, I shall trouble you that the pro-proctor had informed him with a statement of the operation of the they had been talking to the gownsmen. Inquisition upon trade, commerce, and This they denied, and begged they might agriculture. In this country, an English- be liberated. The proctor replied that man can with difficulty understand how they must be confined there all night, these great causes of national prosperity and taken befcre the Vice-Chancellor in can be interfered with by the church. :1 the morning to exculpate themselves. shall explain this, and will shew clearly, They then requested that their mother that Spain possesses every requisite to might be sent for; but this was refused rival the most favoured commercial na- by the proctor, who immetliately left the tions, if a wise and liberal government house, desiring the marshal to confine were to give spirit and energy to the them. The marshal conducted them exertions of the people.
I am, &c.
into a room up stairs (the usual place of March 1, 1815.
confinement for common prostitutes,) and locked them up. Perceiving the mar
shal before he left ile room was about to UNIVERSITY OF OXFORD.
take away the candle, the girls begged SIR,-To the many instances of the they night have a light and a fire. But abuses of the proctorial power in the Uni- he told them it was as much as bis place yersity of Oxford, which have been lately was worth to allow them to have either animadverted upon, in your Register, I the one or the other ; and they were conbeg leave to add the following: On the fined all night, without fire, candles, or 29th of November, 1811, two young wo- any sort of refreshment. In the course of men, the daughters of a widow in the the evening, their mother, and two of miduling rank of life, resident in Oxford, their friends, wislied to be admitted, but were in the High-street, near St. Mary's were refused. About nive o’olcck the Church, betwen four and five o'clock in fol owing worning, the mars'ıal desired the afternoon, wheo two gownsmen cross-them to prepare to go before the Viceed the way, and endeavoured to engage Chancellor, and then left them. He re