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and separate its component parts the one and thus dispose it to measures of justice; from the other. The general tendency and equity, which he almost always deof these demoralizing and disorganizing manded in vain. When the North of contrivances will be reprobated by the civi- Europe saw itself menaced with a new fatal lized and Christian world; and the insuit- war, the King, after doing every thing that ing attempt on the virtue, the honour, the depended upon him to avert the storm, patriotism, and the fidelity of our brethreu took the part which the intermediate posia of the Eastern States, will not fail to call tion of his States that admitted not of neuforth all their indignation and resentment, trality, and a certain perspective of the deand to attach more and more all the States structive measures that awaited them oni to that happy union and constitution against the part of France, if he refused what was which such insidious and malignant artifices demanded of him, imperiously prescribed. are directed.

-The better to guard, ne- He resigned himself to the sovereign envertheless, against the effect of individual gagements, out of all proportion to the. cupidity and treachery, and to turn the cor- ability of the country, to which he found rupt projects of the enemy against herself, himself obliged to acquiesce by the treaty: I recommend to the consideration of Con- of alliance of the 24th February, and the gress the expediency of an effectual prohi- conventions which accompanied it, in the bition of any trade whatever, by citizens or hope of having obtained for Prussia solid, inhabitants of the United States, under support, and in case of necessity, efficaspecial licenses, whether relating to per- cious succour, of which, after so many resons or ports, and, in aid thereof, a prohi- verses, she daily felt the greater necessity; bition of all exportation from the United and that the French Government, answer-, States in foreign bottoms, few of which are ing the fidelity with which the King: puractually employed, whilst multiplied coun- posed to fulfill his obligations, would, on, terfeits of their flags and papers are cover its side, fulfil with the same exactness the ing and encouraging the navigation of the obligation it had contracted with him.enemy.

Unhappy experience proved to him but too JAMES MADISON. soon, that such were not the intentions of February 24, 1813.

that Government. Whilst the King fur-, nished the number of troops agreed upon,

to form the stipulated auxiliary corps; PRUSSIA AND FRANCE

whilst that these troops shed their blood

in the cause of France, with a bravery to, Note of the Prússian Government annexed which the Emperor himself has not refused to the Report of the French Minister for to do justice ; whilst that in the interior of Foreign Affairs.

the country they bore up, by extraordinary The undersigned Chancellor of State has efforts, against furnishing the enormous just received an order from the King to lay supplies, and loans of all kinds, which the before his Excellency Count de Marsau, wants of the troops, who did not cease to Minister Plenipotentiary from His Majesty inundate it, required. - France fulfilled the Emperor of the French, King of Italy, not, in any manner, the obligations con&c. &c. the following: The King, in tracted, the exact accomplishment of which all his political conduct since the peace of could alone prevent the entire ruin of the Tilsit, had principally in view to give and country and its inhabitants. It was sti- : ensure to his people a state of tranquillity pulated that the garrison of Glogau should which might gradually enable them to re- be provisioned at the expense of France, cover from the numberless misfortunes and reckoning from the date of the treaty, and losses which they had just suffered. those of Custrin and Stettin, after the enFor this purpose he fulfilled with exactness, tire payment of the contributions; the lat, as far as his means permitted him, 'the en. ter was paid, and even more, in the month gagements which he had been forced to by of May, in last year, by the deliveries

He has supported with re which had been made-nevertheless Prus, signation the arbitrary exactions, the spo- sia remained charged with provisioning liation of every description of which the these three garrisons, without any repreprovinces did not cease to be the object; sentations being able to effect what justice the enormous charges with which they and the letter of the treaty demanded. were loaded. He neglected nothing in We had Aattered ourselves, at least, acorder to establish between him and the cording to the recent promise of His MaFrench Government a sincere confidence, jesty the Emperor, the country round those

that peace.

