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it would, in the end, only augment the table, most able, and even the most évil intended to be prevented.*

opulent Citizens. The people of Enga No: it is not by war that we shall pre- land are of the same excellent cbara event a migration of our people. The way ter as those of America. In short, the to keep at home our artizans and manu- two nations are of one and the same fafacturers and our moderately rich men, is, miły. The same habits, the same manto take care, that they shall be unable 10 rers, the same turn of mind, the same find, any where else, more happiness : attachment to freedom, the same love of that is to say, greater abundance, greater country. And, it is notorious, that, in ease, and more real freedom. If France the few instances where elections are become nearly what America is in point popular in England, the people have of freedom.- If the only difference should almost uniformly chosen men distinguishconsist in the title of the Chief Magistrate.ed for their talents and joining talents to If the way to riches' and honours be alit e fortune. Where, then, is ihe danger? Who open to all men, of whatever religion. It is it that need be afraid 10 sier the thie press

wécome really free, as it is in people of England to choose their repreAmerica If every man paying a tax par- sentatives, in the same manner as the fale in choosing the makers of the laws. people of America choose theirs, espe=' Really, my Lord, if this should be the chilly as 19 one wishes 10 change any case, it appears to me, that Reform in thiry as to the powers, privileges, and this coantry will, at last, become absolute prerogativesefthe l'eers of the king? ly necessary: and; therefore, would it uct The old assertion, that the example be as wci 19 brgisi n1:? Neysis. Ror of Anerica was nothing, seeing the smallderer, Carnot, Cregole, &c. are at work ness of her population, the poverty of

, in France." They have had great experie ber people, and seeing that lier constience. Ilég hate head tieis eyes fixed tutión lad dot yet been brought in conupon us and upon America. They haow tact with the touchsioce of War. This all about our situation. They are befire old assertion is now contradicteel. She thien-the history of otr Borough Suntem, is neaviy, if not quite, as populous as and of the etioris whilj have been made lis islausl; ließ people are riche; ker toʻreform 'if. :] hey trave learl, I dare cities luxurions; ber commerce immense ? sày, of the famous athair of Mr. QUIN- and slie has just come with honour out

T DICK, 'They liave read Rithe most arditas war in which any FRANCIS LUPDETTS · Speeches, MA-nation was over engagedi, and Wiat, 100, JOR*: CANTWRICHT's Adaresees,.. and 004 only williont any imlemal colivulsion, the Petitions to the flouguralte bene. but willout seeing ker wild Government These will serve them as a guide. They resortint 10 any one measure of safety wift know what to choose and ulat: 10 Levond the Ural course of law. , strün, Therefore, my Lord, let us try within it kol? Because it was elected to out-do then. Let irs begin first. Ich by the peopie ; Lecause it had the pec as leave them no 760D: $1; 10;89 . In tipie's conocience; because', esan it is shfori, for that is ile allinuli, Itt is baie mee: illes lind displaced the people, the ar thurotgh - reforms of the 'Niki ?is relesly. was always at band in an apHouse of Pärlioni14; avis cliente ställning election.

a Cererlle need no war to preverit the contagioni chelt stouts inhereed of soldiers in die French principles popis prescat Ergo perce. It want!. prelection against lishmen from migration 9-erine, die piepile, because ite people, can äta

And what are the ci hjertions to. this few malis fion :??y. girerdy, changé rého THY? Vilát are the objectio:71:10 seir representa il t'S 't bus is public giving pagers of taxes e right to vote for (026.maistral Slib

siace of those who hiake oor la its? It has breittisis. Pulis eintly binevents litaly impudently asserted; that sich is refers to DNI.. This in 200:36P, and one if would producte anarchis listed (aztan': the greatest sectaries for internal peace that it would iirotiute lirimid ungtin. 46 *ell as 12p;iss. berhat this le ripled men into the Legislaixre, and jui

Ercist sein" I do aut-knou ; the offices af. Stute. But has this beauti, certa'w) - ) !!!, ihat it is the kapps Elte, etiect of free élections in America Ystem; 15te uniem of confort, of w Wo see there, the Legislature and the tastreamer toe country of loyalty,

Tsity, of wilsug sibmission to the laws, lektices of state h ku by the most depic'and ei peace..

