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after having understood, during a year, in Irant and too barbarous eren to understand the Island of Elba, as in a tomb, erery | their own interests. On the approach of thing which truth as well as hatred, has the Emperor Napoleon, and his armies, told in Europe, respecting bis first reign marching with animation to songs of and his first life. In fine, my Prince, liberty, Kings may be abandoned by their France has given herself a new Consti- subjects, as the Bourbons have been by tation, which will not be a vain charter. the soldiers on whom they depended with It is no longer possible to use subtilty and such confidence. Every throne will be deceit. The force of things will neces- subverted before kings will learn how to sarily bring order and justice into social goşern ; and how many evils will be the life. -- Our Constitution constitutes two work of Princes, capable by their virtues Chambers. The sittings in both will be of rendering happy the greatest part of public. Thus France and Europe will the world. How much will those Mounderstand every thing which will be said narchs and humanity be indebted to you, on peace and war; and every war, which my Prince, if, by the wisdom of your shall not be one of justice and evident counsels, you can dissuade them from the necessity, shall paralyse with terror the determination, in which they oppose inteman who would kindle it in Europe, al- | rests and passions over which they ought ready bleeding from so many wars. The to have no controul.- I have only to coalesced Powers plume themselves on the renew, with the most lively expresssion, immense number of men which they can to your Highness, the assurances of the collect. But, perhaps they may have highest consideration. calculated erroneonsly -- they may be (Signed) TuE DUKE OF OTRANTO. deceived. If it were true, as they give out, Paris, April 23, 1815. that they have 900,000 men, fit for action, France, who has already 500,000, will
LETTER FROM MR. BIRKBECK. soon have a million. I seck not to exaggerate the exultation which, in a similar
Wanborough, May 4, 1815. war, will fix all the senses, and the enthu.
SIR-The little work which has received siasm with which their souls will be trans. your favourable notice is now going ported: Every man in France will be through a fourth cdition. The appendix kome a soldier; every article of iron will to the first, which I take the liberty of be fabricated into a sabre, a bayonet, or a sending you, was printed separately for musket, "very where, as in 1793, will be the accommodation of the purchasers of established manufactories of salt-petre, of the first, powder, and of cannon.---From the Rhine It is due to you as well as to myself to to the Pyrennees, from the Mediterranean state, that I dont feel myself called upon to the Ocean, the diversions of the pea- by the new position which Napoleon has sants, oi Sundays and holidays, will be assumed, to qualify the terms in which I military exercises ; every commune, every have censured the principles of his former village will be transformed into barracks; government, because I am quite convinced and the entire population of the Empire, that they were hostile to the best interests arrayed as the National Guards, will be of his people, and perfectly inconsistent prepared to live in tents--- Already does with political freedom. France resound with war-songs, in which
I should have lamented as sincerely as the acquirers of national domains, who I now rejoice at his restoration, had he, barbour fears for their property; the like Louis, recovered the throne uninfriends of reason, who have been threat- structed by adversity, or through any ened with the return of superstition; the other means than the consent of the peo. military, whose glory they have wished to ple, conditionally granted. tarnish ; in short, all classes of citizens Infatuated by success, he forgot that he repeat with enthusiasm their ardent ex- owed it to the energies of a nation strugpressions of passions the most dear, and gling for freedom; and, mixing himself the most terrible.--In this war, which will with kings, he became a foe to that liberty be, in fact, a crusade against the inde- from which he derived bis greatness. Ile pendence of a nation, the contagion of the now acknowledges his error, and, if it be principles of the French Revolution, may in good faith, it is an insta içe of magnafind their way amongst people too igno. nimity new to the page of history.
