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am your


Jive upon corruption, were either leagued Majesty to his people will be read by every against, or were careful to keep, aloof. Englishman with sentiments of delight.I faithful friend,

What should induce any. Englishnan to WM. COBBETT. feel delight at any thing which such a King Bottey, Wednesday,

can say to a people? What has he to tell

thein, except that, having lately been a 14th April, 1813.

province of France, his states are now beSUMMARY OF POLITICS.

come a province of Russia; and that they,

his subjects, who, a few months ago, were NORTHERN WAR. PEACE. - The fighting for France and the Continental Syssuccesses of the Russians have, at last, pro- tem, are now to fight against France and duced the effect of inducing the King of the Continental System? That the Prussia openly to join them by a treaty of means of Napoleon have been very much alliance, and, at the same moment, to de- crippled there çan


no doubt, and it may clase war against France. -Thus are be impossible for him so far to recruit his these ţwo powers once more pitted against means, as to be able to re-enter Russia in Buonaparté, who, on his side, appears to the course of a single campaign; but, on be making dreadful preparations for reco the other hand, we see that he has been vering the influence he has lost, and for making enormous exertions to this end, and chastising these his late allies.- In taking there is no doubt that he will return to the a view of the state of the war on the conti- combat with an immense army.nent, we will not notice the particulars of have, during the last twenty years, seen

mass of falsehoods which is contained enough to convince us, that the French are in the divers proclamations and state-papers a people not to give up easily any object of that have appeared within these four or five their ambition. Napoleon is ambitious months. According to these, each party is enough; but he is not more ambitious than in the right; each has been ill used; each other Frenchmen. The enthusiasm of the has ground of complaint against its adver- Revolution; that is to say, the enthusiasm sary. There is, indeed, hardly a word of of liberty, against which our Government truth in the whole of their stories, and they so long warred in vain, does certainly no are all unworthy of any particular atten- longer exist; but, still it is the same peotion.- -But, on the conduct of the several ple, increased in population, enriched by powers we may remark; and may be able, new sources of industry, and accustomed perhaps, to form something like a correct to conquer. When I consider this, I think opinion as to what will be the result of the that this is the moment to offer Napoleon next campaign.- The origin of this reasonable terms of peace, lest, by any acNorthern war was, the refusal of the Em-cident, he should recover his lost ground peror of Russia to fulfil the Treaty of Til- in the North, in which case, we may be sit, in which he stipulated to adopt the quite sure, that the States of Prussia would Continental system; that is to say, to shut pass for ever from the House of BrandenEnglish commerce out of all the ports under burgh.---The same principle, however, his command. No matter what was the which produced this war of twenty years, cause of this refusal : the refusal was cer- appears still to animate our Government; tainly the cause of the war. -The terri, namely, a fear of France; a fear, that if ble measure of burning Moscow, and the she be left undestroyed; or, at least, unseverities of the Russian winter, turned the crippleil, we cannot be safe. tide of that war against Napoleon; and, it this fear that was the avowed ground, upon is not to be at all wondered at, that Prussia which Mr. Burke called for the war in 1792, has swam with that tide, In fact, the King and justified its continuance afterwards. In of Prussia is a mere shuttle-cock between vain did the Republican government disthe two Emperors.- -He is, and he must avow conqueşt; in vain. did it beseech be, on the side of him who has possession England to look upon France as a friend of his dominions. The Duke of Bassano in the cause of freedom; in vain did gives a pretty good description and history it declare that it would make any comof the conduct of Prussia from the out-set mercial sacrifice rather than break with of the French Revolution to the present England. Nothing would do. France day; and, really, when one does consider was becoming free, and was evidently what that conduct has been, one cannot about to possess all the vigour of a free help smiling to hear the Morning Chronicle state; and this was an object of dread. say, that the proclamation of his Prussian The example, 100, of real freedom, was sotnething formidable in the minds of some | lishments ? -These are the arguments persons. That example, however, was, un- against peace so long as France remains fortunately, soon rendered of no avail.- what she now is; and, hence it is concludBut, still there remained the power, the ed, that we ought to persevere in the war, increased power, of France, in the hands until the power of France be so reduced as of new men; and that power still remains to make peace a measure of safety; for, if While war continues we feel but half the we never succeed in reducing the power of consequences of this power. Peace would France, we shall be no wurse off than we shew it to us in all its alarming effects.- should be in making a peace with her now, All the world would flock to France, which seeing that such a peace must end in our is now become the repository of all those subjugation. Supposing all this to be things, to have a sight of which people for- true, and some part of it is true, what merly had to travel thousands of miles.- have those to answer for who began the France, owing to various causes, is now war, and who, by refusing repeatedly to comparatively lightly taxed; and, in a state make peace, have, at last, reduced us to of peace, she would scarcely feel the weight such a dilemma? They went to war on of taxation. This circumstance alone would the pretence of preventing the French from draw thousands and thousands of rich peo partaking with the Dutch in the navigation ple to her fine climate. The emigration of the river Scheldt ; and what has been from this country would, in all probabi- the result? ---However, the grand queslity, be very great. By changing countries tion is, what is to be done now. Ought an Englishman would, indeed, cease to hear we to offer to negotiate, or not, at this mospeeches and songs about liberty; but, he ment? Or, ought we to run the risk of an would, at the same time, lose the pretty other campaign, and to take other chances little printed papers that are handed to him of reducing the power of France before we every now and then, with nice blank spaces negotiate? I think we ought to negotiate for him to write down how much he re- if we can; that we ought to see what we ceives, how much he earns, how many are able to do by negotiation, since we have children he has to keep, how many horses, been able to do nothing by war. mules, wheels, dogs, footmen, and so forth, would, for my part, give up all our conhe employs, and whether his head be, or quests, I would leave Sicily, Spain, and be not, powdered. He would, in short, Portugal to defend themselves ; for, after lose the liberty of having a case, at his own all, leave them we must; I would disband expense, drawn up for the Judges, without nine-tenths of the army; I would keep up, a jury, to determine, whether his goods in good order, a moderate fleet; I would shall, or shall not, be seized, if he refuse give up the pretended right of impressing to pay the sum, which Commissioners, ap- people on board the ships of America ; i pointed by the Government, demand from would put arms into the hands of the pece him.-Here, in my opinion, we may ple of Great Britain and Ireland; I would look for one of the chief causes of the con- reform the Parliament; I would reduce the tinuation of this war. The cause is a per- taxes; and then I would set France at desuasion, in the mind of our Government, fiance. Those who are not prepared to do that, if France he left as she now is, there this; those who are not prepared for doing would be no safety for England in a-state of all these things, must be content with a peace; that the former would, in a few continuation of the war; for, without reyears, grow over her; and, that to begin a form, and a reduction of taxes at home, it new war, at the end of four or five years of appears to me clear as dáy-light, that it peace, would be attended with difficulties would be impossible for this country to not to be overcome. Besides this, peace maintain itself in peace against the overwould do nothing for us, unless we could growing power of France. France must be lay down our fleet and our army; and how reduced by war, or we must make such recould we do either, France being in posses- forms as to enable us to exist in peace. One sion of all her present power and her pre- of these two must take place, or this nation sent means? The time which we must em must fall under the power of France.ploy in disbanding and dismantling, she This is my opinion, and I should be glad would be able to employ in recruiting and to hear any one seriously maintain the building. A peace with the establishments contrary. I should be glad to hear what of war would answer us no purpose at all; those have to say, who cry out for peace, and yet,