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To be sure, France has not yet ( may, in some small degree, assist in furnished us with so tempting an exam- making you hesitate ketore you again ple; but, if she should not do it, wbat plunge us into another long and sanguiwill then be said against admitting all vary war. I am, &c. &c. Eughshmen paying direct taxes to par

WM. COBBETT. ticipate in chosing their representatives, leaving the privileges and prerogatives of the Peers and the Crown wholly

PRESENT STATE OF FRANCE. touched ? I am at a loss to guess ; but It is a truth, confirmed by univerI am at no loss to foresee what would sal history, that the happiness or misery be the consequence of the refusal. This of a people depends alnrost entirely upon

. is the race; this is the 'rivalship, wkrich the principles of their government, and I wish to see between England and the conduct of their rulers. Wherefore France. Not a rivalship in war; not is it that in Europe tliere is more comå rivalslip in commercial restrictions; forts enjoyed, and greater progress made but a rivalship in the pursait of freedom: 19 the arts and sciences, than in Asia? a rivalship in which I am not at all It is because the Asiatic governments afraid that we should surpass ker. : Our are more despotic and tyrannieal than natural character; our persevering at the European. It is from a similar cause tachments to country ; our unwearied that the improvement of society in Spain, bovalty; that modesty which indisposes and in Portugal, is, at the present moindividuals to aim at predominance; that nient, a century, at least,

behind our inoderation which limits cur views of

own country. It is following this crite. exaltation; that plain good sense, that rion only, by adopung it as a rule to form justice; tliat mercy, which, if left to our the judgment, that we shall be able, at selves, guide us in all our decisions, that all umes, jo arrive at correct ideas realmost unbounded confidence between specting the condition of any people, man and man, which gives to words the Whenever we abandon this guile, we give value of gold; our happy local situation ; ourseives up to error, and to all its couseand a hundred other fruits and circum- quent evils; we become, by habit, the stances: all seer to personify themselves creatures of prejudice; and we seidon and to exclain ? Why is not England use i discover our' nisiake till dear bonglit • freestani happiest country in the experience has taught us the folly of our

Korld? What need bas she of armies in de prixture from truins. In nothing is the ' time of peace? Why should she know mistakes, whic!, have arisen in couse. of any force beyond ibe Sheriff's Wand quence of this departure from reclitude,

Anil the Constable's Staff? Why should more obvious and extravagant, than in • her Government be uneasy at the pro- ihe opinions now almost generally pre

pagation of any opinions or principles, vailing as to the present state of society political or religiotis?

in France. Fully aware that the improveHow happy should I be, my Loril, went which has taken place there, since if I couid Lope: tirat you and your col the revolution, in the condition of the leagues would take these questions into people, is the best proof that can be vour sericns consideraiion; il, biaving new given of the superior excellence of the goseea that foreign wer and domezinc coervernment, almost all our political writers, tion, hele $53 €«;}}pletely fales, at the particularly our news-paper press, have cunt of so many year's, to produce that inceasingly represented the people of safety, which bes been die prosessert on France to be completely demoralized, ject up your precitressers, in power, as her fieids uncultivated, her manufactures well as of yourstives ; if, alter these annihilated, and the whole aspect of the friviless endeavou's, I could bope, that country reduced to a state of dreary waste you would make inerely a friul of P'or- and desolation. It was by base attempts liamentary r'ju?'m; oi that great mea- like these that a too successful clamour sure, wheb nou renovate the natural against the republicans was first excited; spirit, make us beak our inevitable bur. at tile nations of Europe were infuriated dens with cheerfuluess, and strengties to embark in a bloody contest, and that 20h dove tu caricouriry! But, if I am they continued, for upwards of twenty . forviiden totsitertain this wpe; I will years, to sacrifice their lives for the estawall. Hatter mwbell, thai, what I have said I bliskipent of that “Social System,” and

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that“bcly religion,"which, it is said, had grity of her people.--After some prelimi. been overthrown and profaned by the nary remarks on the appearance of the jacobins of France. The repose which houses, &c. at Dieppe, where Mr. Birthe treaty of Paris had given io ile con beck and his friends landed, he proceeds tinent, has serveri in a great measure to as follows. dissipate the delusie. Liberal minded

