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have gone to war. This, however, our “ June can only be defeated by a refusal naval officers did not do. It has never

the

part Government to desist been denied by our Government, that many

" from bostilities, or to comply with the native Republicans were impressed by our "conditions expressed in the said Order. ollicers. It is notorious, that many of them “ Under the circumstances of your having liave beo compelled to serve on board of " no powers to negociate, I must decline our ships; and, of course, that many have " entering into a detailed discussion of the been wounded or killed; or, at least, car

propositions which have been directric from their country, their homes, their “ ed to bring forward. I cannot, however, family, and their affairs. Mr. Madison, refrain on one single point from expressin his last specch to the Congress, states, “ing my surprise ; namely, that, as a conthat “thousands” of Native Republicans“ dition, preliminary even to a suspension were thus impressed, before war was de- “ of hostilities, the Government of the clared by the Congress. The Congress, “ United States should have thought fit to at last, declared war; but the President, \" demand, that the British Government always anxious to avoid the calamities of " should desist from its ancient and accuswar, immediately proposed the renewal of “ tomed practice of impressing British seancgociations for peace. Mr. Russell, then “ men from the merchant ships of a forcign the Republican Dioister in London, signi- “ State, simply on the assurance that a law fied to Lord Castlereagh, in August 1812, "shall hereafter be passed, to prohibit the that he was authorised to stipulate for an employment of British seamen in the Armistice, to begin in sixty days, on the public or commercial service of that following conditions : “ That the Orders in “ State. The British Government now, “ (nepril be rcpenleil, and no illegal" as heretofore, is ready to receive from *kharies be subtituted for them; and “ the Government of the United States, Simhe imuziiately civen to dis-" and amicably to discuss, any proposition Eveline things of ursons from " which professes to have in view either to

rischi, amit t'store the “ check abuse in exercise of the practice "...:of it can? Wics ready in- “ of impressment, or to accomplish, by * pressed ; it being moreover well under-" means less liable to vexation, the object stood, that the British Government will “ for which impressment has hitherto been

assent to enter into definitive arrange- “ found necessary; but they cannot consent ments, as soon as may be, on these and “ to suspend the exercise of a right upon every other difference, by a Treaty, to be " which the naval strength of the empire

concluded, either at London or Wash- “ mainly depends, until they are fully con“ington, as on an impartial consideration " vinced that means can be devised, and "S of existing circumstances shall be deem- " will be adopted, hy which the object to “ed most expedient.As an inducement“ be obtained by the exercise of that right

to Great Britain to discontinue the prac- “can be effectitally secmed. I have the " tice of impressment from American “honour to be, Sir, your most obedient ás vessels, I am authorised to give assurance

“ humble Servant." " that a law shall be passed (to be reci- This offer, you will perceive, came from s procal), to prohibit the emplorment of the President. How false, then, is the ** British seari nint poblis ng Culinarp charge, that he went to war to assist Na46 ci sinirs * Chic Ertes. It is poleon! If that had been true, he, of 66 sinker, jy bi by fat such an arrange course, would have proposed no armistice.

Poze gore various, in He would have been anxious to avoid all Sets Cromat Britain her scanye', means of reconciliation. But, on the Stors the printikive oi impressment, so de contrary, he is the first to make an effort

rogatorý to the sovereign attributes of the to put an end to the war; and, even in the “ United States, and so incompatible with case of impressment, to tender voluntarily “ the personal rights of their citizens." measure calculated to remove our ap

Lord Castiereagh's answer to this was preliensions on the score of our seanen. as follows:- From this statement you I do not know how an English Secretary of “ will perceive, that the view you have State may have been able to look a Repubs taken of this part of the subject is incor- lican Minister in the face, while the for..

rect; and that, in the present state of the mer was asserting, that the strength of a retations between the two countries, the England mainly depended on the exercise * operation of the Order of the 23d of of the right of impressing its own subjects;

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but, be that as it may, the President here 4" British subjects in their service, and tendered a measure to render that impress- “ enforce the prohibition by suitable regument unnecessary, unless it was still meant “ lations and penalties, the motive for the to impress the Republicans.

practice is taken away. It is in this mode The Republic having failed in this en- " that the President is willing to accommodeavour to restore peace, she made another" date this important controversy with the attempt, the succeeding month, as will be " British Government, and it cannot be conseen in the letter of Nír. Monroe to Sir“ceived on what ground the arrangement John B. Warren, and which letter it is of can be refused. A suspension of the great importance now to peruse with at-" practice of impressment, pending the artention. After the opening of bis letter, mistice, scems to be a necessary consehe proceeds thus :-“I am instructed to quence. It cannot be presumed, while “ inform you, that it will be very satisfac- “ the parties are engaged in a negociation "tory to the President to meet the British " to adjust amicably this important differ“ Government in such arrangements as ence, that the United States would ad

