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"If when the sun at noon displays
His brighter rays,

Thou but appear,

He then, all pale with shame and fear,
Quencheth his light,

Hides his dark brow, flies from thy sight,
And grows more dim,

Compared to thee, than stars to him.
If thou but show thy face again,
When darkness 'doth at midnight reign,
The darkness flies, and light is hurl'd

Round about the silent world:

So as alike thou driv'st away

Both light and darkness, night and day."

The poem, in addition to showing Carew's felicitous manner in paying a compliment, is an excellent illustration of his sustaining power and charming conceit.

Carew's artistic powers may be noted, in the third place, in his great variety of verse-forms. In a careful study made of his metrical forms it is found that he has used no less than forty-eight different forms of verse in his one hundred and fifty-nine poems.1 A greater variety in proportion to the work done would be hard to find. Of these forms we shall consider, first, those which are made up exclusively of tetrameter and pentameter lines; and secondly, those with lines of varied length.

The tetrameter verse is used exclusively in 81 poems; the pentameter, in 47.2 In the 81 poems composed of tetrameter lines, Carew uses seventeen different combinations of rhymes; and in the 47 pentameter poems, he uses four different combinations.2 Of the 159 poems, then, which are attributed to Carew, 128 (about three-fourths of his work, as we see) are made up of tetrameter and pentameter lines. This might appear, at first sight, to furnish little variety. But when we consider that these meters are used in 21 different combinations, we must admit that the variety of verse-form is unusual.

The prevailing foot in the tetrameter and pentameter lines is the iambic. This foot is used exclusively in 73 tetrameter and in 46 pentameter poems.2 In his frequent use of the iambic, Carew is simply using the prevailing foot for pentameter and tetrameter

'See Appendix A.

'See Appendix A, I. and II.

lines. Next to the iambic, the trochaic is used most frequently; and the remaining 8 tetrameter poems are made up exclusively of this foot. The dactyl is rarely found in Carew. In only one place (the pentameter poem entitled The Spring) is it used at all, and here it is scarcely allowable.1 In one poem, Upon Master W. Montague's Return from Travel, we have the iambic and the trochaic used together a combination which proves to be very beautiful and effective. The first twelve lines of the poem are made up of iambic pentameters. These are followed by twenty-four trochaic tetrameter lines, probably as beautiful as can be found anywhere. In the remaining four lines of the poem the iambic pentameter is used again. The poem is too long to quote. It should be read, however, by every one who is interested in Carew's verse.

Of the rhymes used in the poems made up exclusively of tetrameter and pentameter lines, the couplet is found almost altogether in the pentameter, and in almost one-half of the tetrameter poems. By consulting the table, we shall find that in 46 out of the 47 pentameter and in 40 out of 81 tetrameter poems the couplet is used. The single pentameter and the forty-one tetrameter poems remaining are made up of stanzas of various lengths and rhyme combinations.

3

In regard to the poems of Carew in which other forms than pentameter and tetrameter lines are exclusively used, little need be said here. A combination of tetrameter and pentameter lines is found in four of his poems. The iambic foot in used exclusively in three of these poems, and a combined use of the iambic and trochaic is found in the poem remaining. In the twenty-three miscellaneous verse-forms, in which about one-fourth of Carew's poetry is written, almost every conceivable form is present. The ballad measure, which occurs more frequently than any other, is used in five of these poems. The other varieties occur, for the most part, but once. Sometimes we have in these miscellaneous

4

1See Gummere's Handbook of Poetics, page 208.

See Appendix A, I. and II.

See Appendix A, III.

'See Appendix A, IV.

'See Appendix A, IV, 8.

forms a very fantastic verse scheme. The poem entitled Celia Singing is a good illustration of this.1

Summarizing his verse-forms, then, we find that the tetrameter couplet is used in 40 of Carew's poems, and that the tetrameter line of other rhymes is used in 41. We see further that the pentameter couplet is used in 46 poems, and that the pentameter line of other rhymes is used in 1 poem. Finally, we notice that many other combinations of lines and rhymes are used in the remaining 30 poems. The prevailing foot is iambic, though a sufficient departure from the normal is found to give excellent variety. Both in kind and variety of verse-forms, therefore, Carew, I think, is an artist of no mean order.