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places, as the Prussian territory, wouldject. Besides, Ceneral de Krusemarek is henceforth have been sheltered from all charged to deliver a note to the Minister, forced requisitions, but at the very mo- which will enlarge more upon so many obment when we delivered ourselves up to jects, which clearly proves, that the French this hope, the Commandants received a Government, in holding in no consideration formal order, to take for ten leagues round the principal stipulations of the treaty of the fortresses, every thing of which they alliance in favour of Prussia, which, nebelieved they stood in want, which was vertheless, formed so many essential conexecuted with all the violence which was ditions of it, and without which the latter foreseen. It was agreed, that sums ad- would have, whatever might have been the vanced by Prussia for supplies of all kinds, consequence, subscribed to the conditions should be settled every three months, and imposed on her, has itself freed her from the balance paid down at the end of the those reciprocal obligations contained in it. campaign. But she could not obtain that No person is ignorant of the situation in even these accounts should be examined, which Prussia now finds herself, in conand when the balance amounted to very sequence of these circumstances, and genelarge sums, of which she was every mo- rally of the events of the Autumn and Winment to furnish the proofs, when at the end ter, abandoned to herself, without hope of of the year it was 94,000,000 of francs, the efficacious support ou the part of a power, most lively representations were not able to whom she was bound, and from whom to procure payment of a single account, als she did not even obtain the objects of the though the King had, for the moment, con- most strict justice, which she only wished fined his demand to a sum less than half the latter to grant her ; seeing two-thirds the urgent, absolute, and indispensable ne- of her provinces exhausted, and their in cessity for which had been demonstrated by habitants reduced to despair, what remains the most powerful evidence. The clause for her, except taking council of herself, of the treaty of alliance which ensured the raising and supporting herself? It is in neutrality of a part of Silesia, could not, the love and courage of his people, and in under the circumstances which since oc- the generous interest of a great power, curred, take effect, unless Russia, on her which compassionates his situation, that part, acquiesced in it, and this acqui- the King 'has determined to seek the means escence, supposed of necessity, that they of getting out of it, and of restoring to his should treat about this object. Neverthe Monarchy the independence which can less the Emperor caused it to be declared, alone ensure its future prosperity.His that he would not consent that the King Majesty has just taken the measures which should send any one to the Emperor Alex- so grave circumstances exact to join himander for this purpose, and in thus ren- self by a strict alliance with His Majesty dering the stipulation entirely illusory, in the Emperor of all the Russias. He is point of fact, withdrew from, annulled it. persuaded that France, as well as all EuFresh' attempts were made against the rope, will appreciate the powerful motives King's incontestable rights, by the arbitra- which have decided his measures. ry dispositions indulged in, with respect to These measures tend in their final result the corps of Prussian troops in Pomerania, but to a peace, founded upon

bases equit under General Bulow, by calling it to join able and calculated to augment its solidity. the Duke of Belluno's division, and in It has always been, and will constantly replacing it previously to having obtained His main, the most ardent of the King's wishes, Majesty's consent, under the orders of that and if Providence blesses his efforts, His Marshal, as well as by the prohibition of Majesty will find himself at the height of all recruiting whatever in the Prussian happiness in being able to contribute in states, occupied by the French troops, rendering benefit to humanity.. The unwhich was published by order of the Vice- dersigned has the honour to renew to his roy of Italy, without informing His Ma- Excellency Couut de St. Marsau, the asjesty of it. Never, undoubtedly, was the surances of his high consideration. sovereignty of a friendly Prince, attacked

(Signed) HARDENBURG. in a more terrible manner. It is unne

Breslaw, 16th March. cessary to recapitulate the melancholy details which have lately appeared, they are Copy Of A LETTER FROM M. De. Kruseperfectly known to your Excellency and the Duke of Bassano, by the numerous remon

Paris, March 27, 1813.) strances of which they have been the sub- MONSIEUR LE DUC, I have just receiv