!) and sensible men, who could not under

Walking near tlic barracks, I was strack with tho

several stand bow a country deraoralized and respectable appearance of the soldiers ; dehased as France was represented to be, were seared under the trees, reading.-- Tut the should be able to maintain its exis- esering the streets, the boulevards, the boarse, tence against the combined attacks of every convenient place was filled wi h groups of Europe, were desirous to satisfy them- people, of uit vie«criptions, engaged in conversation, selves as to the cause of this unaccount. No rwieness in the mall, no ievity in the temales & able phenomenon. They visited France; politeness and cheariuil, sincere, good humour prethey observes the customs and manners veiling on all sides. Huw difierent, thought ), of the people; they investigates the from an evening scene in a British sca-port! Yok: progress of the arts, of manufactures, of Dieppe is said io be one of the coarsest places in agriculture, of Erication; they particu- France. There is nore appearance of enjoymena, lariy informeri ihiemselves astothewational and less of positive saliering than I ever belieldi character of the people, and the general bociore', or bad any conception of; but it is not ibe aspartuf the country; and the result of sort of enjoyment which suits my habits ; i qnesthese inquiries, and observations has lion it I could be happy in their way. What is been, that the pubic are now in posession pains-taking unfo:tumie race are we! So busy of a real picture of France, drain from about living, that we really have not time to live! actual survey, loy persons of undoubted and our recreations have so much of vice in then, credit,and who were under no temptation that serious folks have imagined it impossible 10 whatever to give a false cclowing to the be broth. coerry and wise. The people here, though subject.

Of the many works which infinitely behind us in the necommendations of life, have issued from the press on the pre- seem to be as much our superiors in the art of sent stale of France, I have seen non. So wiring. I I am informed that all the children of the vieil calciated tsive correct ideas. se- labouring class learn to read; and are genembly specting it, as that published by f1r. Hiydil by their parents. The relation between Brabeck. It is cotileri " Moies of a a boon concation and soot morals might be studies

Journey througlo france from Dieppe here, to advalitage, by the opposers of our im. throngi Paris and Lyons to the i'y- proved mosles of teaching the children of the poor.

rennees, and back through Toulouse, " in July, August ansi September, 1914;

On the subject of Education, our audescribing the basis of the people,

thor afterwards says, that at Deville" and the agriculiure of the coun

At a very poor inn, in a remote village, wiera try."--It is my inception, as alrea

we siopipead on our worning's rire, the landlady dly stated,

to give a summary Bite!ves of this valuable production. kept a ch.lo's sch.col, and her daughter was weaving

CO1101 cheek; her sisier kept a

lille shop, and It will form a striking connast to the

was reading a translation of Young's Nigilt view of society and manners in Franie, Before the revolution, as given by Mr. Thomgins. This was inore than we sliould have Arthur Young, and which has already

expiced, in a viiinge Ale-house, in England. appeared in the Register. The reader The babits of the people more towards: vis observe that Mr. Birbeck is not ap the Souti, lie thus describes: admirer of Napoleon. Ou the contrary, he freely censures what he considers Having quitted the Pyrennecs, and entered on. reprehensible in his conduct, and more a districi, mliere, instead of small fields, smerous than once stigmatizes him with the villages, and a thick populatioil, are large towns, epithet of" tyrant."--Yet it was under large divisions of land, and sewer people ; I have. the Government of this 56 tyrant” that | to remark, on taking leare of my, mountain friends, France made such prodigious progress, that their poverty is more in appearance tlran in the arts and scienres, and has ac- reality. They have fregal habits; and consider quired so high a character for moral as luxuries, some things which inay perhaps be conduct, and, what may be truly called among the necessaries of lite in the estimation the glory of a nation, for the strict inte-1 of ilicic lowland neighbours. They are act in

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alms-taking indigent peasantry ; but laborious and the busy season (which is of pretty long duration, independent; living upon litli, and heedless how : including harvest and threshing, then the vintage, but nothing of the negligence which is the con- and afterwards the olives) 40 sous and board, stant companion of hopeless poverty, is discover- women 25 sous, with:»nt board. The allowance able in their fields ; on the contrary, these are of board is 3lb of breast, ilb of meat, besides vege. cultivated with garden-like

Their table dishes, such as haricos, &c. and three bottles Jands and their cattle shew that they are far of wine, par day:

in harvest and threshing, remored from beggary and wante In the richer six botiles of wine. The pound French, is about tracts, where their litile estates are productive equal to 18 ounces, English. with moderate toil, the inhabitants are living in The Sheplıerd is a wealthy man.

