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since the art of printing was discovered. gistracy; no dominant church ; no feudal The pencil has been brought into the aid tenures; no privileged orders; one Code of the
pen, in order that those who could civil and criminal, to which all men are neither read nor hear, might imbibe alike subject; no borough elections. In against him hatred through their eyes. short, France las a republican governAnd, as if the exertions of the French ment with a Chief called an Emperor. partizans of the Bourbons were insufficient And, though that government is not yet, in that country, it has been inundated and never may be, precisely what it might with Englishmen and English wonien, be wished, it is likely to come as near to who looked upon it as a duty to their na- the standard of liberty as the character tive land to aid in the promulgation of and genius of the French people, and these calumnies. Yet, such had been the state of Society in France will his conduct towards the people of France, permit. This is, at least, my hope; and, that he had only to present himself if I am not disappointed, is there any one to their eyes to blow all these calumnies who will say, that the late event is not to to the winds. To give to bim and to be hailed with joy? However stiff the TRUTH this triumph, there were want. republicans of France must be ; however ed his exile and his return. Had these angry that their own plans of government not taken place, the deep impressions of are not adopted, they must be convinced, falsehood would never have been remov- that, if the Bourbons had remained, their ed. Until now, it has been deemed, in hopes would have been blasted for ever; England, almost a crime to express a and that, therefore, as long as the quesdoubt of his having been a monster of|tion lies between the Bourbons and Natyranny, held in the utmost abhorrence poleon, it is their duty, upon their own by the people of France. Did TRUTH principles, to be for the latter." It must ever before gain such a triumph! give any friend of Freedom great satisfac
These events will soften, if not wholly tion to see, that, in all the proclamations do away, the enmity of only fair enemies, and decrees of Napoleon, and even in the the Republicans of France. For it can- address of the Imperial Guard, signed by not now be pretended, that he does not M. DROUET, the great principle is always reign by virtue of the peoples' consent put forward, of the right of the people to and choice, signified in the freest and choose their ruler, a principle to which if most unequivocal manner. The light, in they adhere, the French will be a happy which he now stands, is very different and free, as well as a great nation. indeed from that in which he stood be- This event, so honourable to Napoleon, fore. He was chosen Emperor ; but the is little less honourable to the people of choice was made; it was said, by persons France. They had all possible temptaappointed by hinıself: that he had all tions held out to them to oppose him, to the power and all the treasure of the take liim, to kill him. Not a man; not a country in his hands at the time; and, in single man was found to yield to
of short, that his election was like some other these powerful temptations. Threats elections, the character of which are, too were dealt out largely on the other hand. tender to be touched by a pen so rude as They were continually reminded of the mine. This was what was said before; great foreign armies ready to invade and this cannot be said now: ,for, if he France': they were told that the Prussian be not now fairly chosen by the people of army was advancing upon Thionville : France, never was man fairly chosen in that the Austrians were already at Turin: this world. In his proclamations be rests that 600,000 Russians, with the Cossacks his authority upon the will, the choice of at their head, were on their march; and, . the people; he says he owes, and will lastly, that 70,000 English), with the Duke owe, that authority and his rank to them of Wellington for commander, were on and to them only. - The Republicans, their way from Belgium. The people of
. therefore, cannot now have the same ob- France seem to have heard of the apjections to him which they had before. proach of all these armies with as little Besides, as I have more than once obser- concern as if they had been told of the ved, his government, though the Chief le approacli of so many mice. They seen an Emperor, is essentially Republican. to have said : "Give us, only give us No titles but such as are the reward of Napoleon, and let the world come in services and talents ; no hereditary a- arms agaiest 48." And is it for us,
Lord, to think of dictating a government they imprisoned and fined many of the to such a people?
