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has dene; hit, he has not done all thail Farewell Blockheads, unless in cases of was expected, and has done some things actual investiture !-I shall be told, that which were not expected.--It is quite we have not stipulated with America to impossible for me to know, whether, refrain from any of these impediments to or no, Napoleon, is best calculated to neutral commerce. Oh, no! There needs make France happy; but, to him who is no stipulation. The events on Lakes most disposed to make her happy and Ontario and Champlain, at New Orfree, I most sincerely wish success. leans and Mobile, at Fayal, and on the At any rate, with the same earnestness, Ocean itself, will, I am very certain adwith the same anxiety, with the same monish our ministers of the danger of forebodings of evil if my prayer be re- bringing the Republic on our backs, while jected, which I felt when I so often be we have to look France in the face. The songht our Government not to embark, war, the war which I so laboured to and, when embarked, not to persevere, prevent; that war, which was to divide in the war against the Republic of Ame- and subjugate the Republic according to rica, I now beseech, I implore them, not, the predictions of our Cossack writers; on any account, to draw the sword, to that war has left the Republic on the waste the treasure and pour out the tripple pinnacle of military, naval, and blood of our beloved and long suffering political glory: happy for her, if it has country in this new quarrel.-We all also left her with a deep horror for all now feel the sorrows of a twenty years war, not necessary to the preservation war, in the taxes and troubles which of her independence, rights, honour and have trod upon its heels. If a new war liberty! But, seeing what has passed, were now to be undertaken, and that, do our Cossack writers expect to see her too, for the sake of the Bourbons, what again acting the humble and the degradmust be our fate? The question would ing part which she acted before? Do now be cleared of all the rubbish of they not see, that the very first infringe1792. If the king of France stand in ment on her neutral rights will be the "need of no foreign aid, why should we draw signal for our seeing her“ Bits of striped the sword to give him aid ? If be do “ Bunting" flying and our hearing the stand in need of foreign aid, is it not sound of her cannon in the English clear, that the people of France are Channel ? What, then, would be the against him? If we, in the former case, other consequence of war? Why, we interfere, we do it unnecessarily; if it should see the ocean covered with Amein the latter case, we make war to force rican merchant ships.
The Republic upon a foreign nation a Government would
on half the trade of which it does not like. Therefore, it the whole world. France would be appears to me, that it is impossible to supplied with colonial produce. Her justify war against Napoleon upon any trade would flourish in the midst of ground that, at present, exists.-Besides, war. We should make few prizes. Our have the writers, who already begin to prize-courts would have nothing to do. cry for war, considered at all of the There would be little for our navy to consequences ? All the taxes hitlerto col gain. Our mercantile marine would have lected must be continued? The Debt little employment. That of the Ameriand the taxes - must go on angmenting, can Republic would swell to an enormous till, at last, it will be impossible to go on. amount. Her military marine would inBut, is this all ? Is this all? Would not crease in the like proportion. And, at our situation be very different indeed the end of a few years (many would not from what it was during the war? Then, be 'wanted), it would not be at all wonthough our expenses enormous, | derful, if were able to step in and des they were, in some degree, balanced by cide the war.-Reader; am I talking foolthat monopoly of trade and commerce, ishly? Am I rattling on? Am I exagge which put our hands into the purse of rating the danger ? Look back to the pages all the world, and which, after destroy of the Register, in the year 1812, while I ing all the military fleets in Europe, we was yet in prison for writing about the so easily maintained. Now, what would flogging of Local militia-men and the prebe the case ? Farewell Licences ! l'are-sence of German troops on the ocasion, well Orders in Council ! Farewell Im- and just before I paid the Prince Regent pressments on board of American Ships!! a thousand pounds tine, in the name and
behalf of the King. Look back to those them to the continuation and augmentapages, and there you will find, that I was tion of that force. It will assuredly go treated as a fool, or a traitor, because I on increasing Dock yards, arsenals, besought the government not to go to will be formed. In short, a great wavy war, and not to proceed in the war, against will speedily grow up; and this will proAmerica ; because I asserted that it would duce a great change in our situation with be productive of great expense, loss, and regard to warlike means. If we go to disgrace, and would cause America to war with Napoleon, he has now seen the become a great and formidable naval vast importance of American friendship. power. How often did I repeat this. | America will keep at peace while we sufHow tired were my readers at the seem- | fer her unniolested to carry on her trade ingly endless repetition ! How many all over the world. That would ruin us. people wrote to me to advise me to de- But, on the other hand, if we attempt to sist! How many sincere friends be- prevent it, we shall have to fight her sought me, for the love of my own charac- both by land and by sea.--Here is a ter as a writer, not to proceed! How choice of evils ; but I am not like Sir many, whose principles were with mine Francis Burdett's gentlemen, who prern all points, differed with me on the fact sent him, as he most justly complains, as to this point !----Yet, all I foreboded with a choice of evils, and nothing else : has alrearly.come to pass, and that, too, for, 1 say, that both these evils may
be to the very letter. Many persons say, avoided by our remaiuing at peace, and and I believe the fact, that I assisted leaving the French, and the Italians, and greatly in producing the peace with the Neapolitans, and the Swiss, and the
America. Ou no act of my life do I Belgians, and the Russians, and the look with greater satisfaction than on Spaniards, and the Prussians, and the this. But, how much happier would it Austrians, and the Hungarians, and the have been for my country, if I could Dutch, and the Hanoverians, to settle have succeeded in preventing the war! their own affairs in their own good time The evils of this war, short as it has
and manner. And the Portuguese. I been, I have no scruple to say, are greater had nearly forgotten the Portuguese; than those of the late wars against and, faith, they ought not to be forgotFrance. I mean the evils to our Govern- ten ; for they have not been a trifle in ment particularly. It was a war against the list of our expenses, whether of mnfreemen.
