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his Inrperial Majesty. The most profound tran sacred struggle for the happiness of our people. quillity reigns throngliout the whole extent of the France is glari to proclaim witla fraukness this noble empise. Every where the sawe cry is heard ; never end of all its wishes. Jealons of its iudependence, did a nation present the spectacle of inore com the invariable principle of its policy will be the piete unanimity in the expression of its happiness most absolute respect for the independence of än joy. This great change has been only tire offrer nations : it sucli, as I have a happy confi. work of a few days. It is the finest trimispla of the thence, shall be the personal sentiments of your confidence of a promarch in the love of his peo. Majest;, the general tranquillity is secured for a ple; it is at the same time the most extraorsti. long time; and justice, seated ou the confines of nary act of the will of a pation wlich knows its different states, will alone suffice to guard their rigtits and its true duties. The functions en. frontiers. I seize with eagerness, &c. &c." trusted to you by the royal goverment have “ Paris, April 4.” (Signed) • NAPOLEON.” terminated; aud I am about to take, without delay, the orders of his Majesty the Emperor, in order to accredit a new legation. You must inmediately, Sir, assume the tri-colourell rock

THE EMPEROR NAPOLEON. zde and cause it to be taken by the Frenchimen No event, in the history of the world, who are abont you. If, at the moment of quitting the Court where yon reside, you have oc.

ever gave rise to so much speculation, or casion to see the Minister for Foreign Affairs, so great a diversity of opinion as the event you will inform him that the Emperor has 110. of Napoleon's abdication of the thrones of Ebing more at heart than the maintenance of France and Italy. Those who had all phins of greatness which he might have anteriorly who abused him when he was fighting unpeace : that his Majesty las renounced the along been hostile towards him; thosc formed; and that the system of his Cabinet, as well as the whole of the direction of affairs in der the banners of republicanism; those France, is upon a totally different principle. I who called him all sorts of names when, cannot doubt, Sir, that you will consider it as a duty to make known to the Frenchmen about

as First Consul, he led the French armies yon, the new situation of France, and that in to victory; those who calumniated him which, according to our laws, they find them because he defeated the enemies of France selves placed.

even after he assumed the title and dignity (Signed) CAULAINCOURT, Duke of of an Emperor; those, in short, who, from Vicenza.

first to last, hare hated and detested this LETTER, (THE ORIGINAL IN THE HAND

extraordinary man, and who took every WRITING OF NAPOLEON), ADDRESSED TO

opportunity to shew their rancour and

malice against him. All this tribe of vi. Sir, my Brother! Yon will have learned in pers, who have always been, and still are, the conrse of the last month my return on the very numerous, were forward in maintaiaNiores of France, my entrance into Paris, and ing that Napoleon resigned his crown and the departure of the family of the Bourbons. The consented to retire to Elba, because he me vainre of these events must now be known to had been defeated by the Allies; because your Majesty. They are the work of an irresistable power, line work of the unanimous will of a great his marshals and his army had deserted nation, which knows its duties and its rights. The him; and because he had for ever lost the dynasty, wiich force had impo-ed on the French affections of the people of France, in conpeople, was no longer made for it; the Bour bons would not arcord with its sentiments or

sequence of his alledged tyranny and opits manners : France has separated itself from pression. Nothing appeared só clear to them. Its voice called for a deliverer. The ex these sagacious politicians, nothing so cerpectation which decided me to make the greatest tain, at the time, as that Napoleon owed ef sacrifices was disappointed. I came, and

his misfortunes to these causes, and that from the point where I touched the shore the hove of my people carried me even to the bosom it was impossible he could ever recover of my capital. The first duty of my heart is to his fallen fortunes. llad the statements sepay so much affection by the maintenance of which these men set forth been true, it is áu honourable tranquillity. The re-establish.

conclusions ment of the Iinperial Throne was necessary for unquestionable that their Hie happiness of Freuchmen. My dearest would have been just; but as these state, thonghit, is, at the same time, to make it useful ments were altogether the result of malice, to the securing of the repose of Europe. Suf: as they were from the beginning, and all ficient glory has adorned by turns the flags of through, dictated by a hatred of liberty, ditterent pations. The vicissitudes of fortune have caused sufficient great reverses to succeed and of every man who gave it support, to great successes. A finer field is now open their conclusions have proved as fallacious for sovereigns, and I am the first to enter it.

as the premises upon which they were After having presented to the world the specta founded. It was with a partial and precle of great combats, it will be more delightful in future, to know no other rivalry except that of the judiced eye they viewed the conduct of Selv aptages of peace, no other struggle except the Napolcon, in whatever situation he was,

ALL TIIE SOVEREIGNS OF EUROPE.

