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TITLE VI.-RIGHITS OF CITIZENS.
(511 provisions for life before the 1st of Janu- the petition. They are publicly reall;
and if the Chambers take them into consi52. The institution of juries is main-deration, they are laid before the Emperor tained.
by the President. 53. The discussions on criminal trials 66. No fortress, no portion of territory', shall be public.
can be declared in a state of siege, but in 54. Military offences alonc shall be case of invasion by a foreign force, or of tried by military tribunals.
civil broils. In the former case the decla55. All other offences, even those com- ration is made by an act of the Governmitted by military men, are within the ju- ment. In the latter it can only be done by risdiction of civil tribunals.
the law. Ilowerer, should the two Chani56. All the crimes and offences which bers not then be sitting, the act of the Gowere appropriated for trial to the high verment, declaring the state of siege, must Imperial Court, and of which this act does / be converted into a plan of law within a not reserve the trial to the Chamber of fortnight after the meeting of the ChamPeers, shall be brought before the ordi- bers. Lary tribunals.
67. The French People moreover dewe 57. The Emperor has the right of par-clare, that in the delegation wbich it has don, even in correctional cases, and of made and makes of its powers, it has not granting amnesties.
meant, and does not mean to give a right 58. Interpretations of laws demanded to propose the reinstatement of the Bourby the Court of Cassation shall be given bons, or any Prince of that family on the in the form of a law.
throue, even in case of the extinction of
the Imperial dynasty; nor the right of re59 Frenchmen are equal in the eye of establishing either the ancient feudal nobithe law, whether for contribution to taxes lity, or the feudal and seignorial rights, of and public burthens, or for admission to tithes, or any privileged or predominant civil and military employments.
religion; nor the power to alter the irre. 60. No one, under any pretext, can be vocability of the sale of the national dos withdrawn from the judges assigned to mains; it formally interdicts to the Gohim by law.
vernment, the Chambers, and the Citizens, 61. No one can be prosecuted, arrested, all propositions on that subject. detained, or exiled, but in cases provided Given at Paris, April 22, 1815. for by law, and according to the prescribed
By the Emperor, 62. Liberty of worship is guaranteed to The Minister Secretary of State, all.
(Signed) The Duke of Bassano. 63. All property possessed or acquired in virtue of the law's, and all debts of the Then follows a decree regulating the state, are inviolable.
proportion of representatives for each de64. Every citizen has a right to print partment, who are in all to be 605. and publish his thoughts, on signing them,
Another decree appoints 23 Deputies to without any previous censorship, liable at i be nominated for all the arrondissements, the same time, after publication, to legal from among merchants, ship owners, bankresponsibility by trial by jury, even where ers, and manufacturers. They shall be there is ground only for the application chosen by the electoral colleges, out of of a constitutional penalty.
lists presented by every department. 65. The right of petitioning is secured Then follows a decree for opening fcto all the citizens. Every petition is indi- gisters in which the votes on the constitu. vidual. Petitions may be addressed either tion are to be inscribed. They are to be to Government or to the two Chambers ; open ten days. The act of the constitunevertheless, even the latter must also be tion is also to be sent to the army and entitled “To the Emperor." They shall navy. The assembly of the field of May, be presented to the Chambers under the for examining the votes, &c. is appointed guarantee of a member who recommends for the 26th May.
Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communications addressed to
the Editor, are requested to be forwarded,
Vol. XXVII. No. 18.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 6, 1815.
soon as he is strong, and that, therefore, PEOPLE OF NOTTINGHAM, we ought to fall upon him and destroy
him while he is weak. On the Motives and Prospects of the War.
Whether he be weak is a question on . Amongst those towns of England which which I will speak hereafter. At present have shewn the best spirit, for many years let us inquire into the solidity of this opipast, as to political matters, Nottinghan nion, that we cannot trust Napoleon, stands at least as forward as any, and, grounded as this opinion is on the assertherefore, I address to you the observa- tion, that he is a notorious breuker of tions, which, at this critical period, I think treaties. it my duty to publish, on the Motives and Suppose this latter assertion to be true, Prospects of that War, which, perhaps, is that a ground of war? When would will be begun before this paper reaches the wars cease, and with whom could we ever press.
