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newspapers, stating, that there was a SE-, much more able to defend herself than she CRET ARTICLE in the TREATY of PA- was in 1793, a proof of which she ha's RIS, stipulating, that none of the parties, given in her recent war against the undiRussia, Prussia, Austria, and France, vided force of England. On the other sha interfere in our war against Ame- hand, it is contended, that, though Ame. rica. This news was given as copied from rica be so much more powerful than she the Vienna Gazette. The Vienna Gazette was in 1793, England, loaded as she is is under the immediate controul of the go- with debts and taxes, is more formidable vernment there. The Americans paid than she would have been in 1793, eren great and deserved attention to this; and, if she had theu subdued France; for, taust they not have lamented to see France though the people of England suffer, the reduced to such a state? They afterwards government has more force at its command; saw, that there was no safety for their and, what is more for its advantage, the ships of war or their prizes in the ports of country is brought into that sort of state France. They saw, in short, that the which makes wur almost necessary. If Bourbons, holding their power almost at her paupers lave increased three-fold, the mercy of England, afforded not the her armed men and her means of destrucsmallest hope of any support against so tion have increased five-fold. She is beformidable a power as England. Then it come a nation of fighters. She possesses was, that many Americans blamed Mr. all the means of destroying. And, say Madison, not for resisting the exercise of these reasoners, it is not only subjugation dur alledged right of impressment; but, against which America ought to guard : on the contrary, for not having sooner it is her duty to guard herself ařso against made war against us in alliance with devastation and plunder. Besides, say France. They told him, that he was, at they, England has now less powerful moläst, in a state to be able to appreciate the tives to the exercise of forbearance towards. wisdom of keeping aloof from France on America. While the latter was without account of the title of her ruler. They manufactures; while England had almost laughed at him for his scraples to make a monopoly in the supplying of America ; common cause with an Emperor, while he the former saw in the prosperity of the saw England having allies in the Turk, latter the means of augmenting her own the Pope, the Algerines, and the Indians; riches and power. But now the case is and they laughed at him the more, when different; England sees in America even they recollected, that America had won a manufacturing rival; and, what is still her independence while in an alliance more provoking, she sees in America a offensive and defensive with a Bourbon rival in naval power and renown. Therc. King of France.

fore, say they, she must and she will deHowever, many of the causes which sire our destruction; whether she will atkept America aloof from France are now tempt it again will depend upon her and removed. The principles of 1793 are our means of attack and resistance. again adopted in France; the system of It must be confessed, that our infamous reforming by means of conquest is aban. newspapers have given but too mucla doned; Napoleon will have learnt how to reason to the Americans upon this head. respect the rights and to value the cha- For, they have published "lists of the racter of America. Experience has taught American navy and accounts of the Amethe Americans what they have to expect rican shipping and manufactures ; ; and, under certain circumstances. The latter having dwelt upon their magnitude and on are in no danger from France; they never their rapid increase, they have called upon can be in danger from France; and, your Lordship and your colleagues to proFrenchtown and Alexandria will remind secute the war for the purpose of destroying them what danger they are in from Eng. these evidences of rising power and wealth. land:

They have contended, that it was just to It is said, by some persons in America, carry on war against America to destroy that, though it might have been wise to her navy; to destroy her shipping and seck permanent security in 1793, by en- manufactures ; and to obtain, at least, a tering into the war on the side of the Re- stipulation from her, not to build ships of public of France, it would not be wise war beyond a certain number and a certain 'nox, seeing that America has become so l. sáže. They have contended that such a


war would be just ; that we should have has expressed her anxious desire to live at a. right to impose such conditions ; and peace with you : and yet, you have

gorie that our safety demanded that we should. to war against France: if, therefore, it

If I am told, that these are the sayings be base on my part to make war upon of a set of foolish writers in newspapers, you, after you have begun war upon my answer is, that I have seldom seeu any France, where is your justification for of these people promulgate any political having begun that war ?" Besides, have opinion without its being, in the sequel, you no ally. You boast of having all very clear to me, that it was not in their Europe on your side. And shall France -owu foolish heads that the sentiment had have no ally? Shall you have twenty been, hatched. These men are, in fact, allies against the old ally of America, and nothing of themselves ; they have no shall it be deemed base in America to beprinciples, no opinions; they care nothing come the only ally of France? You say, about the matter. They are the mere that yours is a-war of precaution : so is tools of those who speak through them, mine. You fear that Napoteon may, one whom they got unfrequently despise, but day or other, get to London ; and you from whom, and through the means of hieve been at Washington, at Frenchtown "whom, they live comfortably and some and at Alexandria. times get rich.