It was

if France retain her present power, and who are silent upon the subject of rehow are we to dispense with these estab- form at home. I have seen petitions for peace; but I have never noticed them asam persuaded, at last, come, if the indebeing worthy of great attention; because I pendence of this kingdom is to be preserva know that no real peace can be made unless ed. -There are people weak enough to it be accompanied with reform; because I believe, that, if the Whigs were in power, know, that, until England be made a dif- we might hope for peace. But, did any ferent place to live in from what it now is, inan ever hear the Whigs talk of a reform. there can be no real peace with France, pos- in parliament? Yes, formerly they did; sessed of all her present power.

Those, but the moment they were in possession of therefore, who oppose reform, are per- power they ceased to talk upon such subfectly consistent in being opposed to peace jects. They are now full as inuch the enewith France at this time; and, as both the mies of reform as are any of their oppo-> great political factions are opposed to re- nents; so that their talk about peace is a form, they ought both to be opposed to mere trick practised against the Ministers, peace. The Morning Chronicle, which, who are much more consistent in talking in general, speaks the sentiments of the neither about peace nor reform. They Whigs, is often reproving the Ministers for see clearly, that without reform, that is to not entering into negotiations for peace. say, without a great change in the system of But, will Mr. Perry undertake to shew any ruling this country and managing its reone benefit with which peace, without the sources, including always a 'reform in the previous reduction of the power of France, Commons' House of Parliament, this counwould be attended ? A peace would, at try cannot exist in peace, if Franee retains once, open all the ports and harbours of her present power and possessions; and, France; it would bring out the French therefore, as they are bent against reform, ships :, it would, in a short time, create a they are also bent on war, until the

power Frenca navy. It would give Napoleon the of France be reduced. They, very likely, time and the means to make himself for have doubts as to the result of the war; midable by sea. We must, therefore, they have their fears, perhaps; that the keep up our navy to nearly - its present power of France will finally be increased amount of force. The army we must also by the war, instead of being reduced by it; keep up; for he need not disband a single but, even in that case, they are consistent; battalion. What saving, therefore, would for, it is no matter that ruin come in that peace bring us? If it produced no saving way, if they be convinced that ruin would of expense, it would, of course, not reduce also come in the other way.' The Ministers, the taxes ; and, if it did not reduce the therefore, are consistent; and those only taxes, who, with such a prospect befoge are inconsistent, who call for peace and are him, would remain in England if he could silent upon the subject of Parliamentary quit it? Who that'had ten thousand pounds Reform.