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placed.-It was impossible, therefore, whelming torrent of malignity, of prethey could be correct either as to his mo- judice, of malice, and of misrepresentatives of action or the consequences likely tion. I denied that Napoleon had ever to result from the step which he took. It been defeated in the field. He, no doubt, is pretty certain also that the abdication found it necessary to retreat after the bat'of Napoleon was an event which his ene. tle of Leipsíc. But this, confessedly, was mies little expected. They could not occasioned by the defection of his Allies, conceive how a man that had been so long who went over to the Confederates in the accustomed to dispose of crowns at plea- heat of the engagement.

Even the treasure, could so far become the master of son which led to this disaster did not prehimself; could so readily subdue, what vent Napoleon carrying off the greater they called, his inordinate ambition, could part of his faithful troops, a circumstance bring his mind so easily to abandon the which could not have happened had he splendour, the dignity, the glory that is suffered a defcat. During the six weeks supposed, by its votaries, to accompany he resisted, with a handful of men, the royalty. They had no conception, no whole combined forces of Europe, in their idea that Napoleon, the haughty, the des. attempts to reach Paris, he was on all ocpotic Napoleon, the slave of every vile casions successful when he could bring and despicable passion, was capable of his opponents to face him in battle. The conquering himself, and of voluntarily re- astonishing skill, and undaunted bravery linquishing empire over a nation so pow. which he displayed in that campaign, with erful and so celebrated as that of France. so fearful an odds against him, irould have Therefore these vile detractors of his been sufficient to immortalize his name as fame, confounded at the unexpected event, a warrior, had he done nothing else to inhad determined never to give him credit súre the suffrages of posterity. It was in for any one act of his life; those hired ca- this light I viewed him at the time. It lumniators resolved, the moment they had was in language similar to this that I conin some measure recovered from their stu- veyed my ideas of his astonishing exploits; por, to give Napoleon no quarter. He and when at last he was forced to give up was a coward, a paltroon, a contemptible the contest, I hesitated not to attribute fellow.-A thousand anecdotes were in this to treason, to foul and premeditated vented, to shew that he had resigned his treason, on the part of those in whom he crown merely to insure his personal safety; had placed implicit confidence. "Still it that he had preferred a secure retreat to was in his power, I remarked, to prolong the welfare of his old and faithful ac!- hostilities, even after the Allies got posherents; and that, when the means of session of the capital. He had, I stated, a wiping off the disgrace, which this shame considerable force under his immediate ful conduct entailed upon him; when he command, which, with the troops occupywas urged by his nearest and dearest ing the garrisons, and acting in other parts friends to imitate the example of the an- of France, would have formed an army, cient Roman heroes, and to close his ca- wholly attached to his person, sufficiently reer by what they ironically denominated, formidable to make head against the ina deed worthy of his great name, he cow vaders. With this force, I observed, it ardly rejected the proposal, shrunk from was in his power to render a contest for the appearance of death, which he had so

the government of the country a matter at often braved in a thousand forms, and least of considerable doubt, had he not sought a hiding place, from the scrutiny preferred the tranquillity and the prosand contempt of honourable minds, on a perity of France to his own individual barren and inaccessible rock in the Ocean. 'rights. The Allied Powers had declared

-Thus it was that the haters of Napo- that they would not enter upon terms with leon explained his motives of action; thus Napoleon, or any of his family. This it was that they scrutinized his conduct. was making it a personal quarrel, which The reader who was accustomed at that would have led immediately to a civil war period to attend to the remarks which I in France. To avoid this, I said, Napooffered on this subject, will not fail to re- leon readily abandoned all his pretentions collect that I ventured, notwithstanding to the crown, agreed to accept a pension the almost universally prevailing clamour for himself and house, and to become an against Napoleon, to oppose this orcra 1.cxile, in order to gire tbezation an oppor.

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tunity of choosing another ruler. I also | Napoleon in the light of a defeated or a remarked, that the conditions of the treaty degraded Monarch,