have treaties, if we were to act on such a The last war, which added 600 millions rule? Did not Russia make a treaty with to the National Debt, and which produced Napoleon at Tilsit, in which the former so many and such great calamities, cala- stipulated to adopt the Continental Sysmities not transient but durable; that war tem, and in which she acknowledged Johad for its pretexts, Ist, that the French seph-King of Spain? And was it not the had issued a Decree inviting all nations to breach of this treaty, which led Napoleon rise against their governments, and 2nd, into Russia? Did we not see Bavaria, Aus that they had opened the Navigation of stria, and Prussia, all bound to Napoleon the River Scheldt in Flanders. The futi- by treaty in a war against Russia; and did lity of these pretexts have been a thousand they not all of them actually desert him in times demonstrated. The real grounds of the field and join his enemies? And, you that war are now well known; but, at will bear in mind, too, that he had repeatany rate, there is no such pretext for the edly had the Sovereigns of these three present intended, or, 'threatened, war. countries at his feet, and had replaced The war-faction are now compelled to ac- them upon their thrones.
What impuknowledge, that France is confined within dence, then, is it in the war-faction to call her ancient limits; that Napoleon has de- him a treaty-breaker, and to say, that we clared his adherence to the Treaty of Pa- cannot trust him! How we have kept our ris, dictated by us and our allies; that he treaties I shall not attempt to shew; nor, has made overtures to all the Powers to indeed, is it necessary. It is well known, preserve peace; that he has most explicit- that all those Powers, whom we now call ly pledged himself to the French people our high allies, and on whose valour and that he will enter on no war of aggression; fidelity we place so much reliance, have that he has, in complaisance to us, aboo been our allies before; that they have quit." Jished the Slave Trade, which we could ted our alliance and joined France against not prevail on Louis to do; that he has us; that they have, in short, within the agreed to the formation of a constitution last 22 years, all been twice fighting with which will necessarily tend to promote the France against us, and more than twice peace and happiness of France. All this fighting with us against France. These the war-faction acknowledge; none of this facts being notorious, what assurance must can they deny. What, then, is their pre- those persons have, who would persuade text for going to war? What do they tell us, that we never can have peace with Na-, you, that they wish to see Europe once poleon; and that we ought to make war more bleeding for? Why, they say, that with him till he be destroyed, because he they cannot trust Napoleon; that he never is a man, who does not keep treaties! has kept any treaty; that he will keep no What, then, are the real Motives of the treaty now; that he will sally forth as expected war? This is a matter of vast im-
portance. It is of the greatest conse-, keep on shedding human blood, lest peace quence that the people of such a place as should enable the English to go abroad in Nottingham, or Coventry, or any other search of cheap living? fine town of England, abounding in good But, how comes this migration to have sense, should clearly understand this ques- taken place now, more than in former tion at the very out-set of the war; be- times? You will bear in mind, my friends cause, if they do not carry this knowledge of Nottingham, that we did formerly live along with them through the war, the ef- in peace with France for many years tofects of the war will not, in all likelihood, gether; that we had treaties of friendship lead, at last, to a. just and beneficial and of commerce with France; and that result.
nobody used to be alarmed at the effects Vi hat, then, are the real Motives of the of any migration from England to France. expected war? I am not in acquaintance How comes it, then, that France is now with the Ministers; I know nobody who become so inviting to English people ? is. But, I hear many of the war-faction What is the cause of so many thousands talk; and, with them, at least, the follow-flocking thither to live in preference to ing are the real Motives for going to war: their own country? You will bear in
They say, that the country is come to mind, my friends of Nottingham, that bethat pass, that it cannot now live in peace fore the peace, we were told of nothing with its present system in existence. They but the miscries which Napoleon had insay, that the last twelve months were far flicted upon France. We were to!d, that more distressing than any foregoing twelve he had drained the people of their all; months of war; that commerce was less that he had ruined the arts, manufactures, productive; that trades of all sorts were commerce, and agriculture; that he had worse; that houses and land became less taken away all the able men, and left the valuable ; that manufactures throve less; land to be ploughed and sowed by old that jouspeymen and labourers were star- men, women, and children. And yet, the ving, who, before, were doing passably moment the passage to France is free, well.—They say, that more than 40,000 thousands upon thousands of English peofamilies, living upon their incomes, had ple flock thither to live, while not a single migrated to various parts of the Continent, French family came to live on their means and especially to France; that these fami- in England. What, then, is the real fact? lies draw out of England 15 or 20 millions Why do so many go to live upon their sterling a year; that the rents of lands and fortunes in France? I will, in as few the dividends from the Stocks were, in a words as I can, explain this mystery. great degree, spent in France instead of The motive for going to live in France, England, because in the former country is that people can live cheaper there. For one pound would go as far as three pounds instance, Mr. Bull has an income from in the latter country; that thus there was the Stocks, or from his farms, which he less demand for labourers, for corn, for lets, of 500 pounds a year. With this, if cattle, for household goods, for all arti. Mr. Bull lives in the country, he may, if cles of dress, for carriages, than there was Mrs. Bull manages well, keep one maidin time of war; that thus tradesmen, far- servant, and drink a pint of wine a day; mers, and manufacturers lost their cus-, without being able, however, to lay by a tomers, and that labourers and journey. single shilling for his three or four chil. men lost their employment. They say, dren. If Mr. Ball, or, rather Mrs. Bull, that houses fit for persons of fortune be- chooses to live in town, he must put up came worth little or nothing; and, that, with part of a house; he must black his near London, in particular, thousands of own shoes, and Mrs. Bull must cook her houses became tenantless on account of own mutton chop. Thus situated Mre the peace, to the ruin of builders, and the Bull reads in the newspaper that a bottle starvation of journeymen.