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MARCK

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ed an order from my Sovereign to lay, be - contribution : she was preparing to pay the fore you the following: -The propositions remainder, when clouds arose between which I have anteriorly had the honour of Russia and France, and when the immense submitting to you were of a nature to merit preparations of those two powers did not a reply equally prompt as decisive. The any longer permit her to doubt of the war progress of the Russian arms in the centre about to be kindled in the North. The of the monarchy, does not permit Prussia King, faithful to his principle of saving, at any longer to prolong that state of uncer- any price, the national existence, judging tainty in which she is. On one side the of the future by the past, felt that he had Emperor of Russia, united to the King by every thing to fear from France, He sacribonds of personal friendship, offers Prus- ficed his affections, and concluded with her sia, in this decisive moment, the support a treaty of alliance. At the epoch of the of his power, and the advantages of his conclusion of the treaty, before the news friendship; on the other, his Majesty the could have reached Berlin, the French Emperor of the French persists in repuls- troops entered Pomerania and the Marche ing an Ally who has sacrificed himself in Elcetroale. The King with grief saw that his cause, and disdains even to explain no attention was paid to his frank and loyal himself

upon the motives of his silence. intentions. They would obtain by force For a length of time France has violated, what it appeared impossible to obtain by in every point, the treaties which connect- negotiations. Agents of Prussia, frightened her with Prussia. Not contented with ed by the menacing attitude of France, had having dictated at Tilsit a peace, equally signed at Paris separate conventions, which hard and humiliating, she has not even per- contained conditions extremely burdensome, mitted her to enjoy the trifling advantages relative to the provisioning and wants of the which that treaty seemed to allow her. She Grand Army. The French Government, has made use of odious pretexts to shake to instructed respecting the mediocrity of our their foundations the fortune of the State, resources, foresaw a refusal,-prepared to and those of individuals. Since that epoch, gain the King's consent by the appearance Prussia has been treated as a conquered of force, and deceived itself. His Majesty country, and oppressed by a yoke of iron. ratified these conventions, although he felt The French armies remained in it contrary the difficulty of fulfilling them; he reckonto the terms of the treaty, and lived at dis- ed upon the devotion of Prussians, and he cretion in it during eighteen months; exor- hoped that by defining the extent of our sabitant and arbitrary contributions were im- crifices, he would preserve his people from posed upon her; her commerce was, ruined arbitrary requisitions, and their fatal conby obliging her to adopt the continental sequences. Experience did not justify this system; French garrisons were placed in hope. Whilst Prussia exhausted all her the three fortresses of the Qder; the coun- means to pour into the magazines the stiputry was obliged to defray the expense of lated products, the French armies lived at their appointments ; in short, by the treaty the expense of individuals. At the same of Bayonne, the property of widows and time were exacted the fulfilment of the orphans was disposed of, in manifest con- treaty, and the daily censuinption of the tradiction to the stipulations of the treaty troops. The sacred property of the inhaof peace; every thing announced that no bitants was taken away by main force, sort of regard would be kept with an un- without rendering the least account of it, fortunate and oppressed state. In this state and Prússia lost by these acts of violence of things, peace becarue an illusory benefit. above 70,000 horses, and 20,000 carriages. The King groaned under the enormous -Notwithstanding all these shackles, the weight which oppressed his subjects. He King, faithful to his system, fulfilled with flattered himself with vanquishing, by the religious faith all the engagements he had force of condescension and sacrifices, an made. The supplies were successfully reanimosity the effects of which he knew, but alized, the stipulated contingent advanced ; of whose principle he was ignorant. He nothing was omitted to prove the loyalty of gave himself up to the hope of sparing his our conduct. France only replied to this people greater misfortudes, in fulfilling devotion by pretensions always new, and scrupulously his engagements towards believed herself able to dispense, on her France, and in carefully, avoiding every side, with fulfilling the stipulations of the thing which could give her offence. By treaty which fell to her charge. She conextraordinary and unheard-of efforts, Prus- stantly refused to examine the accounts for -sia succeeded in paying two-shirds of the supplies furnished, although she had en