It was a war against a Repub- ney or of men. Let us leave them all to lic. She was pitted single-handed against themselves. Let us leave the Dutch our uudivided power. The world were Presbyterians to supply the Portuguese the spectators. They have followed us and Spaniards with wooden Gods, and with their eyes in the contest, and have Virgins and Saints. Let us receive the now witnessed the, to us, lamentable re- corn of France when we want it, and the sult.----Ratified the treaty! To be sure wine and oil which we always want ; the President and Senate would ratify the and let her receive our steel, copper, tin, treaty; a treaty which covered with im-cloth, and other things. But, "let who mortal honour, the President, the Con- will be the Ruler, LET US HAVE gress, the Negotiators, the Army, the PEACE WITH HIM. Navy, every man in the land ; and, above all, the Constitution of Government,
TREATY WITH NAPOLEON, which the war had put upon its trial, which has come out of it like pure gold ALTHOUGH in the present state out of the fire, and which will now be of matters, with little else to guide not only more dear than ever to the hearts one's opinions than the ex parte and of Americans, but will present itself as partial statements of his enemies, it an object of admiration and attraction would not be well advised to specuto every oppressed people in the world. late on the views and intentions of
I am afraid I have been digressing. Napoleon, I cannot permit the opportuLet me come back, then, to the main nity, which offers itself, to pass, without drift of the present article by observing, making a few remarks on the treaty coathat the events of this war have taught cluded between him and the allied powthe Republicans the great value of a na- ers on the 11th April, 1814; by which sal force, while they have encouraged treaty, Napoleon, on the one hand, te
signed the Crowns of France and Italy, His Empress was to be put in possession and the allies, on the other, guaranteed of three duchies in Italy, wbich were the fulfilment of certain conditions by to pass to her son, and his des zeudLouis the XVIII, the nonfulfilment of ants, The members of his family were which, it is said, bas occasioned Napo- to receive an annual allowance of two leon's return to France. By this treaty, million five hundred thousand francs ; a copy of which I have given below, it and to Priuce Eugene, then Viceroy of will be seen that the island of Elba, Italy, was to be given a suitable estabwhich was selected by Napoleon him lishment, in consideration of his, relin self as his future residence, was declar-quishing all claims upon that country.-ed by the allied powers, to form “ dur. It is well kuown), that Napoleon, and all “ing his life," a separate principality, the members of his house, were strict inz “which shall be possessed by him in full their adherence to the conditions incum
sovereignty and property.”-All our bent upon them by this treaty It is newspapers, in servileimitation of the min-now said to be equally notorious, that isters of Louis, have been extremely for- they have been almost all violated by the ward in denouncing Napoleon a "trai-other contracting party. The annual “tor and rebel to his country,” because allowances in money, which were to have he dared to set foot on the territory of been paid by the court of France, have, France. In this they have shewn them- we are told, been withheld; the Empress selves utterly unacquainted with the po- Maria Louisa not put in possession of litical relations in which Napoleon stood Parma, Placentia, and Guastalla ; and so to the surrounding nations. The mo- establishment provided for the Viceroy ment he relinquished the crown of France, of Italy. If all this be true, Napolcon shie was no longer his country; he owed has to complain of a manifest violation her no allegiance because he had sworn of the contract by which be relinquished no fealty to her. He had made choice of his former authority; and to me he apthe isle of Elba, for his country. It pears to have a right to reclaim those was declared a separate principality by crowns, which he surrendered on the solemn treaty, subscribed by all the great faith of the treaty being fulfilled in every powers of Europe, and these same powers particular. To say nothing of the wishes had guaranteed Napoleon's right and title of the people of France, who, I have no to reign over it “ in full so rørcignty.”. doubt, are almost to a man for Napoleon, Ilowever circumscribed the island of El- it would seem that he has an undeniable ba, however limited the number of its title to assert his claims in the manner he inliabitants, Napoleon was as much an is now doing, I know of no instance, independent Sorereign, as any of the mo- where a sovereign abdicated a throne narchs who entered into treaty with him. with the same inherent right to resume --But this was tot the only consequence possession of it. His predecessors were of the recognition of the sovereignty of generally at the mercy of those who exNapoleon.--He did not merely owe no pelled them. They were not in a conallegiance to France, or any other power, dition to stipulate for any thing, not even He was entitled, in case of any violation for the safety of their persons. How of treaty on the part of his neighbours, very different