But Carew's artistic powers may be further seen in his frequent and effective use of run-on lines. In twenty poems, taken at random, I find that out of 479 lines Carew uses the run-on line 118 times.2 His proportion, then, of run-on to stopped lines is, as we see, about 1 to 4. It must be remembered, however, that this proportion is not found in every poem. Sometimes it is considerably greater; sometimes it is much less. In The Spring, for instance, the proportion is 1 to 2, while in To His Mistress Retiring in Affection it is 1 to 6. It frequently happens that the same number of run-on lines is used in poems of exactly the same length. In the fifth, eleventh, and twenty-eighth poems, for example, each of which has sixteen lines in toto, the poet uses in each case five run-on lines. This would seem to indicate that his use of run-on lines was not the result of chance, but the thought and plan of an artist. But though his verse shows the result of conscious work, it is so easy and natural that it seems spontaneous rather than as something wrought out.

2

Perhaps his effective use of run-on lines can not be better shown than by quoting from poems where these lines are used to good advantage. All the poems which have been quoted in this article may serve as illustrations of this quality. One or two additional extracts, however, will be given. But before giving these, it may be well to quote a few lines from Pope, in order that we may show how Carew, by the artistic use of run-on lines, has avoided the only

1Poem 49 in Appendix A, IV.

"See Appendix B.

defect in the almost perfect verse of Pope. As is well known, each of Pope's couplets expresses a complete thought, and, therefore, stands alone.1 In addition, there is always one or more pauses in each line, and usually a pause at the end of the first line, of the couplet. A few lines from The Essay on Man will indicate what I mean:

1

"Hope humbly then; with trembling pinions soar;
Wait the great teacher death; and God adore.
What future bliss, he gives not thee to know,
But gives that Hope to be thy blessing now.
Hope springs eternal in the human breast:
Man never Is, but always To be blest:
The soul, uneasy and confin'd from home,
Rests and expatiates in a life to come."
-Epistle I., 91-99.

With this extract from Pope, compare several lines from Carew, and notice how the monotony of the "rocking-horse measure" is avoided by the effective use of run-on lines. The following is from The Spring:

"Now do a choir of chirping minstrels bring,
In triumph to the world, the youthful spring:
The valleys, hills, and woods in rich array
Welcome the coming of the long'd-for May.
Now all things smile: only my love doth lower,
Nor hath the scalding noon-day sun the power
To melt that marble ice, which still doth hold
Her heart congeal'd, and makes her pity cold.
The ox, which lately did for shelter fly
Into the stall, doth now securely lie

In open fields; and love no more is made
By the fireside, but in the cooler shade
Amyntas now doth with his Chloris sleep
Under a sycamore, and all things keep
Time with the seasons: only she doth carry
June in her eyes, in her heart January.”

The other illustration is taken from the Elegy upon the Death of Dr. Donne:

"For technical points, we note in Pope a careful observance of word accent; insistance on the rhetorical emphasis; a verse mostly, and a couplet always, 'end-stopt.' "Gummere's Handbook of Poetics, pages 210-211.

"Thou shalt yield no precedence, but of time,

And the blind fate of language, whose tuned chime

More charms the outward sense: yet thou mayst claim
From so great disadvantage greater fame,

Since to the awe of thy imperious wit

Our troublesome language bends, made only fit
With her thick-ribb'd hoops to gird about

Thy giant fancy, which had proved too stout
For their soft melting phrases."

Only a few words need be said about Carew's artistic powers as illustrated in his use of the feminine rhyme. As every one knows who has made even a cursory examination of his verse, Carew uses the masculine rhyme almost altogether. Out of the 159 poems which constitute his work, the feminine rhyme is used in only 19; and in these poems this rhyme occurs only ninety-six times.1 It is evident, therefore, that the feminine rhyme is almost entirely unknown in Carew's poetry. We regret that this is so; for where this rhyme does occur we have a most delicate and beautiful effect. Notice the charm and grace, for instance, of the feminine rhymes in the poem Red and White Roses:

"Read in these roses the sad story

Of my hard fate and your own glory.
In the white you may discover

The paleness of a fainting lover;

In the red the flames still feeding

On my heart, with fresh wounds bleeding.
The white will tell you how I languish,

And the red express my anguish;

The white my innocence displaying,

The red my martyrdom betraying.

The frowns that on your brow resided,

Have those roses thus divided.

Oh! let your smiles but clear the weather,

And then they both shall grow together."

In The Willing Prisoner to His Mistress, we have a beautiful effect produced by the combined use of masculine and feminine rhymes. One stanza will be sufficient for illustration:

"And let those eyes whose motion wheels

The restless fate of every lover,

Survey the pains my sick heart feels,

And wounds themselves have made discover."

'See Appendix C.

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