may terminate, without delay, the liosti- " mit the right, or acquiesce in the prac“lities which now exist between the United “ tice, of the opposite party; or that Great “ States and Great Britain, on conditions“ Britain would be unwilling to restrain “ honourable to both nations.- -At the “ her cruisers from a practice which would “ moment of the declaration of war, the “ have the strongest tendency to defeat “ President gave a signal proof of the at- " the negociation. It is presumable that "tachment of the United States to peace. “ both parties would enter into a negocia“ Instructions were given, at an early pe- « tion with a sincere desire to give it effect. “riod, to the late Charge d'Affaires of " For this purpose, it is necessary that a " the United States at London, to propose « clear and distinct understanding be first “to the British Government an armistice, " obtained between them, of the accommo"on conditions which, it was presumed,“ dation which each is prepared to make. “ would have been satisfactory. It has “ If the British Government is willing to “ been seen with regret, that the proposi- “ suspend the practice of impressment from " tion made by Mr. Monroe, particularly “ American vessels, on consideration that in regard to the important interest of " the United States will exclude British. impressment, was rejected ; and that " seamen from their service, the regulation, none was offered through that channel, by which this compromise, should be cara basis on which hostilities might “ ried into effect, would be solely the ob

As your Government has au- “ ject of this negociation. The armistice “ thorised you to propose a cessation of “ would be of short duration. If the pare " hostilities, and is doubtless aware of the "ties agree, peace would be the result. “important and salutary effect which a sa-" If the negociation failed, each would be “ tisfactory uiljustment of this difference “ restored to its former state, and to all its “ cannot fail to have on the future rela-“ pretensions, by recurring to war.--Lord “ tions between the two countries, I in- “ Castlereagh, in bis note to Mr. Russell, * dulge the hope that it has, ere this, given “ seems to have supposed, that, had the ' you

full
powers for the

purpose.
Ex- “ British Government accepted the

propoperience has sufficiently evinced that no “sitions made to it, Great Britain would

peace can be durable, unless this object “ have suspended immediately the exercise " is provided for: it is presumed, there-" of a right on the mere assurance of this

fore, that it is equally the interest of Government, that a law would be after“ both countries to adjust it at this time.- " wards passed to prohibit the employment “ Without further discussing questions of " of British seamen in the service of the right, the President is desirous to pro- “ United States, and that Great Britain “ vide a remedy for the evils complained " would bave no agency in the regulation “ of on both sides. The claim of the Bri-" to give effect to that proposition. Such “ tish Government is to take from the “ an idea was not in the contemplation of merchant vessels of other countries Bri- “ this Government, nor is to be reasonably “ tish subjects. In the practice, the Com-“ inferred from Mr. Russell's note : least, “manders of British ships of war often" however, by possibility, such an inference « take from the merchant, vesscls of the might be drawn from the instructions “ United States American citizens. If the "to Mr. Russell, and anxious that there “ United States prolabit the employment of " should be no misunderstanding in the

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" case, subsequent instructions were given once allowed, that we had a right to imto Mr. Russell

, with a view to obviate press on board American ships. Was this every objection of the kind alluded to offer to be attributed to a wish to aid Na“ As they bear date on the 27th of July, poleon? How execrable, then, has been " and were forwarded by the British the conduct of those who have been labour

packet Alphea, it is more than probable ing to make the people of England believe, " that they may have been received and 'that Mr. Madison went to war to aid Na" acted 01.

-I am happy to explain to poleon! What wretches must those be, you thus fully the views of my Govern- who have called him “ the tool of the fallen "ment on this important subject. The “ despot ?" what impudent men, those who “ President desires that the war which have accused him of attacking us in the " exists between our countries should be dark, like an assassin ? The man, who, " terminated on such conditions as may se- the other day, uttered that expressiou,

cure a solid and durable peace. To ac- ought to have had his lips smashed upon complish this great object, it is neces- his teeth. Every effort, short of opening

sary that the interest of impressment be the Republican ships to English press"satisfactorily arranged. He is willing gangs, was, it appears to me, made by the * that Great Britain should be sccured President to prevent the war, and to put

against the evils of which she complains. an end to the war after it was begun. “ He seeks, on the other hand, that the It is asscrted most roundly, in Lord “ citizens of the United States should be Castlereagle's letter to Mr. Russell, that

protected against a practice, which, “ to impress British seamen from the mer" while it degrades the nation, deprives chant ships of a foreign State is the anci"them of their right as freemen, takes “ent and accustomed practice of the British " them by force from their families and Government.It has often been thus their country, into a foreign service, to said, but never has been attempted to be "fight the battles of a foreign Power, per- proved. I have never read of any such