His wife great plenty and comfort. Those beautiful and shewed us her ample stores of home-spy linen, fertile vallies which converge at Tarascon, seem to Sha sows ile hemp, prepares and spiris it herseli. unite lowland abundance with mountain simplicity. The labouring class here [al Tsy near Paris]

tainly much higher, on the social scale, than with us. On the lạbouring class, and farm Ser.

Every opportunity of colleciing information on this vauts, Mr. Birbeck has furnished the

Subject confirms my first impression, that there are following interesting facts, which I have

few really poor people in I'r nce. In England extracteil from his work without any re

a poor man and a labourer are synonyinonis termos gard to the order in which they are there

we speak familiarly of the poor, meaning ihe labionra placed.

ing clàss: not so here. I have now learnt enough On my first landing, I was struck with the res- to explain this difference: and having received pectable appearance of the labouring class; I see the saine information from every quarter, there is the same marks of comfort and plenty, every where

13 rvont to doubt its correciness, as I proceedt. I ask for the wretched peasantry,

The general character of the French, of whom I have heard and read so manch; but I

and the beneficial effects wbich the revoam always referred to the revolution ; it seems they lution has producert, particularly or the vanis heri, then.---Wages above Lunet; 2011, a ding habits of the people, are thus spöken of': the men ; 10d. to 1511. the worrien. Asked s01: men who were rigging in a vineyari, how many The approach to Rouen is noble: every ohject shirts they bact ;---titreen to twenty, “ suivant la denotes, prosperity and comfort. Since I entered! personne,” was the repiy. I have mut with this the country I have been lookidely, in all directions, unequivocal parcof ví ricles in every part of the for the ruins of France: for the horrible effects of couniry. The labouring cliss, formerly the poor, the revolution, of which so much is said con our are now ric', in consequence of the national rio- sive of the water: hut instead ot' a ruined country, mains having been sold in small allonnents, itt sery | I see fields highly cultivater, aná !owns full of inlow rates, wood sith the indulgence of tive years habitants, No houses tumbling Hotell, or enplys for completing the payment. Thus there are

ro raggel, wretchedd-looking, people. I have enI few labourers or donestic servants who are not quireil, and every body assures me, idat agricultura proprietors oilane.

has been improving rapidly for the last twenty-fivo Lying lepireen the Pyrennees anil the Neli- years; ihnushe riches and comports of the cultivatori terraner!!, Roussillon enjys mountain yales and of the soil have been doubled during that period; sea breezes, with the feriiliiy el it modern vale, and that vast improvenient has taken place in the and, wisat ands much 10 ide delighis of this parite condition and character of the cominn people. In aise, a lappy peasantry:

M.

partirmed the early part of the revolu!ion, sore was done in my general observations on illis here!, fe also The promoting the instruction of the lower order iniormeti me that

1:al for youth than the sinister policy of the late Emperor was of sixiren,

fire himuseli, as domestic j able to destroy: and, though much remains to be serrant in purientre; aut, when he arrives at desired on this point, enough has been effected to Twenty-one or 14 (all y-! (), 10 lave lisid mp 400 or slew that a well-educated commonalty would not b) trauks, 181. or 201. sterlin With 400 orankis, be wanting in industry or subordination. The Nam die buys a collage and marries : his wite has prostra- gional Domains, consisting of the confiscated estates bly a livele portions. He has an opporliiniry also of otilie church and the emigrant nobility, were ex. buying 1500 senare loises (nearly all here and ballposed mo sale during the pecuniary distresses of the English) «t meuliiva:éd mountain band, rocky revolutionary government in small portions, for the alid toor, but fit for vines: for this lie prys accommodation of the lowest order of purchasers, lifieen or ?wer!v franks, and becomes a proprietor; and five years allowed for completing the payrent. braving a constant resource of profitable industry, This indulgence, joined to the depreciation of assig. ju-winter, WILH work may be sgaice. Wages, in nats, enabled the poolest description of peasants de

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become proprietors; aul sich they are almost -t hare had constant occasion to remark the universaliy ; possessing from one to ten acres. A' excellent condition of the labouring class; their as the educalion of the poor was seriuksusly prt- jecent respectable appearance. This was more moted during the early years of the revolotio!), ihei than I bad expected. great advance, in character as well as coudition, The decorum of manners in boih sexes which prea is vo mystery. I prefer the country character of vails universally, surprised and delighted me France to that of the city. In the former, the eyond expression. Here are none of those exhia good fruits of the Revolution are visitle at every bilions of profligacy, which disyuse you at every step: previous iu vat zta, in the country, ilie inos. step, even in our couniry villages.

