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we had to encounter. Alreadly we had | double that number in the course of one made preparations for putting the scal short month, if so tremendous a force upon

the final subjugation of the Ameri- was necessary to give stability to his rican continent. Every friend of liberty throne, or even to extend his conquests. stood aghast at the daring attempt. -It is impossible at present to divine his Every lover of bis native land sighed, intentions. Circumstances may justify and his spirits sunk within him, when the opinion, that he will insist upon he contemplated the probability of making the Rhine the boundary of its success. But, the charm of our Fraace. If he should, it would be a invincibility has

been broken; the wise policy in the allied powers not to talisman of our omnipotence, has been oppose this. They have accused Napodissipated; and Britain, proud Britain, leon of being unbounded in his ambition. has fallen from the summit of her great. Would it not be worth the trial, to give ness! A band of freemen, whose Govern him those limits which pature has so ment she threatened to overthrow, to clearly pointed out as belonging to the whom she arrogated the privilege of dic- French Empire ? Should be pass these, tating the law, ruslied forward in defence without cause of provocation, he night of their rights. The country which had then be opposed as the common enemy been invaded, became the grave of the of mankind. To war against him, in bis invaders. Even the ocean, on which she present favourable situation in order in had so long ridden triumphant, was des- prevent liis obtaining that object, wone tined to witness hier defeat and hier dis- be fully; but to draw the stord for the grace. A reverse so unexpected, a purpose of reinstating the Bourbons, a

, change so sudden and extraordinary, na- would be the extreme of mariness. In turally produced a correspondent feeling. the former case the chances are two to The nations of Europe, who were for one against his opponents : In the latter merly awed by the splendour of our vic- they are ten to one. If we calculatoon tories, now began to question our pre- tie victories of Marquis Wellington, they tensions. They lin loprer regarded us as will le net by our defeats at bort Erie invincible: they were inclignant that they ani New Oricans. If we speak of the slioulu lave so long yielded us the rank entry of the Allies into Paris, we shall. which we possessest. This indignation, be told that treason no longer exists. at what they considered their own weak in the French army ; that Napoleon ness and folls, gave birth to feelings of never was defeated when the soldiers. hatred and contempt. The eagerness be led to battle were true to their with which we sought an opportunity to colours. Our naval and military glory enter into negociations with America, having been so greatly tarnished by the was no way calculated to counteract contest with America, and the fortunes this impression; and it only remained of Napoleon having so greatly improved, to complete the degradation, by filially it is lamentable to observe with what making concessions to the foe we despi- eagerness our ministerial newspapers are: sed, which no other could expect or ex- endeavouring 10 involve this country in a act but one that had frustrated our de wew war with France. Have these too's signs, and driven us from tlie field.---At of corruption forgotten the arguments this critical inopeut, when our fame for which they made use of, in the end of deeds of arms has so fatally declined, the the year 1813, to dissuade the allies from adversary, whom we had overthrown, and giving peace to Europe ? Are they not on whose re-appearance we never calcu- aware that the conclusions they then drew lated, stands again into view.-lle comes as to the favourable ettect this would arraved with tenfold more terrors than at have upon France, now operate with any former period. If ere; it was a double force against our taking up arnis matter of doubt that Napoleon possessed against hier ? The language of the Courier the bearts of the people of France, the at that time was particularly striking and receptiow wiich they have now given him remarkable. In that journal of 25th puust ellectually remove it. Alieady he December, it was said,

By peace, is said to have an army at liis command France will gain every thing. She of 509,000 veterans'; and such is the at- “ will regain at least 300,000 of her best tachment and devotion to his person troops, one half of her best ofhcers, which pervades all Trauce, that he might" and seamen

" and seamen sutticient to max 50 sail of

“ Equal pro

" the line. In six months after a peace, I willing aid to corruption to keep her 'in “ France may have fifty sail of the line, her sear; and now, forsooth, you pout “well manned, and an army of half and whing like way-ward Children.--million of men, commanded by a great -A person of no small abilities, yet

military genius. Ove victory may espousing the canse of the Corn Bill,

again give him possession of Vienna.” uses the following most excellent remark, --- The event here anticipated has actu- which, as it suits the cause of the people ally happened. Napoleon has regained, much better than the one in the service by the peace, all his best troops, the of which it is enlisted, you will permit greatest part of his best officers, and all me here to quote.---T'he writer says his seamen. He possesses more than fifty and says justly, that, sail of the line, and he has at his com- “ tection is the right of all under a mand half a million of armed men. If | “ free government. All must participate then the allied powers should provoke “ in the benefits of society, otherwise him to hostilities, let them beware that the bond of association loses its legiti

one victory does not again give him mate force, as in Asia, where a tyrannie " possession of Vienna."

pariiality makes favoured Casts, and H.

treats others as if they were not

“ of the human species; or, to rise the TUE FARNERS.

words of ibe poet, Nature's basMr. COBEETT.--A leiter, under the tards not her sons.' Such favour signature of Aristides, has, it seems,

“ and affection may do in Asiatic gogiven offence to sundry of your Corres- " veruments, but not in England ”.