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tered into a formal engagement to settle and distant promises. Besides, as if it was them every three months. The Military not sufficient to violate the most positive Convention ensured to the Emperor, till a treaties, new proceedings took place to ennew arrangement with Prussia, possession lighten Prussia respecting the Emperor's of the fortresses of Glogau, Stettin, and intentions, and what she had a right to exCustrin; but the provisioning of the first of pect from him, The King seeing one part those places was, from the date of signing of his provinces invaded, and the other methat convention, to have been at the ex- naced, without being able to rely upon the pense of France ; and the others, from the assistance of the French armies, obliged to day on which the King should have fulfilled reinforce his own, and the ordinary way his new engagements respecting the dis- being tedious and insufficient, his Majesty charge of the contribution. The King, in addressed an appeal to the young Prussians acquiescing in this article, had already gi- who wished to range themselves under his ven France proofs of his condescension, in colours. This awakened in every heart the renouncing the stipulations of 1808 ; ac- desire of serving the country. A great numcording to which Glogau was to be given up ber of volunteers were preparing to leave to Prussia, as soon as half the contribution Berlin for Breslau, when it pleased the should be paid. The new treaty was not Viceroy to interdict all recruiting, and the better observed by France than that which departure of the volunteers, in the provinpreceded it. The provisioning of Glogau, ces occupied by the French troops. This and that of the other fortresses, caused by prohibition was issued in the most perempthe Convention, and the discharge of tory manner, and without acquainting the the contributions already realized in the King with it. Any attempt so directly month of May last year, notwithstanding aimed at the rights of Sovereignty, excited the most pressing representations, remain in the heart of his Majesty, and those of at the expense of Prussia to this day. The his faithful subjects, a just indignation. Convention stipulated nothing respecting At the same time, and whilst the fortresses the fortresses of Pillau and Spandau ; they, on the Oder ought for a long time to have in consequence, were to remain occupied by been provisioned at the expense of France, Prussian troops; the French troops, how- after the Emperor had formally declared in ever, entered them by a sort of military an audience given to Hatzfeldt, that he had surprise, and maintained themselves in interdicted the French authorities from mak-, them. -Whilst the weight of Prussia's ing any kind of requisitions in the States of expenses was indefinitely augmented the King, the Governors of these fortresses whilst she proved, that, after having paid received orders to take by main force, for a her contribution, her advancés were enor-circle of ten leagues, every thing which mous--all kinds of assistance were persist- was requisite for their defence and provisioned in being refused her: all her demands ing. This arbitrary and unjust order, and were answered by a contemptuous silence, which they did not even take the trouble of and incessantly demanding fresh sacrifices : 1 acquainting the King, was executed in all the inconceivable efforts of a burdened na lits extent, in defiance of the sacred tiile of tion appeared to be considered as nothing. property, and with details of violence which At the end of the preceding year, the ad- it would be difficult to depict. Notwithvances by Prussia amounted to 94,000,000 standing all the reasons which the King had of francs. The accounts were in as good for breaking with France, he yet wished to order as they could be, considering the try the effect of negotiations. He informed constant refusal of the French Authorities the Emperor Napoleon, that he would send to settle them agreeably to the treaty. His a confidential person to the Emperor of Majesty never ceased to represent, through Russia, in order to engage him to acknowhis agents, that it became urgent to do jus. ledge the neutrality of that part of Silesia tice to his demands, that his exhausted which France had acknowledgeờ. States could no longer support the French the only means which remained to the King, armies. The King, for the moment, con- abandoned, at least, for a moment, by fined himself to demanding an account re- France, for having a sure asylum, and not specting these advances, candidly declaring being placed in the cruel situation of leavthat he could not answer for events in case ing his States. The Emperor haughtily of a refusal. This language, equally just pronounced against this step, and did not as clear; these demands, founded on the even deign to explain himself upon the promost sacred titles, remained without re- positions which accompanied that overture. ply, and only produced vague assurances in such a state of things, the King's deci