with whom no chances of Fontainbleau was such, as clearly of recovery remained. On the contrary, shewed that the Allies still considered it is plainly admitted, that the advantagehim a formidable personage, whom it was ous terms which he obtained, were the desirable to get rid of almost upon any consequence of his being then too formida. terms; that, instead of having been dictated ble to temporize with, and too much the to, Napoleon had proposed the articles idol of the army to think of prescribing of the treaty, which the Allies considered any other conditions to him than what, in it prudent to accept, rather than risk a re- the circumstances, were honourable and newal of the contest with a man who had just. The particular acts of treason, so often made them feel the fatal effects of which paralized the efforts of Napolcon, opposing his measures. In fact, had not have also been distinctly admitted by those Napoleon obtained a victory over himself; who formerly denied them. All this, I had he not preferred the happiness of am aware, has not resulted from a desire France to his own immediate interest, a to do justice to that great character. He struggle for authority might have com- never would, I am satisfied, have been able menced, more fatal to the country than all to draw from his enemies an acknowledge she had endured in the course of the revo- ment of the truth, had they not found this lution. With these views it might have acknowledgment necessary to their own been easy for me to have predicted the re- justification. But in whatever way the turn of Napoleon, had it been safe in the truth has come out, it is now before the then state of Europe to hint at such an public, and ought to have the effect, at event. But whatever danger there might least, of undeceiving them, of opening have been in avowing this opinion, I knew their eyes to the villainous efforts which that there was none in being persuaded in are every day making, by a base and cormy own mind that he would be recalled rupted press, to involve us in a new war by the people of France. I never once with France. All that these hirelings doubted this, though, I confess, it hap- said as to the causes of Napoleon's abdicapened at a period when I least looked for tion; all the lies they invented to make it it, and has been attended with conse. be believed, that he was deserted by his quences more favorable to liberty than my army,, and hated by the people; all and most sanguine expectations had led me to every one of these falsehoods and calumexpect. But while the fact of Napoleon's nies have now been exposed and refuted, restoration, proves the correctness of my and that by the publication of documents former views as to that particular, it has also which cannot be controverted, and which brought to light a mass of evidence as to always command the highest assent. But the real causes of his abdication, and the sincerely as I wish these facts to produce highly favorable terms he obtained from a corresponding effect, I am much afraid the Allies, which completely lays open that the attempts again making to mislead the falsehoods of his traducers, and gives the public mind, will counteract every en.. to my original speculations on these topics deavour of mine to dispose them to peacean importance which I scarcely calculated able pursuits. How, indeed, can it be they ever would receive. I had no means otherwise, when the mass of the people are of discovering the motives which influ- so fickle and inconsistent. They cry for, enced the Allies, or any part of their deli- war; nothing will satisfy them but interberations; but, from what has been re- minable war; yet, with the same breath, peatedly stated by Ministers, in both they grumble and fret agaiost the taxes, houses of Parliament,-from official papers without which it is impossible for any set laid on the table of the House of Com- of men to carry on war. They would mons-and from the important French have Napoleon destroyed; they would documents inserted above, it is perfectly have France degraded and partitioned ; obvious that my remarks at the time of but although they know that these things Napoleon's abdication, were as correct as cannot even be attempted without money, if I had been fully acquainted with the that new and large loans must be resorted discussions which led to the treaty of Fon- to, that the assessed taxes must be greatly tainbleau. In fact, it now appears that increased to pay the interest of these, and the Allied Sorereigns neither considered that the Income Tax, that tax which

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has already been denominated a “high-While hope remains, put forth your manly wayman's tax” by the supporters of strength; unite firmness with moderation; the “ Social System,” is to be renewed convincing argument with eloquence; and with all its terrors. Although thcy have continue to demonstrate to the divided already felt, and must again feel the per- world, that Peace is better than War.“ nicious effects of these measure's, even No period, in the aunals of history, affords should the country continue in a state of to the contemplative mind a collection of peace, they still bawl out for war, for the events so great in magnitude, so extensive punishment of the “ rebels” in France, in their interests, or so awful in their confor the overthrow of those institutions sequences, as those which at this moment which have exalted France to so lofty a agitate Europe. It is not the concern of a pinnacle, and for the destruction of that single nation, or the interest of this geneman who has endeared himself to the ration only, but the prosperity and happi.. whole nation, by uniformly protecting ness of nations unborn, of ages yet to these institutions. All this the enemies of come, that are involved in the doubtful France, and of liberty, demand at the determination of a few individuals.—What hands of ministers, and yet they are so heart, possessed of a single spark of huunreasonable as to complain because they manity, does not sicken when he views the are called upon to contribute the means sanguinary Proclamation issued at Vien. by which alone their wishes are to be ac- na. Are our principles and dispositions complished. If we are to have war with to be guided by the hostile spirit it France, I am satisfied that neither ten nor breathes ? - Are we to draw our rules of fifteen per cent. on income will be suffi- morality and justice from thence?-Does cient to support it for any length of time. the happiness of society and the world de. According to present appearances, France pend on doing evil that good may come? will not be very speedily reduced. It will - If ever a public declaration merited take twenty per cent. at least to accom- universal censure, surely this of all others plish this, if ever it is accomplished. Let demands it. Are these the specimens of those then, who cry for war, who cant in- moderation proceeding from the “ Delia cessantly about the establishment of the verers of Europe ?"- What awful conse" Social System,” and the preservation of quences may we not expect, if the same our “ holy religion," look to this.--- They spirit is to pervade our councils, and goare, at this moment, more likely than ever vern our national divisionst-It appears to see the flames of var rekindled in Eu- to me, Sir, that this is the momentous perope ; but while they feel so much gratifi- riod, when the inhabitants of the country cation in this, let them at least be should step forward to implore and petithankful to those who have been the cause tion Parliament, to avert the melancholy of it. Let those who are active in endea- calamities a new war would inevitably pro. vouring to bring on a war, have all the duce.--I admit that recent circumstances money they desire. It is by money only do not give us much encouragement to bethat the means of prosccuting the war can lieve the voice of the people would be ef. be procured. How senseless, how stupid, fectually regarded; yet the late unsuccesshow inconsistent it is in us to expect war, ful attempt is not without important adand not expect that we will be called on vantages, in as much as it has, in my opia to pay for it.