haps against their own kindred and practice ; I have never heard of any such
"country. I abstain from entering, in practice ; and, I defy any one, to cite in
" this communication, into otlict grounds any book on the law of nations any record
• of differences. The Orders in Council of such a practice, or any maxim or prin.
" having been repealed (with a reservation ciple to warrant it. I have thrown down
“not impairing a corresponding right on this challenge fifty times, and it has never
* the part of the United States), and no been taken up. But, we did not stop with
"illegal blockades revived or instituted in this practice. We impressed Nutive Re-
“their stead, and an understanding being publicans. Mr. Madison says tlrat we im-
"obtained on the subject of impressment, pressed thousands of them. The President
« in the mode herein proposed, the Presi- tenders us a law, to be agreed on by us
" dent is willing to agree to a cessation well as him, to prevent our seamen from
" of hostilities, with a view to arrange, by serving on board of the Republican ships;
" treaty, in a more distinct and ample and this, even this, does not satisfy us.

manner, and to the satisfaction of both He wishes to put an end to the war in this

parties, every other subject of contro-way, even at a time when he is accused of “ versy. I will only add, that if there having declared it for the purpose of aiding “ be no objection to an accommodation of Napoleon ; and still the hirelings of the " the difference relating to impressment, London press call bin “ the tool of Napoos in the mode proposed, other than the sus- leon;" while other miscreants accuse him

pension of the British claims to impress- of having attacked us in the dark, like an "ment during the armistice, there can be assassin. "none to proceeding, without the armistice, SECOND, the causes of the continuance of to an immediate discussion and arrange-| the Wars.- -But, how came the war not " ment of an article on that subject. This to cease when the war in Europe ceased? "great question being satisfactorily ad- This is the most interesting part of the

justed, the way will be open either for subject. Tlie professed object of the war,

an armistice, or any other course leading on our part, was to make the Americans s most conveniently and expeditiously to a submit to our practice of impressment, algenerul pacification."

ledging that that practice wies necessary to This off-r, too, was rejected! What the preservation of our maritime power, more was the President to do unless he, at / on which our existence depended." Mr.

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Madison tendered us the means of prevent | Monroe, in his instructions to the Commising our seamen from avoiding our service by sioners at Ghent, written in July and Auserving on board of American slips ; but, gust, telling them, that it appears to the laying that aside, why did we not make President, that the war, on our part, has peace as soon as we had made

peace

with a new object. France ? We were no longer in danger. But this proclamation of the Admiralty There existed no longer any reason

was not all that had a tendency to produce fear, that our men would take refuge on this opinion of our object. On the 2 of June, board of American ships. The European just after the issuing of this proclamation, peace had taken away all ground of quar- the London newspapers published what rel. The Republic was always ready to they called a speech of Sir Joseph Yorke, treat. Her Ministers, or Commissioners, one of the Lords of the Admiralty, deliverwere in London soliciting audiences. And | ed, as it was stated, in the House of Comyet the war continued, and, on our part, mons, the evening before. This document with more fury than ever. All danger to is of infinite importance, whether us was at an end. The French king was view it as coming from a Gentleman in restored; the Pope was re-established in office, or as to the time of its having been lis Chair of St. Peter; regular Govern- uttered, or, at least, published. It was in nient and the Inquisition were happily re- these memorable words, as published in the stored in Spain ; and, in short, “social Courier newspaper of the 2d June, 1814. “ order and our holy religion,

-“ Sir J. Yorke observed, that although Bowles used to call them, were every

where one great enemy of this country, Bonabecome again in vogue.

parte, had been deposed, there was anoThis change took place in the months of " i her. gentleman whose DEPOSITION April and Nay last; and just as I was hug- was also necessary to our interest, he ging myself in the prospect of a speedy " meant Mr. President Madison, and with peace with America, out came a very ex- a view to THAT DEPOSITION a traordinary paper from the Admiralty. It “ considerable naval force must be kept was an address to the flécts. It set out up, especially in the Atlantic. But as with expressing thanks to the sailors for “to his Hon. Friend's opinion respecting their services in the glorious cause, which the reduction of the Navy, he wished it had just been crowned with such signal" to be considered that a number of shipsuccess; it then stated to them, that their “ping were employed in conveying French services would be wanted a little longer, in “ prisoners to France, and bringing home order to carry on the war against America, our own countrymen. So much for the which had been guilty of an unprovoked act" occupation of our navy on the home of aggression against our maritime rights; “ station. But from the Mediterranean and it concluded by observing, that, with “ for instance, several three deckers were the aid of the navy, there was no doubt“ ordered home, and he could swear that but such a peace would be procured as “ no practicable exertion would be remitted would tend to the “ LASTING TRAN-" to reduce the expence of our Naval De"QUILLITY OF THE CIVILIZED"partment.”—This required, no interpre" WORLD.” There was a great deal of ter. It left no 100m for miscomprehension. meaning in these concluding words. Sup- It went, at once, to the point; and, though pose the war to have gained us an acknow- it might possibly have been a fabrication of ledgment of our right to send press-gangs the Newspaper Editors, it never was, at into American merchant ships on the high any time afterwards, stated to have been seas, what had that to do with “ the lasting such; and yet it was of quite importance " tranquillity of the civilized world.?And enough to merit a contradiction, if it could why the word civilized,? In short, this have received it. No wonder, then, that novel instrument was, in America, looked Mr. Madison thought, that we had found upon as a new declaration of war against out a new object for the war. It was high them; a declaration of war upon a new time for him to make this discovery, when ground. Jonathan, who heard so much he read in the English newspapers a report about our care for the “ civilized world,of the speech of a Lord of the Admiralty, when we began our war against the French stating, in an official way, that a strong Republic, did not fail to interpret these sig- naval force was still necessary with a view nificant words according to John Bowles's to THE DEPOSING of Mr. Madison. Dictionary. Accordingly we find Mr. This speech, as I have often said, may