-Now is the moment to offer would remain here to pay, in one way or peace. Napoleon is soʻsituated as to make another, one half of the interest of it to the him lend an ear to such an offer; but, urGovernment, and that, too, without the less you can prevail upon him to give up most distant prospect of alleviation? The two-thirds of his power, which is not very nation, under such circumstances, must likely, it is useless te make peace,


you dwindle into a state of feebleness that would be pot, at the same time, prepared to make naturally prepare the way for utter subju- a reform at home gation. To reduce the taxes without re- glad, if I could prevail upon the manufacducing the army; indeed without disband- turers, and upon all those who suffer from ing the army, it is nonsense to talk of; to the war, to see the matter in this light.disband the army without putting arms They feel the evils of war; the masters are into the hands of the people would be to in- ruined and the journeymen are starved by vite invasion; and, to put arms into the the war. That is enough :, they look no hands of the people, without giving them a further : they ask for peace. But, they do share in the concern by the means of a Par- not reflect on the causes of peace being reliamentary Reform, would be madness.- fused; they do not ask themselves how No: as Major Cartwright has long ago con- peace is to be got; they do not take time tended, and long ago proved, the only, sure to inquire into the consequences of peace as defence is in an armed people, represented things now stand with regard to the relain parliament by persons chosen by that po- tive power of the two countries. If they pulation. His scheme is, that the duty of did, they would soon discover, that peace arms-bearing and the right of voting should is not to be had without a parliamentary go hand in hand : and to this we must, 1 reform, or without a reduction of the power

I should be very


-I am

of France by war; and, of course, instead f two furious passions of ambition and reof calling out for peace, they would call out venge: and, whatever they are capable of, for the previous measure of Parliamentary may now be expected from them. Reform.A peace at this time, or at

In the last Number, p. 562, l. 6, any time, leaving France in possession of

for take off read talk of. Holland, the Austrian Netherlands, Italy, and Naples; such a peace, it cannot be too LETTERS OF LORD MOIRA AND MR. Wuitoften repeated, would not enable us to save BREAD, RELATIVE TO THE PRINCESS OF a shilling, while it would reduce our means WALES. of paying taxes, and would enable Napoleon (Continued from page 576.): to make a marine force capable of giving no hesitation in saying, that, to the best of us serious annoyance in case of another wár. iny recollection, it contains the substance of But, if we, by arming the people of this king-what I said in my place. Some verbal indom, could save, at once the expenses of the accuracies are quite immaterial. army and of a large portion of the navy, then, bound to fulfil your Lordship's hope, by indeed, a peace would be worth having; making your Letter to me public. In en we should then be in safety, and the coun- dcavouring to obtain the explanation of try, relieved from a large portion of its passages so generally misunderstood, I knew enormous burdens, would be comparatively not how to proceed effectually, but by mohappy. This, I repeat it, is to be accom- tion in the House of Commons; and the plished only by making yoting and arms- motion having been calculated to obtain bearing go hand in hand; and, therefore, your Lordship's attendance in the House of I say, give us a Parliamentary Reform, as Commons, if successful, your Lordship being the only sure road to a safe and lasting would have had the opportunity of giving peace.

-As to the wars of Russia and the explanations, in the very place where Prussia ; as to the proclamations of those they were asked for; and I never had any sovereigns and their generals; as to the doubt of their honourable and satisfactory vows and acclamations of the people whom nature. But the discussions in the House they address; what do all these amount to? of Commons having now been dropped (as They are of very little consequence to us. I sincerely hope never again to be reviv. Even the complete success of these our new ed), I will send your Letter, and my anfriends would do nothing for the people of swer, directly to the Public Journals.England, whatever it might do for the peo- It will give me pleasure to acknowledge, ple of their own countries. For my part, by the same means, much personal civility I can see nothing that the people of the received at various times from your Lord Prussian States are likely to gain by the ship; and particularly in the manner in change. They will change masters. They which I was requested, and the urbanity will fall back into the hands that they were with which I was received, to peruse the formerly ini. Their condition will not be documents to which your Lordship has remended. The successes of Russia may ferred in the early part of the present year, open a channel for our commerce; but, I In the discussions which afterwards arose, take it, that will be all. The power of I did not use the knowledge I had so acFrance will continue nearly the same with quired of any one of them, until after it regard to England. At the very best, all had appeared in print.--I regret, that I expect from those successes is a mitigation in the course of these discussions I have giof the Continental System. So far, how- ven momentary pain to their Lordships, ever, am I from believing in the continua- or cause of dissatisfaction to any persons, tion of those successes, that I believe most of whose friendship and esteem I was pleasfirmly they will speedily come to an end. ed in thinking I possessed a share. The The French armies are upon the point of loss, if lost, is entirely my own-it's painonce more moving forward, and it will not ful to me. But justice has been the object