No ragged muinerons class, die bulk of the population, all bu! wreiches staggering home from a filthy alrhouse. the nobles and the priests, w re wretchedly poor. One drunken min, and but one, I saw in all my servile and thierish. This class has assumed a journey. Now, this is not 10 be attributed to abnew cliaracter, improved in proportion to the ject poveriy, absolutely depriving theia of the improvement of its condion. Servilny has va- means of intoxication, as might have been the nisliet will their poverty; their thievisionss, an belore the revolution :

the contrary, cilece of die same cause, has also in great measure wine and brandy are cheap, and the earnings disappeared.

of the labourer are at least one third more in proAs a proof of the honest disposition of portion than in England. Such is the habitual the lower orders, Mr. Birbuck gives the temperance of the description of people who will following anecdote of a posti lion:

us are most addicted to drinking, that the iris,

tieqnenied by pustillions and waggoners, seldorn . On our arrival at our botel, the postillion de

have ang liquor stronger than their ordinary wine. manded double for the last post, as a Poste If you call for brandy, they are obliged to send Royale; wmod a l'Anglois at all points against for it to the Caffe. The manager of an iron forge irporision, l'objecier; he proposed going 10

was describing in the wie severe labour which wie the Bureau des Pustes, to prove his right; I, workinen performed before their immense fires : I curious to be introduced to a Fiench Authority, enquired about their drinking, and he assured me willingly consented, and away we went to the that they never drank even their own weak wine Bureau des Postes: there he establishert. bis claim. without water. Intimately connected with the tem. On returning in the hotel te bis voiture and horse's,

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ralice of the men is the modesty of the wojuessa an snicle of our baggage was missing; ihie pos- Land equally exemplary. Lillion declared he had not sten it, and as

A habit cit economy and frugalily, accompanied could not ascertain it whát place it had been lett, by a perfect indifference to stile and shew, is also it was given up as lost; it was a suc de nuit, con

ther characteristic of the French nation, extending, taining sumiries of some value. In three days through all ranks : and entirely incursistent with the same pustillion leit our sac at the hotel in

the fashionabie frivolily which has been attributed openeil, not an article wissing: he had tracer

w them. I am a countryman, and it is France as a ii back umil lie found it ; and considering the

coniy that I came to visit and am describing, not mode of cor seulement, it was more ihan we ex

Pasis in particular. The exceptions to my stalu. pected. I give it as a sample of French bonestyment will be tound in the latter, where no doubt and regard tor character. As another instance

There are 100 many examples of every enurmily. of the same kind; a postiilion galiopped attor Yet Paris itself will bear ne out when compared us three miles, with a ball article which had

will London. been overlvohert in sluiting the luggage.

I had heard much of French beggars, and there In several points I lound ihe French charac

are 100 many to be seen borering around the postter different frm what I had conceived it, from

house's, and on the hills of the great roads, espethe common report. There is a sort of independ cially north of Paris : they are nosily very old or ence, an uprightness of manner, denoting equaily blivit people who tollow ixgging as a protessivile, and the consciousness of it, which I was not pre-wiroutes inibing warks of extreme poverty

, being, pared for. This is some imes, in thic lower elsiss, udin neatly, and even well, clad. Beggars seein accompanied by something like American roughi. to be an ess nt al part of the Catholic system, afness, and is not allogether agrecable to our habits.cording occasion for the meritorious work, of giving In general however they are extremely atientive

Jms : but as the amount required to constiinte a tv good manners in their intercourse with each itle to reward has nol been exactly stated, very, other, and with their superiors; but

small coins are chiety in request for thal purpose, in vain for that deference, bordering on servility and people generally carry a store of them. One which we are a customed to from our dependanis; of my fellow travellers from Clermont, who was on who are, notwithstanding, free born Englishmen, lvis way to Paris, I believe, to purchase an estate,

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