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we had to encounter. Already we had double that number in the course of one made preparations for putting the scal short month, if so tremendous a force upon the final subjugation of the Ameri- was necessary to give stability to his rican continent. Every friend of liberty throne, or even to extend his conquests. stood aghast at the daring attempt. It is impossible at present to divine his Every lover of bis native land sighed, intentions. Circumsiances may justif and his spirits sunk within him, when the opinion, that he will insist upon le contemplated the probability of making the Rhine the boundary of its success. But, the charm of our fraace. If he should, it would be a invincibility has been broken; the wise policy in the allied powers not to talisman of our omnipotence, has been oppose this. They have accused Napo. dissipated; and Britain, proud Britain, leon of being unbounded in his ambition. has fallen from the summit of ber great. Would it not be worth the trial, to give ness! A band of freemen, whose Govern him those limits which pature has so ment she threatened to overthrow, to clearly pointed out as belonging to the whom she arrogated the privilege of dic French Empire? Should he pass these, taling the law, ruslied forward in defence without cause of provocation, he night of their riglits. - The country which had thien be opposed as the common enemy been invaded, became the grave of the of mankind. To war against him, in bis invaders. Even the ocean, ou which she present favourable situation in order to had so long ridden triumphant, was des prevent liis obtaining that object, would tined to witness her defeat and her dis- be fully; but to draw the stord for the grace.

A reverse so unexpected, a purpose of reinstating the Bourbons, change so sudden and extraordinary, na- would be the extreme of mariness. - In murally produced a correspondent feeling. the former case the chances are two to The nations of Europe, who were for- one against his opponents : In the latter merly awed by the splendour of our vic- tliey are ten to one. If we calculate on tories, now began to question our pre- the victories of Marquis Wellington, they tensions. They no longer regarded us 34 will be in t by our defeats at l'ort Erie invincible: they were inclignani that they anil New Oricans. If we speak of the should have so long vielued us the rank entry of the Allies into Paris, we shall which we possesseil. This incigration, be told that treason no longer exists at what they considered their owu weak in the French army; that Napoleon aless and folly, gave birth to feelings of never was defeated when the soldiers. hatred and contempi. The eagerness be leci to battle were true to their with which we sought an opportunity to colours. Our naval and military glory enter into negociations with America, having been so greatly tarnished by the was no way calculated to counteract contest with America, and the fortunes this impression; and it only remained of Napoleon having so greatly improved, to complete the degradation, by finally it is lamentable to observe with whai. making concessions to the foe we despi- eagerness our ministerial newspapers are: sed, which no other could expect or ex- endeavouring to involve this country in a act but one that bad frustrated our de- new war with France. Ilave these too's signs, and driven us from tlie field.--At of corruption forgotten the arguments this critical movieat, when our fame for which they made use of, in the end of deeds of arms has so fatally declined, the the year 1813, to dissuade the allies froni adversary, whom we had overthrown, and giving peace to Europe ? Are they not on whose re-appearance we never calcu- aware that the conclusions they then drei lated, stands agaia into vie!v.-lle comes to the favourable effect this would arraved with tenfold more terrors than at have upon France, now operate with aay former period. If eve; it was a double force against our taking up arms matter of doubt that Napoleon possessed against lier ? The language of die Couriir the bearts of the people of France, the at that tirae was particularly striking and reception which they have now given him remarkable. In that journal of 25th must effectually remove it. Abeady he December, it was said, “ By peace, is said to have an army at liis command

“ France will gain cvery thing. Sle of 509,000 veterans; and such is the at- “ will regain at least 300,000 of her best fachinent 23 devot to hi personi troops, one half of her best officers, which pervades all France, that he might " and seamnen sutricient to mas 50 sail ot"

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“ the line. In six months after a peace, / willing aid to corruption to keep her 'in “ France may have fifty sail of the line, her sear; and now, forsooth, you pout “ well manned, and an army of half aand whine like way-ward Children.million of men, commanded by a great -A person of no‘small abilities, yet “ military genius. One victory may espousing the canse of the Corn Bill,

again give him possession of Vienna.” uses the following most excellent remark, - The event here anticipated lias actu- which, as it suits the cause of the people ally happened. Napoleon has regained, much better than the one in the service by the peace, all his best troops, the of which it is enlisted, you will permit greatest part of his best officers, and all me here to quote.-The writer says his seamen. He possesses more than fifty and says justly, that, Equal prosail of the line, and he has at his com- tection is the right of all under a mand half a million of armed men. If

If “ free government. All must participate then the allied powers should provoke “ in the benefits of society, otherwise him to hostilities, let them beware that “ the bond of association loses its legiti"cre victory does not again give him mate force, as in Asia, where a tyrannie possession of Vienna."