easy to make me doubt of their defeating of my pursuit--that pursuit has been conthose whom they have so often driven be- scientiously conducted by me, and must fore them. I am aware of the effect of the therefore, of necessity, have been free turning of the tide of victory ; but, this is from all selfish considerations. With

not the first time that the French armies the addition of these explanations from your have had to stem such a tide. Reverses in Lordship, so honourable to the Princess of : war have never yet subdued their spirit : Wales, and so just to yourself, the public the whole nation partakes in the feelings of will be satisfied, that justice has been comits chief: they are now goaded on by the pletely obtained. Phave the honour to be,


my dear Lord, your Lordship’s obliged attempting to take her to the United States, and obedient servant,

and not considering it prudent to trust her SAMUEL WHITBREAD. into a port of Brazil, particularly St. SalvaTo the Right Honourable the Earl dor, as you will perceive by the enclosed of Moira, K. G. c. bc.

letters 1, 2, and 3, I had no alternative but burning her, which I did on the 31st ult.

after receiving all the prisoners and their AMERICAN STATES.

baggage, which was very tedious work,

only having one boat left (out of eight), Commodore Bainbridge to the Secretary of and not one boat left on board the Java. the Navy.

On blowing up the frigate, I proceedSt. Salvador, Jan. 3. ed to this place, where I have landed all the Sir,- I have the honour to inform you, prisoners to return to England, and there that on the 29th ult. at two p. m. in South remain until regularly exchanged, and not lat: 13. 06.' and West long. 38. about ten serve in their professional capacities in any leagues distance from the coast of Brazil, I place or in any manner whatever against the fell in with and captured His Britannic United States of America, until the exMajesty's frigate Java, of 49 guns, and change shall be regularly effected. I upwards of 400 men, commanded by Capt. have the honour to be, &cc. Lambert, a very distinguished officer. The

W. BAINBRIDGE. action lasted one hour and 55 minutes, in which time the enemy was completely dismasted, not having a spar of any kind

House of Representatives, Wednesday,

Feb. 24. standing. The loss on board the Constitution was nine killed and 25 wounded.

The following message was received from The enemy

had 60 killed and 101 wounded the President of the United States, which, certainly (among the latter Capt. Lambert after being read, was referred to the Commortally); but by the enclosed letter writ- mittee of Foreign Relations :ten on board the ship (by one of the officers To the Senate and House of Representatives of the Java), and accidentally found, it is

of the United States. evident that the enemy's wounded must I lay before Congress copies of a Proclahave been much greater than as above mation of the British Lieutenant Governor stated, and who must have died of their of tho ielɔnd of Bermuda, which has apwounds previously to their being removed. peared under circumactanccs leaving no The letter states 60 killed and 170 wound doubt of its authenticity. It recites a Bried. For further details of the action, I tish Order in Council of the 26th of Octobeg to refer to the extracts from my journal. ber last, providing for the supply of the The Java had, in addition to her own crew, British West Indies, and other colonial upwards of 100 supernumerary officers and possessions, by a trade under special liseamen, to join the British ships of war in censes, and is accompanied by circular inthe East Indies*; also Lieut.-General His- structions to the Colonial Governors, which lop, appointed to the command of Bombay, confines licensed importations from the Major Wilke, and Captain Wood, of his ports of the United States to the ports of Staff, and Captain Marshall, Master and the Eastern States exclusively. The Commander of the British navy, going to Government of Great Britain had already the East Indies to take the command of a introduced into her commerce during a sloop of war there.- -Should I attempt war, a system which at once violated the to do justice, by representation, to the brave rights of other nations, and, resting on a and good conduct of all my officers and mass of forgery and perjury unknown to crew during the action, I should fail in the other times, was making an unsorturiate attempt; therefore, suffice it to say, that progress in undermining those principles of the whole of their conduct was such as to morality and religion which are the best merit my highest encomiums. I beg leave foundation of national happiness.---The to recommend the officers particularly to policy now proclaimed to the world introthe notice of Government, as also the un- duces into her mode of warfare a system fortunate seamen who were wounded, and equally distinguished by the deformity of the families of those brave men who fell in its features and the deprayity of its characthe action. -The great distance from our ter; having for its object to dissolve the own coast, and the perfect wreck we made ties of allegiance, and the sentiments of loythe enemy's frigate, forbade every idea of alty in the adversary nation, and to seduce

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