printers and public writers. They proThere is another characteristic in this mised that in matters of religion all men great event, which is worthy of particular should be free to follow their own remark : that is the absence of all blood- opinions, as they had been before : and, shed and violence. The Bourbons were they punished men for promulgating renot only suffered to depart without harm, ligious opinions contrary to those probut, they appear to have experienced not lessed by the priests. One mani, in parany obstruction, or even insult, on their ticular, was imprisoned for fire years for journey. It is no more than just to sup- uttering what was termed blasphemous pose, that their conduct has been such language, and ibat, too, in a country as to excite no very great degree of hatred where the King was daily creating men against them : but, however good their knights of the Holy Ghöst! It is from conduct might have been, we know, that our own newspapers: from the mouths under such circumstances, the persons of of the friends of the Bourbons, that we the falling party have seldom escaped have this account of their conduct : and, with their lives. This example of for- when I heard of the landing of Napoleon, giveness seems, however, to have been the first thought that canie athwart my given by Napoleon himself, who, in his mind was, that now those men who had proclamations, disclaims all vengeance, been imprisoned for LIBELS would be and generously repays with a general par- restored to freedom, an object worth, of don and oblivion all the calumnies against itself, a little revolution. The truth is, him, and even the instigation to murder that, from the moment the Bourbons by setting a price upon his head. It will landed in France, our Cossacks were engive me great pleasure to find, that the saged in instigating them to acts of opfamily of Bourbon have experienced no pression. They poivied out to them vicill-treatment of any sort; because, in that tim atter victim: they dictated to them case, the conduct of the French people, whom they should punish and whom they upon this memorable occasion, will form should reward. Tlie Bourbons were beso striking a contrast with that of our set with these English dictators, whose Cossack writers, who, from the hour of will they appear to have but too faithNapoleon's exile to that of his return, fully obeyed But, the better, the less hardly let one day pass without inculcat- offensive, the conduct of the Bourbons ing the necessity of destroying him. Their was, the greater is the triumph of Napohypocrisy could never make them dis- leon: for, it is now certain, that however guise their malice. It was their object to good they might be, the French nation make the world believe, that he was so had found him to be better. much hated in France and the Bourbons Much has been said, in our daily vehiso much beloved, that there was not the cles of falsehood, of the ill-treatment, smallest danger of his being able to give which the English people in France have the latter any trouble. It was their ob- experienced. If this be true, as I hope ject to make the world believe, that he it is not, it has, without doubt, been owwas sunk into complete contempt. Yet, ing to their restless tongues: to that inin spite of their hypocrisy, their malice cessant abuse of Napoleon, which they broke out into continual insinuations, that learnt at liome, and which they must his life was an evil. What a contrast do have been impatient to perceive was not the conduct of Napoleon and that of the in fashion in France. In general they French people form with the conduct of would naturally be of that description of these writers !
persons, who went to enjoy the spectacle The conduct of the Bourbons was not of seeing the French nation again subwhat they promised. They promised, that jected to the sway of the Bourbons : to they would leave property as they found indulge in the vindictive joy of seeing the it: and, they immediately set to work to conquerors of Europe subjected to the re store part of the National Property to sway of those who had been protected the Emigrants, who had been abroad, if by England. It is very probable, that, not serving against France, for 25 years. I amongst all the fcelings which have opeThey proinised that there should be liber-rated in favour of Napolesn's return, ty of the press; and, they immediately those excited by English arrogance have put that press under a censorship, while not been the most feeble and ineffective.
And, my Lord, I think we may be well that, if there wanted any thing to unite assured, that, if there were still waiting the people of France; to give them a deany thing to endear him to the peopie ot gree of alacrity and of courage greater France, that thing would be an attempt, than ever were witnessed in any other on our part, to drive him again from his people, it would be a repetition of the throne.
attempts of 1792 and 1793? I know, li was said, during the war against the that it is said, that the Powers of Europe French Republic, that we did not wish are better prepared, than they were in to interfere in the internal affairs of 1793; that their armies France: but, that, our own safety re-foot; and that they have not forgotten quireil us to war against those whose that they have very recently marched principles, if we were at peace with to Paris. Granted that they be ready, them, would subvert nur excellent consti- and that we be ready with the new tution in Church and State. It is curious cessary subsidies. But, let it be borne to observe how the same sort of doctrine in mind, that Napoleon has 2, if not is cooked up again, or as the French | 300,000 veteran troops in France more would call it, rechauffé, for the present than lie had last year; that the treaty, occasion. We do not want, not we, now which his presence of mind, his deep to interfere in imposing a Government diplomacy, pointed out to him, has reupon the French ; they might have Na- stored to him such an army as the poleon to scourge them for their sins, and world never before saw; that he