“ partiality makes favoured Casts, and H. “ treats others as if they were not

“ of the human species; or, to use the TOE FARMERS.

“ words of the poet, Nature's basMR. COBBETT.-A letter, under the "'tards not her sons.' Such favour signature of Aristides, has, it seems, “ and affection may do in Asiatic gogiven offence to sundry of your Corres- veruments, but not in England ” pondents, who

seem impressed with If this argument be just, let the ministhe idea of his being hostile to farmers in terk explain upon what foundation they general, whereas tlie contrary is the case; proceed with regard to the Corn Bill; for while deprecating the low pendi:g for certainly the land-holders and farmers Coru Bill, as an arbitrary, partial, and form but a comparatively small part of unjust measure, no man entertuiks more the community. The manufacturers affection, respect, and, I may say, venera- exceed them greatly in number. Bes tion for the plain, rough, honest true old sides these, there is a multitude who: English Farmer, than Aristides ; neither belong to neither of the above classes does any one more ardently wish, or Yet all are to be oppressed, tbat the. would more earnestly endeavour, (over- farmer may be enabled to pay a rackwhelmed as the nation is with Lords, rent to the land-holder, and therefore Baronets, Knights, and Nabobs,) the the land-holder seated in power, most renovation and multiplication of the an- unfeelingly lays it on. Having, in the cient British Ycomanry.—But monopoli. above quotation, mentioned Asia, give zers of land, speculators and vile imita- me leave, Mr Cobbett, to ask some little tors of the luxuries of a court, cannot information as to a transaction meet the approbation of a well wisher to tioned to have happened there some his country; the more especially when, years ago. I mean a monopoly of rice, to enable themselves to continue such, said to have caused the death of several they wish to put every mouth in that millions of

persons, who

may be presuia City under tribute. Honest indigna- med to have been neither land-holders

. town is the cause of the poor, may then nor farmers, but of nearly a similar deters) to burst forth.

scription with our manufacturers and lawrities agrees with the bulk, and bouring poor. Perhaps the corn bill

s part of the nation, that Corruption may be meant as an experiment (upon ar laias have gone band in hand a sinaller scale) to take place here, acDirect Priver of years; but wherefore cording to an idea held by an author of guest people of England do you now, the fashionable world, that there may soit au ár tinst them ?----You were in at times be political wisdom in diminisha da trage, by all the means in ing the population; and for that perhaps

those who sought to rid you could be found no better expedient thaa ession; nay you lent your I the CORN BILL.

ARISTIDES.

men

Tablished my G. HOUSTON: N. 194. Sıranda ; wliere all Communications aduiossed

Editor are requested to be forwardest.

VOL XXVII. No. 14.1 LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 8, 1815.

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[ 418

T

TO LOUIS.

that it was not; but, it is impossible to

blame the people of France for having ON THE REAL CAUSES OF HIS LATE believed that which every man in Eng

EXPULSION, AND ON THE FUTURE land believed, and especially when overt PROSPECTS OF HIMSELF AND FA- acts of a nature so striking, and so hua,

miliating to France, *- accompanied this MILI.

memorable deciaration. You had sex SIR,_While I feel, in common with pressed your resolution to owe your resa most of my countrymen, compassion for ioration solely: to the people of France ; you, under the present circumstances, and the people of France saw you escorta I think it right to address you my ed from the Prince Regent's palace to thoughts on the real causes of your late Dover by English Guards ; they saw.you expulsion from France, , and on the pros- conveyed across the Channel in an Fuga peets which now present themselves 10 ish ship commanded by, an English yourself and family. To do this I think Prince; they saw you received on Fitnch myself the more fully entitled, as the ground and conducted to Paris by cer

advice, which I offered you upon your man aod. Prussian soldiers, subsidized by • restoration was not followed, and, as it England: tkey saw Paris filed unth

now appears, the acting in opposition to those troops'; they saw those troops rethat advice has furnished the grounds main there until Napoleur, was landed of numerous accusations against you and on the rock of Elba, aud until you bad your Goveranent. It appears to me new-organized the army, and the civil very clear, that the House of Bourbon authorities of France; they, in short, saw Aever, can reign again in France. A war, you :put upon the throne by foreign.ariu wluich allahe rest of Europe, with the mies, and they heard England, who had purse of England emptied into their hands, been the constant v enemy of France should league against France, might pro- | under all her forms of Government, held duce «great revolutions in that country; up as entitled to all the merit of having but, I am convinced, that it is wholly accomplished this event.