The acts of his government have hitherto the Endymion, which, no one ever doubtcorresponded with these fair professions ; ed, would be published in the Gazette. -and, as a pledge of their sincerity, he has The Gazette appeared; but it contained received into his councils men of sound no particulars from Captain Hope as to principles, and whose integrity he had the actual engagement, or any detail by himself exposed to the severest proof. which it could be ascertained whether he
This consummation of the late glorious fought the President single handed or not, contest, though far more glorious than any or whether that ship surrendered to the which its most sanguine supporters have Endymion or to another vessel belonging · even imagined, is not entirely to the satis- to our squadron. But from other acfaction of the old governments. They counts in the same Gazette, and particu. had rather see Bonaparte at the head of larly from the American official account, his army than surrounded by wise and just it turned out, as I had supposed, that counsellors; and they are right. He is, more than one of our frigates was engaged; in his present attitude, more formidable that the Pomone also had fought with the to the social system,” as exemplified in enemy; that it was to this ship the Presithe late Congress at Vienna, than when he dent actually struck; and that at the was thundering at the gates of that capital. very moment this happened, a ship of the
But why the people should be disturbed line, another frigate, and a sloop of war, , at the view of Napoleon in his present at belonging to us, were fast bearing down titude, I dont understand, unless, indeed, to attack her. It was plain, therefore, their comforts depend on the security of that the President had not surrendered to two or three thrones, and the insecurity of the Endymion, but that she surrendered the rest, according to the principles esta- to a British squadron, consisting of one blished at the said Congress. Yours, &c. sail of the line, three frigates and a sloop Morris BirkBECK. of war! It was also clear, that had the
President and the Endymion fought single
handed, the latter must have fallen into THE ENDYMION AND PRESIDENT
the hands of the former. Where thea FRIGATES.
was the ground for exultation? Where When the news of the capture of the the proof, that the capture of the Pre» Jatter of these vessels reached this coun-sident “ redeemed all the naval glory
try, it was given out by our corrupt press, 6 which this country had lost during the that she had surrendered to the former, previous contest at sea with the Ameriwith whom she had fought single-handed, “ cans?" I see, by files of papers which
and that no other of our ships of war had | I have received from Philadelphia, that : fired, a shot at the President. This was the conductors of newspapers at Bermuda,
trumpeted abroad by the Times and the had imitated the example of our vile press, Courier, 'and never to this -hour has any and had, like them, endea roured to deof these venal prints retracted the asser- tract from the character of Commodore 'tion. On the contrary, they repeated it, Decatur, by representing that he had suragain and again, and gravely assured their rendered the President to a single British readers, that the result of the conflict frigate. To expose the fallacy of this betwixt the President and the Endymion, statement, the American Commodore adhad redeemed all the haval glory which dressed a letter to the Secretary of the this country had lost during the previous Navy, an extract of which I have given contest at sea with the Americans! I was below. This letter puts it beyond all satisfied, on the first blush of the trans- question, that the President was consideraction, that the President had been en. ed, even by the commander of our own gaged with
* more of our frigates than one, fleet, as a capture by the squadron, and and, instead of the enemy losing any of not by a single ship. It proves that the * the renown'he had acquired, that this Endymion had on board, in addition to her battle, when the particulars came fully to usual complement, 50 men, one lieutenant, be known, would increase the splendour and one masters' mate, which shews that of his achievements. I said to those with the crew of the Endymion, the chief rewhom I conversed on the subject, that liance of every vessel of war, was more was willing to abide by the account of numerous than that of her rival. It also the battle, as given by Captain Hope of proves that the Endymion was completely
disabled in this action, and would, it is, and fatigues. Natives of different states more than p:obable, have become a prize acting together for the first time in this to the President, had not the rest of our camp; differing in habits and in lansquadron come to her relief.
guage, instead of viewing in these circumWASHINGTON, March 14. stances the germ of distrust and division,
you have made them the source of an Extract of a better from Com. Stephen honourable emulation, and from the seeds
Decatur to the Secretary of the Navy, of discord itself have reaped the fruits dated New York, March 6th, 1815.
of an honourablo union.-- This day comIn my official letter of the 18th pletes the fourth week since fifteen hunJanuary, I omitted to state, that a consi, dred of you attacked treble your number derable number of my killed and wounded of men who boasted of their discipline, was from the fire of the Pomoné; and that and their services under a celebrated the Endymion had on board, in addition leader in a long and eventful war-atto her own crew, one Lieutenant, one tacked them in their camp the moment Master's mate, and 50 men belonging to they had profaned the soil of freedom the Saturn, and when the action ceased, with their hostile trade, and inflicted a was left motionless and unmanagable until blow which was a prelude to the final she bent new sails, rove new rigging and result of their attempt to conquer, fished her spars, nor did she rejoin the their poor contrivances to divide us.. squadron for six hours after the action, A few hours' was suficient to unite the and three hours after the surrender of the gallant band; at the moment they received President. My sword was delivered to the welcome order to march they were seCapt. Hays, of the Majestic, the senior parated many leagues in different direcofficer of the squadroni, on his quarter- tions from the city. The gay rapidity of deck, which he with great politeness imme- the march, the cheerful countenances of diately returned. I have the honor to the officers and men, would have induced enclose you my parole, lvy which you will a belief that some festive entertainment, perceive that the British admit that the not the strife of battle, was the object to President was captured by the squadron. which they hastened with so much eager
should have deemed it necessary to have ness and hilarity. In the conflict that brawn your attention to this document, sued, the same spirit was supported, and had not the fact been stated differently by my communications to the executive of the the Bermuda Gazette on our arrival there, United States, have testified the sense I which statement, however, the editor was entertained of the corps and officers that compelled to retract througia the inter- were engaged. Resting on the field of ference of the governor and some of the battle, they retired in perfect order on the British officers of the squadron."