nion, done more to convince the bulk of mankind of the absolute necessity of Par

liamentary Reform than any single event PEACE OR WAR.

during a long period of time.--A few more

such refusals against the public will, might Mr. COBBETT, If ever there was a excite a spirit and an energy in the nation time when the interests of mankind im- which would command attention. If the periously called on the advocates of peace public feeling is not moved, on the present to exert their influence, the present is that occasion, to express its disapprobation at time. You, Sir, have raised your power- threatened hostilities, the administration ful voice in her defenee, in a manner truly of the country will be more excusable-by honourable to your character, and worthy resolving on prosecuting a war.

Of what the approbation of every friend to hu- real advantage will it be to this nation wanity. Be uot wcary in well doing that the Bourbon family should again re

a

ascend the throne of France ? Ilas the is disputed, or an opposite principle reformer sway of that House proved so bene cognised, the nation admit it is already ficial to England? Are we compensated enslaved, and has nothing to expect but for 11. immense expenditure of treasure, cppression, taxation, and cruelty. Let and the waste of lives it has cost Great the question be dispassionately asked : Britain, in fruitless attempts to re-establish Shall we gain by recommencing hostilithe Bourbons? Is the interest of a single ties against France? Shall we look back foreign family to rise paramount to the in- to the last twenty-five years, and, by this terest of a whole Empire ? What can so retrospect, fortify our minds and stimufar infatuate the minds of the enemies of late or desires to a fresh combat? Will peace? Is it the genuine love they bear the millions of money expended, the into Louis, or the real hatred they fec! to calculable number of lives lost, the inNapoleon ? Are these causes sufficient creased paupers throughout every city, why the blood of England should again town, village, or hamlet; will these excite flow in torrents? Is the war faction so with ardour the mind to reacwed acts of sure of success as to leave no fearful doubts desolating slaughter ? Will the moral of accomplishing their wishes? Is Bona sense be improved, and the best feelings of parte a novice in the art of war, or so humanity advanced? Will our character feeble a politician as to be unable to guide as a nation professing christianity exemthe immense power which 25 millions of plify the charities of that religion we boast? people have placed in his hands ? Because Judging from past conduct, we seem to of liis former momentary humiliation, a imagine war a necessary good, rather than humiliation ascribed to one rash enter the greatest evil that can afflict a nation. prise, are we to calculate on a repetition Are we desirous for the revisitation of the of such fortuitous events ? Experience, Income Tax, the loss of commerce, and the the best instructor, will correct his impe- depression of public spirit ? Such consetuous judgment, and influence him to more quences are inseparable with a state of caution. His situation at this moment, is warfare.--If the contest oncc begins, who far different to that in which he stood can say where it will end? We may flatafter his return from Russia. Not less ter ourselves it will be of short duration. than 200,000 soldiers, prisoners from va- - This delusive hope existed in the comrious nations, have returned to France. mencement of the former war; yet it conNearly the whole, it may fairly be pre- tinurd for a quarter of a century. Is sumed, will gladly rejoin their old idolized England now in equal condition to sopCaptai. He has also possession of all the ply the Allies with money. The wealth well fortified places throughout the Empire. of England must flow, otherwise the comThe wonderful enterprize, from Elba to bat will be of short continuance. But why Paris, without the slightest opposition, should England provide for the expences must inspire a military ardour through of other nations? Has she a deeper inevery rank in the army, and diffuse a mar- terest at stake then they have? Or does tial glory over the whole nation. If any she entertain a greater hate to the power act can give a just title to a crown, it must of France ? Is not our former useless be the voice of the people. This voice has prodigality, by which our national debt is been plainly manifested throughout all so enormously increased, sufficient to France.-Never was there a more unequi- check further subsidies ? Are our public vocal proof exhibited to the world. The expences never to be economized? Or unanimity of the French people, is the must we run the desperate hazard of unibest pledge of Buonaparte's strength, and versal ruin, which, in my humble opinion, ultimate success. The same principle may be awfully demonstrated in the prethat gave to the House of Brunswick the secution of another war with France ? throne of England, justifies Napoleon's

I am, &c. claim to the throne of France. The So

MERCATOR. vereign will of the people is the only fountain of legitimate authority. If this right Birmingham, 12th April.

Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communicationg addressed to

the Editor, are requested to be forwardcd.

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