impossible for any combination of power, · Was it likely; was it possible, that a į or of events, to make your House again nation like the French should not burn

for any length of time, the sovereigns of with desire to wipe away this broad, this France. The reasons for this opinion staring stain on its character ? To.see will become apparent when I have des- the English regiments of horse traverse cribed what I deem to have been the real almost the whole of France, when they causes of your late espulsion.

might have been sembarked very nearly . In the Proclamation to the French at the spot where the war had closed; people, which you issued in England in to see the studied parade of English the early part of 1814, you said, that you “ conquerors," as they were called, in the were resolved to owe your restoration streets of Paris ; to s be told, -as they solely to the people of France. But, you were through our news-papers, that you were hardly arrived in France, when it had, at the request of our Government, was stated in the Moniteur and in the forcibly detained American armed sbips English newspapers, that you bad, under in the ports of France, and thatsyou bad, your own hand, declared to the Prince, by special command, prevented FrenchRegent of England, that you owed your men from sailing to America, lest athey « Crown to him, and the substance, if not should enter into the service of tbat couga

copies, of the letter, containing this de- try: to see and hear these things must claration, were spublished in these same have added greatly to the mortitication papers. I do not pretend to say, that and reseatment of the French people, bis was the fact, I would faie believe who, always

remarkable for their leveys

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military glory, would under such circum the ancient rules with regard to the stances, naturally be ready to burst forth Sunday; rules wever, perhaps, very against your authority upon the first wise, aud now hostile to the habits of the fair occasion.

whole of the generation whoxn- they were Yet, if you had returned unaccom- to affect. This measure of itself was panied by the ancient Noblesse, and the sufficient to produce a shock. It would Clergy, things might possibly have settled naturally create a belief, that all was to down into something like content. But, be attempted to be restored, as far as loaded with a numerous class of persons, religion was concerned. Nine tenths of all on the tiptoe of expectation; all expect the actire men in France are, perhaps, ing employments and honours; all eager to no more Catholics thau I am, having, be restored, as well as yourself, to power with their mothers' milk, imbibed a disand to wealth; and, all having, which like, and even a batreri, of that Church you had not, to contend with rirals for and its clergy. The efiect of such meathat power and that wealth, and with sures must be to fill them with disconrivals, too, whom they found in posses- tent, alarm, and resentmentment; for sion; loaded with this almost numberless every man living soon hates whatever class, who, to say the truth, had claims makes him uneasy. If measures of this as fair as your own to a restoration, it kind, which I can allow to have been required wi Jom and energy that do not adopted by you from motives of real fall to the lot' of mankind to prevent piety, were calculated to revive all the those heart-burnings which arose from apprehensions of religious persecution,this cause, and the effects of which we the re-burial of the late king and queen's now so clearly trace, not in speculation, remains marked out not a few of the but in decisive facts. A man berest of greasest men in the country for regicides. power or profit, always becomes a bitter The funeral service upon ihat occasion; enemy of him who has displaced him. the annual humiliation appointed; the But if such changes become pretty gene- language of the woblesse, the clergy, the ral throughout a whrole country: if a sort Royalist pamphleteers, the official jourof proscription be set on foot; and espenal, clearly showed, iliat there was, in cially if the grounds of that proscription the end, to be neither oblivion por forbe such as almost every man in the com- giveness for what was called the “ munity will naturally see level, in some de- der ” of the late king and queen. And, gree, against him and even against his thus another list of proscription was prochildren; it is manifest that a convulsion mulgated, written in characters of blood. can be prevented by the bayonet alone. But, if it had been possible for you And, if the danger; if the suffering, ex- to remain upon the throne amidst the tend itself to the military as well as to hostility excited against you by all these all other persons in power, who can ex- causes, your power must have been depect that any thing short of a great, an stroyed, and yourself dethroned, by the overwhelming, foreign force, constantly attacks upon property, which were made present in the country, will be able to in su open a manner. The notion which support the ruler on his throne ?