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sion could not long remain doubtful. He on the 27th of March.What is most had for years sacriñced every thing for the deserving of serious consideration may be preservation of his political existence: now reduced to what follows.- -That Prussia France compromised that existence, and did solicited and concluded an alliance with nothing to protect it. Russia can aggravate France in 1819, because the French arhis misfortunes, and generously offers to mies had approached nearer to the Prussian protect him. The King cannot hesitate :- States than the Russian armies.- -Prussia faithful to his principles and his dụties, he declares in 1813, that she violates her joins his arms to those of the Emperor Alex. treaties, because the Russian armies have ander, changing his system without chang- approached nearer to her States than the ing his object. He hopes, in breaking French armies. Posterity will judge, with France, and attaching himself to Rus- whether such conduct be faithful, and worsia, to obtain, by an honourable peace, or thy of a great Prince, conformable to equiby force of arms, the only object of his ty and sound policy. It will always do wishes--the independence of his people justice to the perseverance of your Cabinet the benefits which will result from it, and in its principles. --In 1792, when the inheritance of his fathers, the half of France was inwardly agitated by a Revowhich has been ravished from him. The lution, and from without, attacked by a King will adhere, with all his power, to formidable enemy, appeared like to sink, every proposition conformable to the com- Prussia made war on her. mon interests of the Sovereigns of Europe. afterwards, and at the moment when He is earnestly desirous that they may lead France was triumphant over the coalesced to a state of things, in which treaties may powers, Prussia abandoned her allies, she no longer be simple truces--where power left the side of the combination together becomes the guarantee of justice, and with its fortune, and the King of Prussia where each returning with his natural rights, was the first of the Sovereigns who had may no longer be tormented in all the points taken up arms against France, that ac-; of his existence, by the abuse of power.- knowledged the Republic. This is, M. Le Duc, what I am charged to had scarcely elapsed (in 1799), when state for your Excellency's information. Be France felt the vicissitudes of war; some pleased to give an account of it to his Ma. battles had been lost in Switzerland and jesty the Emperor. Europe has seen with Italy; the Duke of York had landed in astonishment the long resignation of a na- Holland, and the Republic was threatened tion distinguished in the annals of history by both from the North and the South ; Forits brilliant courage, and its noble perseve tune had changed, and Prussia had changrance.--Now, directed by the most sacred ed with her. -But the English were motives, there is no person among us, who driven from Holland; the Russians were is not determined to sacrifice every consider- beaten at Zurich; victory again came unation to the great interests of his throne, der our colours in Italy, and Prussia bethe country, and the independence of Eu- came the Friend of France.

-In 1805, rope ; no one who will not think himself Austria took up arms: she carried her happy in perishing for this noble end, and arms to the Danube ; she took possession in defending his house. I have orders of Bavaria ; whilst the Russian troops immediately to proceed to the King, my passed the Niemen, and advanced towards august Master, with Prince Hatzfeldt, his the Vistula.--The union of three great Privy Councillor of State Begnelin, and the powers, and their immense preparations persons attached to these different missions. appeared to presage nought but defeat to I have the honour to beg your Excellency France. Prussia could not hesitate an into forward me the necessary passports for stant; she armed herself; she signed the

-1 hasten to renew to you, treaty of Berlin; and the manes of Fredeat the same time, the assurance of my most ric the Second were called upon to witness high consideration.

the eternal hatred which she vowed against (Signed) KRUSEMARCK. France. When her Minister, sent to His

Majesty to dictate the law to him, had arREPLY TO THE NOTE or M. THE BARON DE rived in Moravia, the Russians had just KRUSEMARCK.

lost the battle of Austerlitz, and it was Paris, April 1, 1813. owing to the generosity of the French that M. Baron,– I have laid before His Im- they were allowed to return into their own perial and Royal Majesty, the Note which country. Prussia immediately tore the you did me the honour of addressing to me treaty of Berlin, concluded only six weeks

this purpose.

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