has we should be glad of it; but, we must obtained by that treaty more means than iake care of ourselves : and, as he is a he, at any one time, ever before possesdangerous man to us, we ought to march sed; and that, along with these iminto France ourselves, and call out all mense means, he has in the eyes of all our Russian and German allies to go the world, but especially in those of along with us, to compel the French peo- France, acquired a reputation and has ple to take back the Bourbons, who are obtained claims to greater confidence a good and peaceable sort of people. In than at any former period of his wonother words, we do not pretend to have derful career. His restoration, and more a right to dictate a Government to the particularly the manner of it, clearly people of France; but, unless they take shews to every one, that he can place the Government that we choose for them, implicit reliance on his people. He we have a right to go to war with them. needs no garrisons in the interior; scarcely With persons, who have the folly, or the a guard at Paris; all the mighty means impudence, or both, to hold such a doc. of France lie may safely draw towards trine it would be useless to attempt to the frontiers, and there pour them forth remonstrate; but, your Lordship will, upon the first assailant. Very different doubtless, look back a little at what the indeed, then, is the situation of France late wars have cost us. We did, indeed, from what it was in March and April place the Bourbons on the throne of 1814. In short, the conquerors of AmFrance, at the end of 21 years of war; sterdam, Berlin, Hanover, Vienna, Rome, but, in what a condition has the enter- Madrid and Moscow are all again, and prize left us ? Are we prepared to add that, too, under the same chief, ready another 700 millions to our National to repeat their march; and let the blame Debt? Are we prepared to continue the fall on those, who shall give them any Property Tax? Are we prepared for 21 fair pretence for the repetition. For my years more of sacrifices
part, I am for giving them no pretence There is something truly ominous in at all, and, therefore, I am against all the similarity of the state of things now attempt at interference, even in words, to that of things in 1792. The French in the internal affairs of France. I am Princes were then hovering on the Nortor none of the half hostile measures of thern frontier of France ; they were then 1792 ; I am for cordially receiving his hoisting the white flag at Coblentz; and ambassador, if he send any, and, in short, we are iold, that they are now to loist it for doing every thing consistent with our at Brussels. The Austrians ayd Prus- honour, calculated to prevent a renewal sians were then marching to their aid ; of war. and, we are told, that they are now to With regard to the other proposed march to their aid. Is it not evident, ! object of war; namely, the securing of
Belgium to the new king of the Mother-should determine.
And, we must oblands, we do not yet know, that Napo- serve here, that Napoleon might have leon will demand the restoration of those retained his throne, if he would have provinces to France. But, I will frankly consented to do the same thing, He reconfess, that I believe, that lie never fused ; the war was pushed on; be was will rest satisfied until he has obtained overpowered and exiled : and Louis le that restoration, in the desire to effect Desiré gave up to us and our allies that which object he will be heartily joined by Belgium, which had been won by France, the whole of his people. The question, during the time that he was absent from then, is, ought we to go to war with him France. So that, it must be evident, if he demand, and if he endeavour by to lose this part of their Empire force to effect, that restoration ? I say, must be very galling to the French. NO. I am of opinion, on the contrary, But, you will say, and with very good that we ought immediately to withdraw reason; what is their soreness to us, it our army; to send home the Hanove it be for our good to keep them out of rians; and to leave the Belgians and Belgium ? Now, my Lord, I do not say, even the Dutch to defend their country that it is not desirable to us, that the against the French, or, again to unite French should be kept out of Belgium ; themselves to the French.
but, I am convinced, that it would be I know how some people will stare and much better for us that Belgium sbould blow out their cheeks and snap their return under the sway of France, than mouths at this, as if they were going to that it should belong to a power, which, bite one's head off: but, you, my Lord, without our aid, without our constant aswho are a cool, sensible man, are aware, sistance, never can keep it for any length that, if I can offer any solid reasons for of time. Wben Belgium belonged to the this opinion, the opinion ought to have House of Austria, then, indeed, then some weight, and that it will have some was a power with half a million of soweight. In order that these reasous may diers at its command to defend Belgiun. have their fair chance, I must trouble This power was unable to defend it; and, your Lordship with a few preliminary if such a power could not keep it out of remarks. I know that I am here about the hands of France; it Austria was glad to attack your Lordship's darling project; to get rid of the burtben of its defence, that
you will cling to it like tlre fond pa- how is it to be defended by “the King rent to an only child: but attack it 1“ of the United Netherlands," who took the must, seeing in it, as I de, the cause of Royal title on him only on the 16th in. endless war, expense and misery. stant, and who has been made a King in