It is a favourite saying, or it used to be, Upon the whole, therefore, my Lord, it in America, that it was her true policy to is not to be apprehended, that, if we make keep uloof from European politics and war upon France for the avowed pur-wur's. General Washington several times pose of deposing Napoleon, the people of expressed this sentiment. But can she do America will feel a strong disposition to it? If General Washington had seen the take part with France in that war? And, Cang/ess House in flames, the other day, if they were so to do, have we not great and had seen our people so busy in packcause to fear, that the war would be ex- ing up goods at Alexandria, he would, I tremely injurious to us by sea as well as imagine, have begun to think, that it was by land ?

The American privateers, not so easy a matter to keep aloof from though without a port to take shelter in European wars; and, if he had lived to on this side of the Atlantic, did great mis. be made acquainted with the famous Capchief to our commerce even in the Channel. tain IIENRY’s exploits, I think he would What, then, would they do if all the ports have had his doubts as to the possibility of France were open to them and shut of keeping aloof from European politics. against us? If, in short, America were in Even we, in England, say, that Americas alliance with France, what English ship shoulil k ep at peace, though we ourselves unarmed could hope to escape capture? are always at war in some part or other And, is it to be hoped, that, in such a of the world; though there is no war, in case, the skill, the discipline, and un, which we have not a kand. The truth is, daunted bravery of the American navy that America must take a part in the wars would not be communicated to that of and politics of Lurope. Here are powers I'rance ? Emulation might do a great in Europe who can reach her, who have deal towards sending forti fleets able, in colonies in her neighbourhood, who have a short time, to cope with those of Eng- an interest, or think they have an interest, land. Really, if we wish to keep these in injuring her. They combine and cotwo nations asunder, it appears to me, that operate with one another; and she must we have no way of accomplishing the wish form alliances too; or, she cannot be but that of keeping at peace.

many years an independent nation If America were to join France in the It was impudently asserted, not long war, we should, doubtless, tell her, that ago, that America had acted a

foul part she was acting a very base part; that she towards us, in the war; and she was had received from us no provocation ; that called un ássussin, who had attacked us ave had not meddled with her; that we in the dark. I was pleased to hear, from had expressed our anxious desire to live such a quarter, a sentiment of abhorrence at peace with her. But, my Lord, might against assassins ; but, I was displeased to she bot answer?very true; and you hear such an act attributed to America ; -Biave received no provocation from France; because no charge was ever more false. It France has uot meddled with you; France) is notorious, that America used every

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effort, and made every sacrifice short of a She was to stop till our war with him was surrender of her independence, to main. al an end, before she sought to defend her. tain peace with England ; and, that, so self.. It was baseness in her to assert her far from attacking us in the dark, she own rights, at the end of many years of gave us notice, for years before-hand, that complaints, because we were at war with she would repel by force our seizure of her Napoleon. seamen, unless we ceased that practice. This insolent language, my Lord, is What, then, could be meant by this charge little calculated to heal the wounds of of assassin-like conduct ? Really, we America. She will, in spite of all we seem to have taken into our heads, like can say, reflect on her past danger, and the cock on the dunghill, that all the she must have lost her usual wisdom in scorld wus made for us ; that no nation profiting from experience, if she does not is to form an alliance, nor eve. to think of now seek the means of security betimes. defending itself by its own arms, if we That, with all her natural reluctance to war, disapprove of it. When our interest, real she will be disposed to do this I am ceror imaginary, is in question, the interest |tain ; and, it will, I imagine, require but of no other nation is to be thought of a slight provocation to induce her to act The question with America, according to npon that disposition. It has been anthis presumptuous whim, was to be, not nounced to us, that Switzerland has been whether she suffered injury ; but merely informed, that there are to be no neutrals wbether it was conducive to our interest in this war against Napoleon. Hamburgh, to impress her sailors. If it was useful to Tuscany, Genoa, and several other states us to do this, she was to do serve annihila- | felt the effects of such a principle during tion if she did not quietly submit to it, the first war against Republican France. and to all its cruel and degrading conse- Denmark felt those effects during the last quences.

America will consider of, and judge We proceed upon the same notion with from the past ; and, your Lordship may be regard to alliances amongst foreign powers. assu

ssured, that she will not want the means What ! América make alliances with any of doing what her permanent safety shall power but us !