the presses ir this country are so very While these changes were at work, anxious to imtulate is, that your overe producing hostility in every part of the throw is to be attributed solely to the country, the priesthood seem not to have army, who, we are told, governs the peobeen idle. i am not blaming them for ple of France, and forces upon them their endeavours to bring back the peo- wbatever laws and government it pleases. ple to their former sentiments. They We are told, in one column of these might deem it their duty. But, as was papers, that Napoleon is unable to collect to be expected, they proceeded with very a large arnıy: that he has been compelled little caution. The people, who liad, to lower his tone because lie wants au arin general, long set aside the old way my; that he bas expressed his willingness of thiuking along with the tythes and the to abide by the Treaty of Paris because he cop vents, saw with great jealousy and wants an army; that he has abolished alarm the crucifixes re-hoisted at every 10 Slave Trade, which you would not corner in the towns, and on the sides of abolish, because he wants an army; that the high-ways; and, as if you scorned to he pays his court to the people and proapproxel by degrees, you re-established Imises thein liberty of the press and frec

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representative government because he the credulous part of the English nation, wants an army : and, strange to say, in that such a revolution could have taken the opposite column, we are very gravely place without the consent and approba. assured,a sa matter of fact taken for grant- tion, vay, against the will of thirty milli-ed, that it is the army and the army alone, ons of people full of spirit and military who has brought him back to France, and notions ? put him upon your throne, against the It is notorious, that the eleven months will of thirty millions of people! It of your reign was employed by the wri. really seems, that delusion is never to ters and haranguers of France to extol

It really seems, that, upon that your government, and to traduce the subject, men are to continue in wilful government and character of Napoleon. blindness unto the end, unless their eyes It is notorious, that, while the press was be torn open by some dreadful convulsi- free for men like Chateaubriand and on or calamity:

Cretelle, whose employment was to blackBefore your restoration, it was general- en Napoleon and to applaud you, it was ly believed in England, that Napoleon's closed against those who dared to think governnient was so oppressive, and that of taking the other side. It is potethe people of France were so miserable rious that you established a Censorship under it, that they only wanted an oppor- after having pledged yourself to maina tunity to cast off his yoke and to hoist "tain the Liberty of the Press. It is nothe White Flag, We have been assured torious that many persons were already and we have very generally believed, that in prison for long terms for what were your reign was a paternal reign; that it deemed libc!3. Yet, with this most powa, was a continued series of benefits to the criul instrument in your hands, you people of France; that you had restored | were wholly unable, with the treasures them to morality, religion, liberty, peace, of the country at your command, to gain and happiness ; that, in short, your go- over to you any part of the people in vernment produced effects precisely the number sufficient to make their voice contrary of the effects produced by his heard. Is it possible, then, for us to be government. Yet, at the end of eleven made believe, that the people of months, he comes back with only six France did not, from the bottom of their hundred men, and, instead of finding a hearts prefer the government of Napolepeople armed to arrest his progress, he on to that of the Bourbons? They talk Tides on, almost without a guard, to the to us of the army, of conspiracies,of fratergates of Paris, over a tract of 500 miles, nities, & I know not what; but, how could through many populous and fortified any, or all of these preventthe people towns, without seeing a single arm raised France from falling upon Napoleon on against him, and, indeed, amidst the his way to Paris, or at thegates of Paris 3 shouts of a people, who hail him as a The truth is, that there needed neither Deliverer. While, on the other hand, armies nor conspirators nor fraternities to

you, who are in possession of all the pow- overset your throne, the existence of ers and treasures of that great country; | which was opposed to the feelings, the are supported by the two Chambers of habits, and to the immediate interest of: the Legislature: are surrounded by hun- the present inhabitants of France, who, dreds of thousands of armed men, leave, besides the grounds of discontent, resent your palace and quit the soil of France, ment, and alarm before stated, proceeded, without being able to discover a single in this instance, upon the further and individual to draw a sword or to speak still stronger ground, that their property, a word in your defence. Nay, the very their real property; that nearly the whole guard of hired foreigners: even the Swiss of the real property in France; that the soldiers, against surrounding your person preservation of all this, and of every part with whom the fate of your unfortunate it, was incompatibte wiih the reign of brother was not a sufficient warning; the House of Bourbon, however great the even these wretched men, who let them- wisdom and the virtues of the Princes of selves out to fight for hire, are quietly that House muy be. I myself an of disbanded and banished out of the reach the same opinion. I was of that opinion of popular resentment, by decree of when I wrote the answer to your Napoleon published at Lyons. Can it be. Proclamation of January 1814. believed by any body ou eartb, except I was not in reason, it was not in patura

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