' pondents, who

seem impressed with If this argument be just, let the ministhe idea of his being hostile to farmers in text explain upon what foundation they general, whereas tlie contrary is the case; proceed with regard to the Corn Bill; for while deprecating the now pendi:g for certainly the land-holders and farmers Coru Bill, as an arbitrary, partial, and form but a comparatively small part of unjust measure, no man entertuiks more the community. The manufacturers. affection, respect, and, I may say, venera- exceed them greatly in number. · Bea tion for the plain, rouglı, honest true old sides these, there is a multitude who English Farmer, than Aristides; neither belong to neither of the above classesdoes any one more ardently wish, or Yet all are to be oppressed, that the. would more earnestly endeavour, (over- farmer may be enabled to pay a rackwhelmed as the nation is with Lords, rent to the land-holder, and therefore, Baronets, Knights, and Nabobs,) the the land-holder seated in power, most reuovation and multiplication of the an- unfeelingly lays it on. Having, in the cient British Ycomanry.—But monopoli. above quotation, mentioned Asia, give zers of land, speculators and vile imita- me leave, Mr Cobbett, to ask some little tors of the luxuries of a court, cannot information as to a transaction meet the approbation of a well wisher to tioned to have happened there some his country; the more especially when, years ago. I mean a monopoly of rice, to enable themselves to continue such, said to have caused the death of several they wish to put every mouth in that millions of

persons, who

may Cuts under tribute. Honest indigna- med to have been neither land-holders tioni che cause of the poor, may then nor farmers, but of nearly a similar deté loin to burst forth.

scription with our manufacturers and lacaristices agrees with the bulk, and bouring poor. Perlaps the corn bill 1: part of the nation, that Corruption may be meant as an experiment (upon prie Baion have gone band in hand a sinaller scale) to take place here, acbor i Bober of years; but wherefore cording to an idea held by an author of gued juple of England do you now, the fashionable world, that there may Sivas antinst them ?---You were in at times be political wisdom in diminishia

Trage, by all the means in ing the population; and for that perhaps

those wlio sought to rid you could be found no better expedient than 6,, ession; nay you lent your I the CORN BILL.

ARISTIDES.

men

be presu

ublished my G. HOUSTON: N. 194. Strand ; where all Communications udusessed LU

Editor are reqrested to be forwardest.

VOL. XXVII. No. 14.1 LONDON, SATURDAY, APRIL 8, 1815.

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TO LOUIS.

that it was not; but, it is impossible to

blame the people of France for having ON THE REAL CAUSES OF HIS LATE believed that which every man in Eng

EXPULSION, AND ON THE FUTURE land believed, and especially when overt PROSPECTS OF HIMSELF AND FA- acts of a nature so striking, and so hua,

miliating to France, accompanied this MILY.

memorable deciaration. You had ex SIR,-While I feel, in common with pressed your resolution to owe your resa most of my countrymen, compassion for toration solely, to the people of France ; you, under the present circumstances, and the people of France saw vou escorta

think it right to address you my ed from the Prince Regent's palace to thoughts on the real causes of your late Dover by English Guards ;; they saw you expulsion from France, and on the pros- conveyed across the Channel in an Fuga peets which now present themselves to lish ship commanded by an English yourself and family. To do this I think Prince; they saw you received on Fiench myself the more fully entitled, as the ground and conducted to Paris: by ceradvice, which I offered you upon your man and Prussian soldiers, subsidized by restoration was not followed, and, as it England: they saw Paris filied with now appears, the acting in opposition to those troops ; they saw those troops rethat advice has furnished the grounds main there until Napole r. was landed of numerous accusations against you and on the rock of Elba, awd until you lla your Governnent. It appears to me new-organized the army and the civil very clear, that the House of Bourbon authorities of France; they, in short, saw never can reign again in France. « A war, you :put upon the throne by foreign arin which all the rest of Europe, with the mies, and they heard England, who had purse of England.emptied into their hands, been the constant v enemy of France should league against France, might pro- under all her forms of Government, held duce great revolutions in that country;. up as entitled to all the merit of having but, I am convinced, that it is wholly accomplished this event. impossible for any combination of power, * Was it likely : was it possible, that a or of events, to make your House again nation like the French should not burn for any length of time, the sovereigns of with desire to wipe away this broad, this France. The reasons for this opinion, staring stain on its character ? To see will become apparent wben I have des- the English regiments of horse traverse cribed what I deem to have been the real almost the whole of France, when they causes of your late expulsion.