By Belgium I mean all that country, that Holland, which was before so proud which, it seems, bas, by the Congress, of its Republican institution and liberties. been taken from France and given to Belgium, we are told, is a barrier against the new King. It is not all properly France. A barrier to protect whom, and so called: but, one name is better than what? For an answer to this question, I three or four, if it answers all our pur- will refer to your memorable Speech, poses as well. This Belgium, before the made on the very day on which the EmFrench Revolution, belonged to the peror Napoleon entered Paris. Your reHouse of Austria. It was conquered porter makes you say, in that speech; from that House by the brave and in-. With respect to Holland, it was evidentsulted Republicans of France, who also “ that nothing could be of greater im conquered other countries, not belong “portance to this country,than thatFrance ing to the House of Austria. By and by, "should not have a continuity of sea-coast peace was made between these powers, extending along the whole of the NetherAustria confirmed Belgium to France by “lands. He had the satisfaction to say, treaty, and received from France other of " that the Allied Powers on the Continent hier conquests in return. This was nearly were not more convinced of the importwenty years ago. Belgium has belonged tance of this point to us, than tothemto France from that time to the month of “ selves; and therefore all were agreed May last, when the King of France, by " that the union of the Netherlands with the Treaty of Paris, concluded while the " Holland was one of the most important Russian and German Armies were there, improvements of the face of Europe in gave it up to be disposed of as the Congress “ modern times. Neither was it consider
"i ed by them as a concession toGreatBri-" that no interest was felt so strongly in “ tain, or to the Prince of Orange in par- “ this country, as the conservation of the “ ticular, but was most cordially listened "geveral liberties of Europe.” “ to as a means of strenghtening the equi- Such, then, is to be the use of Belgium ! “ librium of Europe. A kingdom would Belgium is to cover the Kingdom of the "thus be formed powerful in all the resour– Netherlands, and the Kingdom of the
ces of svil, commerce, navigation, and mi- Netherlands is to cover the Kingdom of "litary strength; and he had the satisfac- Hanover," which should be very deer “ tion of stating that no Sovereign ever
"to us!” I will pass over your episode on os resumed the exercise of his functions tlie Hanoverian Legion and on the cha“who displayed more industry and talent racter of the Prince of Orange, as mat“in calling forth all the resources of Hol- ters too high for my pen; but, really, I * land, and uniting into one, its various cannot refrain from saying, that this * parties, than the Prince of Orange had scheme, this darling scheme, which you • done. He hoped that this kingdom seem to think so advantageous to Eng“ would be sufficiently strong, both from land, and the account of which seems to “ nature and art, and in future to be able have given so much pleasure to your Ho" to resist any assault either from the nourable Hearers; seems to have wrapt “ north or the west, at least until other them in wonder at your surprising skill,
powers came forward to its support. penetration, and grandeur of views; Í “ He trusted it would not be supposed cannot refrain from saying, that this “ that any undue concessions had been scheme appears to me to be one of the
made, with the view of obtaining an in- weakest that ever entered the head of crease of territory to Hanover. On this mortal man; and, which is a great deal
point there had alwaysbeen some degree worse, fraught with endless calamities to “of jealousy in this country; but he was England, because it nust be a source of “ rather inclined to think that Hanover continual war and expence. so had generally speaking suffered more You say, that this new kingdom (which “ than she gained from the connection. Its by the bye, has not yet actually been or" people had recently proved themselves ganized) will be able to "resist any us
faithful supporters of Great Britain; and sault,” at least“ till other powers can “ he would say, that there had not been a come to its support.” So this King, “more efficient, more faithful, and honest | like a Watchman, is, when danger ap
body of men in our service than the proaches, to spring his ratile, and call “ Hanoverian Legion ; they amounted to others in to his assistance! My good “not less than 12,000 men, to which num- Lord! pray keep yourself cool; but, “ber they had always been kept up by vo- really, such a scheine ! such a scheme
luntary enrolment, and it was not too was never before thought of in this world. “ much to say, that the absence of such a I will not enquire, whether the Belgians,
corps might have had a most injurious the Dutch, and the Hanoverians would « effect on our military exertions. The be better off under these arrangements, “preservation of the importance of Hano- than if they were under the l'rench ; and, “ ver, as a constituent state of Germany, I will, for argument's sake, allow, that if “ should, therefore, be dear to, us, as well Belgium be yielded to the French, the “ in this point of view, as from its con- Kingdoms of the Netherlands and of “ nexion with our reigning family. The Hanover will soon be blowe into very “ increase of territory she had received, thin air. But, what I contend for is,
tended to consolidate her connexion with that, to keep Belgium from France Eng“ this country, by the extent of sea coast land must constantly keep on foot a great “which it gave her: while liable to be in- army in the country ; rather than which,
tercepted from this country, her effi- it is my opinion, that we ought to suffer
ciency was less considerable. From the the French to regain, not only those coug“ moment she was also in close contact tries, but all the countries which they “ with Holland for an extent of 150 miles, possessed in 1813. I am far from wisi“ this naturally contributed to strengthening, that they should possess all those “and protect her. Neither was this a countries ; but it would be preferable to *i connection of which our continental our being involved in continual war. allies were at all cisposed to feel jea- In truth, my Lord, military achieve
lousy. They were thoroughly convinced I ments have turned our heads. We have