situation of to punish every infraction of that treaty Napoleon. In place of accepting terns to the utmost of his ability, This is a froin bis supposed victors, he dictated principle acknowledged by all writers on them; and the prompt manner with which the law of nations, It was upon this the Allied Powers agreed to these terms, principle that the allies justified the was no small proof ihat they considered invasion of France, and even defended, bim still a formidable object, He retired their conduct when they refused to treat from the contest under the faith and sowith Napoleon in the character of Sove- lemnity of a treaty; he returns to it, bereign of that empire. Has. Napoleon cause that treaty, as is said, has been then done more than attempt to punish broken. This being the state of the thie infraction of a treaty? Not only case, Napoleon appears to me to have was his title to the “ full sovereignty done uothing more than all other indeof Elba acknowledged by solemn treaty, pendent sovereigns have a right to do, but be was to receive for his own use an if placed in similar circumstances. He annual revenue of two millions of francs, has appealed to the sword; and as those who refused to listen to his claims Art. 2. Their Majesties the Emperor seem to shelter themselves under the Napoleon and Maria Louisa shall retain courtier plea that "might gives right,” their titles and rank, to be enjoyed he is willing that the question should during their lives. The mother, the be decided on that principle. But brothers, sisters, nephews, and nieces of it is said,
" that France never became the Emperor, shall also retain, wherever a party to the treaty by which Napo- they may reside, the titles of Princes of “ leon's independence and pensions were his family. " sanctioned.”-It should rather be Art. 3. The Isle of Elba, adopted by said, that the Bourbons have refused to his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon as concur in this, the people of France, the place of his residence, shall form, it is pretty evident, never having been during his life, a separate principality; consulted in the matter. But what is it which shall be possessed by him in full to the purpose although ali France were Sovereignty and property; there shall hostile to this measure ? It was in con: be besides granted, in full property, to sequence of the treaty and by virtue of the Emperor Napoleon, an annual rethat treaty alone, that Louis the Desired venue of 2,000,000 francs, in rent charge, was restored to them. Had Napoleon in the great book of France, of which not consented to give up his claims to 1,000,000 shall be in reversion to the the throne of France, a civil war might Empress. have been the consequence, and who can Art. 4. The Duchies of Parma, Plasaywhether this might not have terminated centia, and Guastalla, shall be granted, fatally to the Bourbons ?--Besides, by in full property and sovereignty, to her the 20th article of the treaty " the high Majesty the Empress Maria Louisa ; they “ allied powers guarantee the execution shall pass to her son, and to the descend“ of all the articles of the present treaty, ants in the right line. The prince hier " and engage to obtain that it shall be son shall from henceforth take the title of " adopted and guaranteed by France,” Prince of Parma, Placentia and Guastalla. That treaty therefore which placed Louis Art. 5. All the powers engage to emupon the throne, required of France the ploy their good offices to cause to be resperformance of certain conditions to pected by the Barbary powers the flag Napoleon and his family. It was by this and territory of the Isle of Elba, for which tenure that the former resumed the crown purpose the relations with the Barbary of bis ancestors, and if it has not been powers shall be assimilated to those with strictly adhered to, every thing naturally France. reverts back to that state, when it was Art. 6. There shall be resewed in the in the power of the latter to present ob- territories hereby renounced, to his Mastacles to the return of his rival. It may jesty the Emperor Napoleon, for himbe thought that the allies are bound to self and his family, domains or rentinterfere, and to compel Louis, in conse charges in the great book of France, quence of their guarantee, to do justice producing a revenue, clear of all deducto Napoleon. Of this, however, there is tions and charges, of 2,500,000 francs. little hope; although from what we have These domains or rents shall belong, in seen take place during the late war, it will full property, and to be disposed of be no way extraordinary to find the as they shall think fit, to the Princes soldiers of Russia, of Prussia, or of Aus- and Princesses of his family, and shall tria, again fighting in the ranks with be divided amongst them in such manthose of Nopoleon.
ner that the revenue of each shall be in the following proportion, viz.