next morning to these lines, destined to
become the scene of future victories, which After the disastrous retreat of the Bri- they were to share with the rest of you, tish army at New Orleans, General Jack- ny brave companions in arms.---Reacon, the American commander, published soning always from false principles the an animated and spirited Address to his enemy expected little opposition from army. The following passages will shew men whose officers even were not in uni. with what ardour and unanimity the sol- form; who were ignorant of the rules of diers of Liberty will always combat, when dress, and who had never been caned into · their rights and independence are in discipline-Fatal mistake! a fire incesa danger :
santly kept up, directed with calmness and Citizens and Fellow Soldiers,—The with unerring aim, strewed the field with enemy has retreated and your General the brave officers and men of the column has now time to proclaim to the world which slowly advanced, according to the what he has noticed with admiration and most approved rules of European tactics, pridem-your undaunted courage, your and was cut down by the untutored age patriotism, and patience under hardships of American militia.
Printed and Published by G. Houston, No. 192, Strand; where all Communicatious addressed
to the Editor, are reqnested to be forwardede
Vol. XXVII. No. 20.]
LONDON, SATURDAY, MAY 20, 1815. [Price Is.
Hence the pre
[610 TO THE FUND-HOLDERS, You will start and swell here, and ask On the supposed approaching war against trades and professions, pay nothing? Yes,
whether commerce and manufactures, and France.
they do ; but, they pay precisely in proOf all the classes of people in this portion to the prosperity of agriculture. country you appear to me to have been, That is to say, in proportion to the height and still to be, the most misguided, as to, of prices. If the land, out of which all all questions of politics, and especially as the great receive their increase, and all
, to the important question of peace or war.
the farmers and all the labourers receive I will now do my best to enable you to their profits and their wages, yield little, judge correctly upon this subject, as far, little can all these pay to tradesmen and at least, as your interests are more imme- manufacturers, little will be the profits of diately connected with it.
commerce and of professions. When wheat Your great characteristic is anxiety was 20s. a bushel, the lendlord and the for the safety of your property; but, farmer had three times as much money to though self-preservation is the first of na- | lay out as they have now. ture's laws, and though, in general, men sent universal out-cry about the dulness who are alive to little else, are extremely of trade; hene the numerous bankruptalive, and even very skilful, in cases where cies; hence the stagnation of commerce their own interests are at stake, you do and manufactures. not appear to mé to perceive how your Though, therefore, I agreed most corinterests have been, or how they will be, dially with you in your opposition to the effected by war. You entertain a sort of Corn Bill, the grounds of our opposition vague apprehension, that, unless Napo- were very different indeed. I knew, that leon be destroyed, you shall have your a Corn Bill was necessary to enable the property taken away. You look up to land to pay the sum of taxes, demanded the government, that is, in your sense of by the government; but I wished the sun the word, to the Minister for the time be- of tares to be diminished. You wished to ing, as the guardian of your property. have Corn Cheap, aud the sum of taxes Hence you are always found on their side not to be diminished. These two together on the question of war, or peace. If they were impossible. They could not, and say wary, you are for war : if they say they cannot, co-exist. If you are asked, at peace, you are for peace.