of wine in France costs six-pence, a turNow, I believe all this to be true; but, key half a crown, a house and garden ten how, then, are we to go to war in order pounds a year, and so on.
-Look here, to make England as cheap a country as my dear,” says he to Mrs. Bull, “Why, France ? Or, are we always to have war we could live much more comfortably in to prevent these migrations to France?“ France. We could keep a maid and Are we never to have peace; are we to 66 footman in France." Aye,” says
Mrs. Bull, “and a carridge too, my, England. You see clearly why it is that 66 dear.”
“ Yes,” replies he, “and lay people migrate to France; and, as this by something too for the little Bulls. migration cannot take place in time of war, And, besides, we shall have no poor- this is one of the reasons why the war-fac
rates or tythes to pay.” They soon gettion are so eager to push the country on rid of their odds and ends ; off they go to into that state, without any consideration France, leaving behind them an order to as to the consequence which that war may Send them their income, and also leaving produce. behind them their share of the poor-rates But, they have other reasons, one of and other taxes to be paid by those who which is of the same sort. They say, that remain, and leaving their maid-servant, France presents an enticing field for Matheir taylor, shoe-maker, bricklayer, car- nufactures. They have seen how manu. penter, butcher, baker, &c. to find, where factories have risen up in America. They they can, other customers to supply their have seen, that, in a very few years, the place.
cotton and woollen manufactories of Ame. I am sure you all clearly understand rica have so rapidly increased as almost to this. You clearly see the reason for peo- shut out those of England. They know ple migrating to France; you see how this that this great change in the commercial migration throws others out of work, and affairs of the world has arisen from the how it lessens the number of persons who migration of English manufacturers to pay the taxes, and you see, that they America. They know, that as much food would not migrate to France, if the means can be bought in France for a shilling as of living were not cheaper in France than in England for two or three shillings; ans!, in England. But, as I am not so sure, they say, that France being so near, it that you clearly perceive the cause of these will be impossible, in time of peace, to low prices in France compared with the prevent manufacturers and machine-makers prices in England, I will explain that from going to France. They say, that cause to you as briefly as I am able. thus France, instead of England, will sup
All the necessaries of life are dearer in ply the rest of Europe with what are now England than in France, because the Taxes called English manufactures. They say, are heavier in England than they are in that hundreds of manufacturers and artiFrance. For instance, suppose the go-zans went over in the last year, even under vernment to take six-pence tax upon every the Bourbons, and that now, when they pair of stockings, the maker must sell them are sure to enjoy complete religious lic six-pence a pair dearer than he did before. berty, without any predominant church, We pay twenty shillings a bushel for salt; the migration would be by thousands. but, if there were no tax upon salt, we Therefore, they wish for war, seeing that, should not pay above three or four shil. during a war, no migration can take place. lings a bushel. TH tax is, I believe, 16s. They know, that there are laws to prevent a bushel, and then there is the charge of artizans and manufacturers from migrating the maker for the interest of the money to any country; but, they also know, that advanced in the amount of the tax. For it is next to impossible to enforce those ale you pay at Nottingham, I suppose, 6d. laws. They know that such laws only a quart, Winchester measure. Malt, make the desire to migrate the more keen. which now sells for 10s. a bushel, pays They know, in short, that such laws are 4s.6d. a bushel in tax. To this must be not more efficient than would be a law or added the tax paid by the brewer on the proclamation to prevent birds from flying Ale. To this also must be added the innu- from one grove to another; and that now mérable taxes paid by the farmer out of the thing but a complete and forcible obstrucprice of his Barley. If you put all these tion will answer the purpose. together, you will see what it is that makes Another motive with the war-faction, your Ale cost 6d. a quart. If one coun- and, perhaps, the most powerful of all, is, try pays upon every article twice as much to prevent the people of England from in taxes as another country, it is very evi- witnessing the effects of a free government dent that living in the former must cost in France. In France Napoleon has twice as much as it costs in the latter. agreed that the people shall be really re