Francs. Articles of the treaty between the allied
400,000 powers and his Majesty the Emperor To Madame Mere .. Napoleon,
To King Joseph and his Queen 500,000 Art. 1. His Majesty the Emperor Na-To King Louis
200,000 poleon renounces for himself, his suc- To the Queen Hortense and her cessors, and descendants, as well as for
400,000 all the members of his family, all right of To King Jerome and his Queen 400,000 sovereignty and dominion, as well to the
To the Princess Eliza
300,000 French Empire and the Kingdom of Italy, as over every other country.
To tlie Princess Paulina .... 300,000
The Princes and Princesses of the necessary passports for the free passage House of the Emperor Napoleon shall of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, rêtain besides their property, moveable or of the Empress, the Princes, and and inimoveable, of whatever nature it Princesses, and all the persons of their may be, which they shall possess by in-suites who wish to accompany them, or dividual and public right, and the rents to establish themselves out of France, as of which they sliall enjoy (also as indi- well as for the passage of all the equi viduals.)
pages, horses, and effects belongArt. 7. The annual pension of the ing to them. The allied powers shall in Empress Josephine shall be reduced to consequence furnish Officers and men for 1,000,000, in domains, or in inscriptions escorts. in the great book of France"; she shall Art. 15. The French imperial guard continue to enjoy in' full property, all shall furnish a detachment of from 1,200 her private property, moveable and im- to 1,500 men, of all arms; to serve as an moveable, with power to dispose of it escort to the Emperor Napoleon to St. conformably to the French laws. Tropes, the place of his enabarkation.
Art. 8. There shall be granted to Art. 16. There shall be furnished a Prince Eugene, Viceroy of Italy, a suit-corvette, and the necessary transport able establishment out of France.
vessels, to convey to the place of his desArt: 9. The property which bis Ma- tination bis Majesty the Emperor Napojesty the Emperor Napoleon possesses leon and his household; and the corvette ir Fránce, either as extraordinary do- shall belong, in full property, to his Mamàir, or of private domain attached to jesty the Emperor. the crown, the fund's placed by the Em- Art. 17. The Emperor Napoleon peror; cither in the great book of France, shall be allowed to take with him and in tlie Bank of France, in the Actions des retain as bis guard 400 men, volunForets, or in any other manner, and teers, as well officers, as sub-officers and which his rejestri abandons to the soldiers, crowrf, shall be in diversas a capital, Art. 18. No Frenchman, who shall whicli shall not <?
, to be have followed the Emperor Napoleon expended in gratifications in favour of or: his family, shall be held to have forfurcht persons, whose námes shall be feited kis rights as such, by not returncontatied in a list to be signerł by the ing to France, within three years; at Emperor Napoleoni, and sliałt we trans- least they shall not be comprised in the mitfad to the French Government. exceptions which tlie French Govern
Art. rò. All the crowu dixinond's shall uent reserves to itself to grant after the remain in Mance:
expiration of that term. Art. if. Flis Majesty the Emperor Art. 10. The Polislí troops of all arms, Sapolcoi shiaff
' refuri to tlie freasury, in the service of france; sirall lic at liand to the other public cliests, all the Berty to return home, and shfil retain füis and effects iliat shall have been tveir arms and baggage, as a testimony rakiest out by his orders, witlt thie excej oftheir lionourable services. Th¢ officers, frorr of what Iras beeu appropriated from snb-officers, and soldiers; shall retain the Civil List
the decorations which have bee: granted Art. 12. The debts of the household to fhem, and the peusions anexed to of his Majesty the Emperor Napoleon, these decorations. Wheh as they were on the day of the signa
Art. 20. The high allied powers guafüre of the present treaty, shalt be mi- rantte tre exčcatio ir of all the articles of tacdiately (iseharged ont of the arrears the present treaty; and engage to obtain etre by the public treasury to the Civil that it shall be adopted and gumarted List, according to a list
, whicli shalt by France. be signed by * Commissioner appointed Art: 21. The present acttshall be rafor that paypese.
tified; aid the ratifications exchanged at Art. 13. The obligations of the Mont- Paris within two days, or stoner if posam Kapoleon, of Milan, towards all the sibles etertitors, whether Frenchnery or foreigii- Wone at l'aris, tire iti of April, 1815 4s;shalt Dc exaddy fuifiited, owess there (L. S.) flic Prince de Materniok. Sfintiresti elange drado in this respect. It. S.) J. Pi Comptè de $radion'.
"Ehete shpall be giyent of the h. S. Ampe comte de Raspimoufsky.