might have been sembarked very nearly . In the Proclamation to the French at the spot where the war had closed; people, which you issued in England in to see the studied aparade of - English the early part of 1814, you said, that you ".conquerors," as they were called, in the were resolved to owe your restoration streets of Paris ; *to be stold, as they solely to sthe people of France. But you were through our news-fapers, ; that you were hardly arrived in France, .wben it had, at the request of our Government, was stated in the Moniteur and in the forcibly detained American armed ships English news-papers, that you bad, under in the ports of France, and thatsyou bad, your own hand, declared to the Prince, by special command, prevented French Regent of England, that you owed your men froin sailing to America, lest they Crown to him, and the substance, if not. should enter into the service of that cause copies, of the letter, containing this de- try: to see and hear these things must

claration, weres published in these same have added greatly to the mortification - papers. I do not pretend 10. say, that and resentment of the French pengle, Ibis was the fact, I would faio believe who, always Lemarkable for theirlar tuf

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military glory, would under such circum- 'he ancient rules with regard to the stances, naturally be ready to burst forth Sunday; rules nerer, perhaps, very against your authority upon the first wise, and now bostile to the habits of the fair occasion.

whole of the generation whorn they were Yet, if you had returned unaccom- to affect. This measure of itself was panied by the ancient Noblesse, and the sufficient to produce a shock. It would Clergy, things might possibly have settled naturally create a belief, that all was to down into something like content. But, be attempted to be restored, as far as loaded with a numerous class of persons, religion was concerned. Nine tenths of all on the tiptoe of expectation; all expect the actire men in France are, perhaps, ing employments and honours; all eager to no more Catholics thau I am, having, be restored, as well as yourself, to power with their mothers' milk, imbibed a disand to wealth; and, all having, which like, and even a hatreel, of that Church you had not, to contend with rirals for and its clergy. The efiect of such meathat power and that wealth, and with sures must be to fill them with disconrivals, too, whom they found in posses- tent, alarm, and resentmentinent; for sion; loaded with this almost numberless every man living soon hates whatever class, who, to say the truth, had claims makes him uneasy. If measures of this as fair as your own to a' restoration, it kind, which I can allow to have been required wi jom and energy that do not adopted by you from motives of real fall to the lot' of mankind to prevent piety, were calculated to revive all the those heart-burnings which arose from apprehensions of religious persecution, this cause, and the effects of which we the re-burial of the late king and queen's now so clearly trace, not in speculation, remains marked out not a few of the but in decisive facts. A man bereft of greatest men in the country for regicides. power or profit, always becomes a bitter The funeral service upon ihat occasion; enemy of him who lias displaced liim. the annual humiliation appointed; the But if such changes become pretty gene- language of the noblesse, the ciergy, the ral throughout a wlrole country: if a sort Royalist painphleteers, the official jourof proscription be set on foot; and espenal, clearly shower, iliat there was, in cially if the grounds of that proscription the end, to be neither oblivion por forbe such as almost every man in the com-giveness for what was called the “ murmunity will naturally see level in some de- der ” of the late king and queen. And, gree, against him and even against his thus another list of proscription was prochildren; it is manifest that a convulsion mulgated, written in characters of blood. can be prevented by the bayonet alone. But, if it had been possible for you And, if the danger; if the suffering, ex- to remain upon the throne amidst the tend itself to the military as well as to hostility excited against you by all these all other persons in power, who can ex- causes, your power must have been depect that any thing short of a great, an stroyed, and yourself dethroned, by the overwhelming, foreign force, constantly attacks upon property, which were made present in the country, will be able to in su open a manner. The notion which support the ruler on his throne ?