Dreadful presumption ! manifestly demand. Presumption which merits all the weiglit I have thus, my Lord, stated to you what' of our vengeance! What! America scek I think will be the view that the people of safety, when we think it best to keep her America will take of the present scene; in continual danger! America make an what I think will be their feelings; and I alliance for the purpose of defending her have pointed out the consequences, which self against us, whose public writers, at I apprehend from those feeliugs, if we enter Jeast, devoted her chief magistrate to the upon the war against France on the ground gibbet, and herself to a return under the which is at present set forth. The Ameinild protection of the PARENT state!” ricans, I repeat, are prone to prace, as Nor are there wanting writers in America every uncorrupted nation is; but as it was to hold the same language; but they are said, the other evening, that it was better met by men, who are able to contend to go to war now with a strong alliance on agaiost them. There the press is free, our side, than be compelled to go to war really free; and, there truth will prevail. at the end of an exhausting armed peace ,

A good specimen of this insolent way of without allies ; this was deemed talking was given by Sir John Cox llip triumphant reasoning, in England, in be.

who at a late county-meeting in half of offensive war, you must not be surSomersetshire, said, that the Americans, or prised if it be imitated, in America, in be. at least, their President and the majority half of a war of defence. of the Congress, were the slaves of the


am, &c., &c., láte tyrant of France, a proof of which

WM. COBBETT. they had given in their late war against us. Botley, May 6, 1815. So, because America, in defence of herself, went to war with us, while we were at

LEGITIMATE SOVEREIGNTY. war against Napoleon, she was to be deemed the slave of Napoleon, who had Mr. COBBETT.--- Is not the present pre. 110 power to hurt her, and who had never parations for war against France, for the called on her to go to war in his behalf, purpose of ousting from the throne of 2


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people's confidence and affection, a man the darling object of their care and protecwho, of all potentates that ever lived, has tion : a throne like that which exalts and perhaps the best title to that distinguished adorns the person of Napoleon, is indeed situation, truly abominable? The nine- truly enviable; it stands alone in sterling teenth century will be for ever disgraced value; it is a precious unique in these enin the page of history for affording au staving and enslaved times; it is the throne example of a race of men that could have of a free nation emanating from the sovebeen so criminally abject as to recommend reignty of the people, and intrusted to the so iniquitous, so servi!e a piece of treason revered and beloved Napoleon as the against the social rights of man. The faithful guardian of civic rights, as the monstrous injustice of such execrable tried and approved repository of the inpractice sickens every sense of virtue, and estimable charge. What will the French renders life itself almost insufferable. The profit by this Imperial Constitution of natural feelings of the human mind, un- National liberty? Why, instead of being influenced by the immorality, public and governed by schemes of ancient but exeprivate, that has been engendered by the crated vassalage, it will be ruled by the profligacy of the age, must revolt at the indefeasible axioms of the rights of man; spoliating proceedings of modern times. the legislative authority will originate Individual robbery is visited by the penal from the majority of the nation, where infliction of the law ; but an authority alone it legitimately exists. No unequal setting itself above all law, will despoil privileges can be claimed; the rights of whole nations, will dissolve all ties and the individual are those of the multitude; obligations on which the moral and social no distinction can arise in the administra