Now, then, you see clearly why things presented in the Legislature; that no tax are cheaper in France than they are in shall be imposed without the people's free
consent. In France there are no tythes., be reduced, in such a degree as to bring In France there is no predominant Church. English prices and French prices nearer The war-faction fear the effect of this at any rate, to a level. And, if they were example. They say, that this state of to enter upon this inquiry, they would things has arisen out of a Democratic Re- soon discover, that so desirable an end is volution. They say, that for the people not to be advanced by war. It is, in fact, of England to have this continually be- by war that our prices have been raised to fore their eyes is very dangerous. They such a height as to induce people to me
' say, as the newspapers said, in the case grate: and, yet, strange infatuation! they of America, we ought to go to war; we would cure the evil by more war! ought to keep on war; we ought to have For twenty-two years previous to the no peace; we ought to send Lord Wel- late wars against France, the average price lington and all our army to fight and of the quartern loaf in Eugland was fireburn and destroy in America, until Mr. pence. During the twenty-two years from MADISON be deposed; until this 6 mis. the commencement of that war to this time, 6 chievous example of the success of de- the average price of the quartern loaf in 66 mocratical rebellion be annihilated.”
.” England has been a little more than elevetUntil this was done, they said, that the pence. This has been occasioned by the world could have no real peace. Until augmentation of the taxes. The whole of this was done, they said, that no regular the taxes, upon an average of years, for government was safe. Until this was twenty-two years before those wars, to done, they said, that the English govern- mounted to less than twenty millions a ment would remain in jeopardy every year.
Since those wars began, they have, hour.
upon an average, amounted to more than This faction are dreadfully alarmed at forty millions a year. Thus, you see, that the description which travellers give as of high prices arise from taxation, that taxathe happy state of France. While the war tion arises out of war; and, yet, in order stated, the people gland were kept to prevent ts from migrating to France in
mani wholly in the dark as to this matter. You searal of low prices, this faction woul! will bear in mind, my friends of Notting. have more war, whereby more taxes will ham, what the war-faction told us upon, be imposed and still higher prices occae this head. "They told us, that all was sioned. misery in France; that the people were in But, not only has war made high prices the last stage of wretchedness; that they up to this time: it will continue to make were become very poor in consequence prices high in England for ages to come ; of the taxes imposed by Napoleon; that because, besides the taxes which have there was no able men left to till the land; been raised and expended on account of that the people hated Napoleon, and only war, there have been loans made to the sought an opportunity to cast off his yoke';, amount of 600 millions, the bare interest that, in short, the country was become a of which does, I believe, exceed the whole wilderness. Strange transition! They amount of all the taxes collected in France, now want war to prevent the people of upon almost three times the number of England from migrating to that wilder people. In short, such has been the efness! They now want war to prevent us fect of the late-wars with us, that our from seeking happiness in climes of such peace, taxes were to have been sixty mil. misery! They want war to prevent Eng- lions a year, whereas our peace taxes, be lishmen from being captivated with the fore the war against France, were sixteen effects of tyranny!
millions a year. And yet this faction From what has been said, it is clear, I would make us believe, that, to render us think, that the alarms of the war-faction happy and safe at home, it is necessary to arise, in a great degree, from the known have more war! cheapness of living in France compared If, unhappily, we are now to begin war with the price of living in England. It is again, the taxes must be not only as great, also, I think, clear, that the comparative but much greater, than they have been behigh prices in England arise from our fore; because, though the expenditure heavy taxes. The way, then, for rational should not begreater on account of the war, men to go to work to prevent further mi. loans must still be made, and taxes must be gration, is, to inquire how our taxes may raised to pay the interest of them. The