the presses ir this country are so very While these changes were at work, anxious to imtulate is, that your overproducing hostility in every part of the throw is to be attributed solely to the country, the priesthood seem not to have army, who, we are told, governs the peobeen idle. i am not blaming them for ple of France, and forces upon them their endeavours to bring back the peo- whatever laws and government it pleases. ple to their former sentiments, They We are told, in one column of these might deem it their duty. But, as was papers, that Napoleon is inable to collect to be expected, they proceeded with very a large arnıy: that he has been compelled

a little caution. The people, who liad, to lower bis tone because he wants au arin general, long set aside the old way my; that he bas expressed his willingness of thinking along with the tythes and the to abide by the Treaty of Paris because he convents, saw with great jealousy and wants an army; that he has abolished alarm the crucifixes re-hoisted at every tisz Slave Trade, which you would not corner in the towns, and ou the sides of abolish, because he wants an army; that the higli-ways; and, as if you scorned to he pays his court to the people and proapproxch by degrees, you re-established Imises them liberty of the press and free

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representative government because he the credulous part of the English nation, wants an army: and, strange to say, in that such a revolution could have taken the opposite column, we are very gravely place without the consent and approba. assured,a sa matter of fact taken for grant- tion, pay, against the will of thirty millied, that it is the army and the army alone, ons of people full of spirit and military who has brought him back to France, and notions? put him upon your throne, against the It is notorious, that the eleven months will of thirty millions of people! It of your reign was employed by the wrie really seems, that delusion is never to ters and haranguers of France to extol cease. It really seems, that, upon that your government, and to traduce the subject, men are to continue in wilful government and character of Napoleon. blindness unto the end, unless their eyes It is notorious, that, while the press was be torn open by some dreadful convulsi- free for men like Chateaubriand and on or calamity:

Cretelle, whose employment was to blackBefore your restoration, it was general- en Napoleon and to applaud you, it was ly believed in England, that Napoleon's closed against those who dared to think governnient was so oppressive, and that of taking the other side. It is notothe people of France were so miserable rious that you established a Censorship under it, that they only wanted an oppor-after liaving pledged yourself to maina tunity to cast off his yoke and, to hoist 'tain the Liberty of the Press. It is nothe White Flag, We have been assured torious that many persons were already and we have very generally believed, that in prison for long terms for what were your reign was a paternal reign; that it deemed libels. Yet, with this most powwas a continued series of benefits to the crial instrument in your hands, you people of France; that you had restored were wholly unable, with the treasures. them to morality, religion, liberty, peace, of the country at your command, to gain and happiness ; that, in short, your go- over to you any part of the people in vernment produced effects precisely the number sufficient to make their voice contrary of the effects produced by his heard. Is it possible, then, for us to be government. Yet, at the end of eleven made believe, that the people of months, he comes back with only six France did not, from the bottom of their hundred men, and, instead of finding a hearts prefer the government of Napolepeople armed to arrest his progress, he on to that of the Bourbons? They talk rides on, almost without a guard, to the to us of the army, of conspiracies of fratergates of Paris, over a tract of 500 miles, nities, & I know not what; but, how could through many populous and fortified any, or all of these preventthe people towns, without seeing a single arm raised France from falling upon Napoleon on against him, and, indeed, amidst the his way to Paris, or at thegates of Paris : shouts of a people, who hail him as a The truth is, that there needed neither Deliverer. While, on the other hand, armies nor conspirators nor fraternities to

you who are in possession of all the pow - overset your throne, the existence of ers and treasures of that great country; which was opposed to the feelings, the are supported by the two Chambers of habits, and to the immediate interest of the Legislature: are surrounded by hun- the present inhabitants of France, who, dreds of thousands of armed men, leave besides the grounds of discontent, resent your palace and quit the soil of France, ment, and alarmı before stated, proceeded, without being able to discover a single in this instance, upon the further and individual to draw a sword or to speak still stronger ground, that their property, a word in your defence. Nay, the very their real property; that nearly the whole guard of hired foreigners: even the Swiss of the real property in France; that the soldiers, against surrounding your person preservation of all this, and of every part with whom the fate of your unfortunate f it, was incompatibte wiih the reign of brother was not a sufficient warning; the House of Bourbon, however great the even these wretched men, who let them- wisdom and the virtues of the Princes of selves out to fight for hire, are quietly that House muy be. I myself an of disbanded and banished out of the reach the same opinion. I was of that opinion of popular resentment, by a decree of when I wrote the answer to your Napoleon published at Lyons. Can it be. Proclamation of January 1814. It believed by any body on earth, except I was not in reason, it was not in patura

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