66

have been a fabrication ; but the publica- |“ sistent with ourselves, we must in like tion of it never was complained of in the manner maintain the doctrine of NO House; the report was never contradicted “ PEACE WITH JAMES MADIin the newspapers; and, at any rate, when "SOŅ.... coupled with the Proclamation of the Ad- “ Can we doubt, that a vigorous effort on miralty, Mr. Madison could not help look- our part will annihilate the power of a ing upon it as very nearly proof positive of " faction, alike hostile to Britain, and fatal our Government's determination to depose“ to America ? Is not the time propitious him; that is to say, to destroy the Consti- “ for WINNING AT LEAST THE tution of the Republic.

“ SOUNDER AND BETTER PART Besides, these documents went to Ame- “ OF THE AMERICANS TO AN rica accompanied with the menacing lan-“ UNION OF INTERESTS WITH guage of our press; or, at least, all that "THE COUNTRY FROM WHENCE part of tue press which was most in

vogue,

“ THEY SPRUNG?”... which was most cherished by the rich, and

....... Again, in the same which was looked upon as speaking the paper of a date a few months later :-"The voice of persons having great influence. « i ill-organized association, is on the eve The prints of this description, the moment of dissolution;' and the world is speedily Napoleon was down, changed, all at once," to be delivered of the mischievous extheir tone with regard to America. They ample of the existence of a Government had before talked of our maritime rights;“ FOUNDED ON DEMOCRATIC they had apologized for the war; they had

66 REBELLION." called it a war of necessity; they had affected

I need insert no more.

This was the to lament that necessity; they had been ex- language of the favoured and patronised pressing their hopes of the return of peace part of the English press. It is impossible with our misled breihren in America, But no to efface these passages. They speak in sooner was Napoleon put down, than these language which can neither be misunderSarile prints proclaimed the necessity of con- stood nor misrepresented. tinuing the war for the purpose of subduing In addition to these clear unequivocal the Republic; of bringing her to subjection; indications, we must not omit to bear in of putting down her Government; of bring- mind the article, which appeared in all our ing to an union with us a part, at least, of London prints, some weeks after the peace the States ; of rooting out her democratical of Paris, stating, that there was a secret principles. They declared, that no peace article in that treaty, pledging the Contiwas to be made with James Madison, whom nental Powers not to interfere in the war, they called a TRAITOR and a REBEL. or the dispute, between England and AmeBut obserởe well, that the main object con- rica. This was something very remarkstantly kept in view by these prints was able ; for the article was given as an exthe necessity of delivering the world of the tract from the Vienna Gazette, How EXAMPLE of the existence of a Go- could it get into that Gazette, which, all vernment founded on DEMOCRATIC) the world knows, contains nothing disapsrbi ';," TO gote al, r» a hundredth proved of by the Government ? How could part of the instances that i am here speak the article get there?' It related to a matin , irould fil a large volume. I will, ter of very great importance. Uncommonly thiwn fore, content myself with a few pas- important it was. The editor, the mere

235 from the: mes newspaper of the last editor of a Paper at Vienna was not likely trenehs of the month of April, 1814. to think much, or care much, about Ame

" It is understood that part of our army rica, or her dispute. Why should he invent " in France will be immediately trans- the story of such a secret article ? Be the * ferred to America, to FINISH the war cause of this article what it might, the ef" there with the same glory as in Europe, fect certainly was very great. The fact, " and to place the peace on a foundation which was taken for granted by the eneequally firm and lasting.

mies of liberty here, encouraged them to “ The American Government proceed in urging the continuance of the " is, in point of fact, as much a tyranny war; they told the people, that there was

(though we are far from saying it is so no danger now; that all the Powers of * horrible a one) as was that of Bonaparte: Europe were of one mind; that there was " and as we firmly urged the principle of no fear, in the present state of France, of

with Bonaparte; so, to be con- her lending the Americans any assistance ;

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