any time, what security you have for your On the subject of the Corn Bill, you property, do you not always answer, that were against the Ministers; because that your security is on the land of the nation? was a question, as you thought, involving Do you not say, that the estates of all no danger to your property. But, in fact, the land-owners are mortgaged to you? you were more interested in the passing This is 'a great mistake; for, it is only the of the Corn Bill than any other class of revenues which are mortgaged to you; the community; and, in explaining this but, to obviate all difficulty upon this seeming paradox to you, I shall, in the score, take it for granted that you have easiest way, introduce the remarks which a bona fide mortgage upon all the land in I propose to make with regard to the ef- England. Can it, then, be your interest, fect, which war has upon the quality of that the land should be unable to pay your property, and upon your chances of you your annual demands? The land, security, or insecurity.
upon your own principle is partly yours. What you most desire is, to Lave the Can you, then, be gainers by its produce interest of your stock regularly paid in being depreciated ? A certain farm, for infull, and to prevent any insecurity to your stance, pays a hundred pounds a year tocapital. Your interest is paid almost wards your annual demands. If produce wholly, and, indeed, entirely, by the land. fall so low as to disable this farm from
paying you more than fifty pounds a year, This statement exhibits the fall in the how are you to be paid your dividends in value of the capital; the fall in the value full? Hence, it is clear, that the Corn of any estate in the funds. That which Bill was more for your protection than was worth 95 pounds, in 1792, was for the protection of the farmers, who worth only 77 pounds in 1802, and only really eats and drinks of his own produce. 66 pounds in 1814. But, far is this view Your expences of living would keep pace of the matter short of the real mark; for with the price of the produce of the the currency, in which funds are bouglit land. In the end, the thing might be the and sold has also fallen in as great a prosame; but, if one half of your dividends portion. A guinea is risen to 28 shillings; was deducted, on account of the fall in and, therefore, in real money, a hundred the price of produce, you would soon three per cents, at 06, as they were during discover, that a Corn Bill, or any other the peace of Paris, last year, were worth such measure, was more for your security only 49 pounds; and, at this moment, than for that of the farmer.
they are worth only about 44 pounds. lu But, what is it, which has rendered the year 1792, the currency in which the high prices necessary to your security ? dividends were paid, and in which funds WAR. War, which has augmented the were bought and sold, was equal in' value taxes on the land, and which land, to be to real money. So that, able to pay those taxes, must now have a
Guineas. Shillings. high price for its produce. War, there- 19 1792, you could have sold a fore, has been your great enemy, and not hundred Three per Cents. the landlords and farmers, as you have
for..... been taught to suppose.
In May, 1815, you caunot sell To go no further, therefore, you, above them for more than........
19 all people, ought to regret the renewal
Is there any one of you, who can deny You cry out against those who these facts? And, if you cannot, do you are opposed to war; you accuse them of still look upon those as the enemies of your seditious, and almost, of treasonable mo- property, who wish for peace ? Can you tives. You call them enemies of law and deny, that it is war, which las had this of social order. And for what? Because alarming effect upon your property ? And, you look upon war against Napoleon as yet, do you blame those, who are against necessary to the security of your pro- more war? That vile and prostituted perty ; when the fact is, as I will now
news-paper, the Times, which you all proceed to show, that war has been, and read, sometimes, in drawing a comparison must be, ruinous to that property, which, between the situation of France and Engthough no part has been violently seized land, talks about the comparative price of on; which, though you have still conti- the funds in the two countries ; and takes nued to receive your dividends to the full this as a criterion of national prosperity, nominal amount, has imperceptibly passed and of the solidity of the government. away from you to the amount of more Nothing can be more false than this printhan one half of what you really pos- ciple; but, suppose it to be true. There sessed in the year 1792. Your property is no such great difference in the price of has passed from your possession in two the funds in the two countries at this ways : first in point of credit, or the value
moment. The French funds are five per of the capital ; and next, as to the cur- cents. Our five per cents are at 88 in rency in which the interest is paid. This paper; in real money, they are worth 67 will clearly appear from the following pounds. And, we see, that the French statement of the price, the settled peace live per cents are worth, even now,
62 price, of three per cent. stock during the pounds in real money; for, in France, it peace, previous to the first war against the is gold, with which funds are purchased. Republicans of France, and of the subse- So that, if you are to weigh public opinion, quent peace prices.
popular confidence, and the solidity of In 1792, before the war against France, the governments in this scale, we have, on stoudy peace price of the Three per Cents. our side of the water, but little to boast
95 of in the comparison, though France is, During the Peace of Amiens in 1802, it was 77 at this moment, surrounded by hostile After the Peace of Paris, in 131.1, it was 66 | armies, though she is menaced with an