character of man essentially depends, and tion of the laws; the Emperor is the first iş not held amenable to any tribunal; nay, servant or magistrate of the people, and is even applauded by the corrupt tools of holds that high oflice no longer than he licentious power as having conducted itself shall faithfully fulfil its inseparable duties. magnanimously! It would be easy to This is a scheme novel it must be owned, prove that no individual living can assume in these degenerate times. America only to himself, in his own right, as all despots furnishes its counter-part. England has avowedly do, the sovereign power. This some pretension to its general principle in authority is inberent in the people that the provisions of Magna Charta, but the may be incorporated into a nation, and machinations, abuses, and sophistications çqually emanates from every ipdividual in incident to all social institutions have, that social assemblage. For the benefit through lapse of time, approximated its of the whole, the aggregate of this indi- present government too much to the previdual power may be conferred on any vailing systems of Europe, (in which the person that may be the object of prefe- sovereignty of the people is ridiculed Tence, to carry the high authority thus rather than acknowledged and revered) to confided into effect for the advantage of admit of being any longer likened to the the nation. The person exercising this sage and enlightened views of legislation, sovereign power is a sovereign legitimately recognised and adopted in the French and delegated, and may act' as such with all American schemes of government. Napothe consideration that may be due to the leon, the author of this enviable ameliora. people whose_sutirages he represents. tion in the French government, and MaWhere, but in France, and America are to dison, his American co-partner in politi. be found heads of governments of this cal wisdom, have been objects of u. rightful stamp and authority? The French ceașing aspersions and vilifications. They people in the ardor and gratitude of their have been severally denounced and melove and attachment to Bonaparte have naced with utter destruction. After the conferred on him 'an imperial throne: a one was overthrown, by the influence of throne the first in intrinsic worth on the plots and treasons, the other was held to face of the globe, and one, which a gene- stand in the way of “ social order, and rous and high minded nation of thirty“ the blessed comforts of religion," and millions of people, it may be fairly hoped, even the British government was called on will cause to be duly respected. Athrone, to wield her power against the pestiferous that may be truly regarded as the edifice evils of American liberty. The warlike Of the people's own creation, must be preparations that are at prescnt making, have most evidently for their object the list for decayed literary hacks. They tell destruction of French liberty, overwhelm- the world, that they do not publish the ing as that liberty must be, under the able names of the parties who receive charity. direction of Bonaparte, to countries pining They are very wise in this, for the public and sinking under the pitiless scourge of would soon see what the real object of the what is considered as here.litary and legi- Fund was, if they could see the names of timate slavery. French liberty has a the persons relieved. In short, this, like quality in it, with reference to surronnding almost every other Charity," as they nations eminently contiguous; its influence are called, is neither more nor less than must spread. Like the electric fluid, it an adjunct of the government, or, rather will diffuse itself. Some nations, incieed, I of the System. What Jacobin, or Jacoto continue the electric simile, may be more bin's wife (unless she first betrayed her ready conductors of it than others, accord- liusband) was ever relieved by any of these ing to natural and acquired capabilities; societies? They are kept up for the purbut none can permanently continue in a pose of keeping the needy in good humour, state of non-conductors of the sacred or of rewarding faithful decayed slaves. principle.

JUSTITIA. Here the man who has paid a' fortune in

taxes often comes, cap in hand, and re

ceives back the means of getting a dinner, · LITERARY FUND AND WASHING. It is curious to observe, that the AristoTON BENEVOLENT SOCIETY. cratic faction in America have resorted to

a trick of this sort. They set up, some I have observed, that, year after year, few years ago, a society, which they this institution becomes more like a com- called the “ll'ashington Benevolent So. mon charily concern. A parcel of Lords, ciety,” which, it appears, has branched and other men of purse, take the chair, out all over the country. The object of and take the lead. This last meeting was, this trick was to collect little groupes of I sec, presided over by the Duke of Kent, the most needy and mean-spirited part of in the same way as the Lancaster school the people, and, by the means of dona. meetings, and other meetings for the as-. tions in money, clothes, books, or medi. sistance of the poor and miserable. The cal aid, to attach them to the aspiring consequence of this must be, that the poor rich, and thus to found a sort of affiliation devil's politics will serve as the measure of against the Republican government. The the bounty he is to receive. The original name of Washington was taken for the desigo of this fund must be totally over- purpose of deception, and as a party-word, looked. That design, I believe, was to opposed to the name of Jefferson or Maprevent authors from selling their pens ; dison, who were thus to be held up as having whereas now, I should suppose, the prin- deyiated from the principles of the cipal design to be to purchase the pens of whom American gratitude has given what, authors, or to keep alive poor slaves perhaps, American wisdom and justice whose works are well-meant towards would have given largely, but certainly their patrons, but destitute of the talent with a less prodigal hand. Availing themnecessary to make them sell. I observe, selves of this amiable weakness, these that the Founder's” health was drunk, crafty enemies of their country's freedoin but, that the “ Founder,Mr. David have been working up the people here and Willians, was not named.-Mr. David there, by the means of these societies, to Williams wrote some excellent political an opposition to the government. They tracts in support of the principles of free-loll their stated meetings, as our chadom ; he also translated some of the works rities" do. They make speeches, compli: of Voltaire on the subject of religion. rent one another, extol the virtues of Never did he expect that his institution Washington, who, though one of the first would tumble into such hands as have of patriots, never was fool enough to benow got hold of it. The truth is, that the stow his money in the making of paupers. scheme was a very good one. Its object, Shut out of the Legislative Assemblies by apd its tendeucy, was to encourage lite- the people's voice, they harrangue at these rary merit, and to make authors honest meetings, and thus continue to keep themand independent; but it has now mani- selves in wind. Silly as the thing is, howfestly been converted into a sort of poor- ever, in itself, I would have the Amon

man, to


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