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religion exist without feeling, for all thought implies feeling; and there can be no feeling without thought. To be conscious of emotion is to know ourselves as its subject, and something not ourselves as its cause or object; and the feeling will in its quality correspond to the qualities which thought has predicated of its cause. No man can have a feeling of dependence who has not conceived himself as dependent on something, or conceived Some One as existing on whom he depends. Nor can religion be apart from conscience, for conscience is the unity of knowledge and feeling, the knowledge of the difference between acts and the qualities of acts, and the feeling of obligation to do acts that are of a given kind or have a certain quality. And so a relation such as is realized in religion is exactly the kind that supplies conscience with its law."-Fairbairn, page 201.
But, unhappily, mankind has not been able to preserve this philosophical poise of all faculties in religious practice. No account is taken here of the inherent moral weakness of our nature. As a matter of fact, religion has been separated from morals through all the ages and among all nations. In every heathen nation under heaven the same thing is true today; and it is also true to a very alarming extent even among the civilized and Christian nations. Every scholar knows how degrading were the demoralizing rites observed at the temples of the gods of Greece and Rome. The same thing is true today in India, China and Japan, to say nothing of the horrible orgies practiced by the heathen in "darkest Africa." The cruel waste of child life and the brutal degradation of women, as a matter of religion, in Mohammedan and heathen countries is sufficient to prove the terrible indictment that religion and morals have been fatally separated among all races of mankind. Nor may we close our eyes to the bitter persecutions endured by Christians in Armenia and elsewhere today under the fanatical zeal of a benighted and brutish religious fatalism.
2. Here we must naturally inquire into the cause of this strange anomaly. The explanation is found in the sad fact of sin.
All religions have here found their difficulty and defeat. They could not remove the guilt, nor subdue the power, nor cure the disease of sin. Humanity, being everywhere afflicted with these
same complications, everywhere sought, but nowhere found a remedy. Nor could all the blood of beasts on Jewish altars slain make the comers thereunto perfect as pertaining to the conscience. Man was, therefore, impelled to provide more and more costly sacrifices of appeasement and propitiation, even to the offering of human victims, in the vain hope of finding some remedy for his woes. Athenian philosophy rears its altar to the "unknown god" as a refuge for the eclectic few, while boys are whipped to death for the pleasure of Diana, and virgins offer their virtue to the unclean embrace of the votaries of Venus; but to all alike greater misery ensues, until the most æsthetic civilization of the world is finally swept away with the besom of destruction, only so much being saved as the power of a purer religion had touched before the final tragedy.
(1) The peculiar power of the Christian religion lies in this: that it imparts a principle of new life.
This involves the great mystery of the Incarnation. The principle of the Incarnation is seen elsewhere. Physical nature is that materialization of invisible substance which exhibits as a result all the past; and as in a germ, all its future. It is the meeting place of a past eternity with a future eternity. It comes out from that past by manifold changes of force which are the manifestation of permanent energy, and potentially contains its own future possibilities. So we say: "It was, it is, it is to come." It is eternal energy located in substance, shown in the varying forms and combinations of the elements. It is eternal life, taking temporal shape in manifold living existences. It is eternal mind exhibited in relation to the world's finite intelligences. In the words of Cowper,
"Nature is but a name for an effect,
This vast unity of substance, of life, of mind, exhibits, while retaining the essential unity, the separateness and individuality of all the parts. Not only is the whole a manifestation of the eternal infinite Power, every part is a manifestation of it. Not less might and mind mould the dewdrop than fashion revolving spheres. Matter has its laws, so that all substances have individuality. The simplest vegetable contains, in its limiting and directive, morpho
logical force, more than the mere multiplication of its germ-cells accounts for. The wing of the bird, the fin of the fish, the foot of the mammal, come from germinal beginnings; but are due to a principle in the germ by which higher things than itself and different are fashioned. There is the control of a determining principle which allows measureless variety, but within certain limits.
The difference between space and infinitude is: space has measurable parts; infinitude is an indivisible whole. Like God, it is one; there are no degrees of infinitude. The essential reality of the presence of Infinitude and Eternity in space and time is a fitting symbol of the manner and actuality of Incarnation by the Infinite in space and time.
In the words of Principal Caird, "A spiritual infinitude which merely fills, or spreads itself out, so to speak, through the universe, to the exclusion of all other being but its own, would not be truly infinite; for it would be an Infinite incapable of that which is the highest attribute of spirit-incapable of sympathy, of love, of self-revelation, of a life in the being and life of others."-Philosophy of Religion, page 207.
The something in us by which we have premonition of the unknown, and see the invisible, assures us that there are substances contiguous to us which, to our present senses, are as nothing, and forces many to which we are not now in any conscious relation. Etherial influences such as our consciousness of love and the yearning for more love, our reverence for purity and our moral sense-are revelations of, and a key to, the mystery of the universe. We discern that by a voluntary conditioning, by definitive exercise of might, of wisdom, of love, by embodiment of energy in the world's forces, and by localizing of intelligence in heavenly arrangements and influences, the Eternal and Infinite, the All-wise and Almighty is present everywhere and in everything. Especially is He incarnate, living and moving, in whatever is conscious of His Being and worships. In all Divine Manifestations, created existences are the media through which the presence and glory of God are revealed to men. In all divine utterances God condescends to the limits of human understanding, and adapts His revelations to the mental condition of its recipients.
It thus appears sufficiently plain that the eternal God by creation voluntarily placed Himself in relation with the universe; and as no portion of time, no part of space, no existence can be without Him; and wherever He is, He is there infinitely, for Deity is without parts; He is everywhere imminent, or incarnate. We pass from this sublime contemplation of the Unknown Being, known in everything, though we can not ascertain the real nature of any physical or other phenomena, to that grand act which rendered the Divine Presence personal and visible on earth.
Man is the image and glory of God; woman is the glory of the man. Of man, the first Adam, father of many generations, was the woman, by divine operation, who became the mother of all living; of woman, who represents the Church, the mother of us all, by operation of the Holy Ghost, was the second Adam, the first born of many brethren. The first man, by the woman, brought ruin; the second Man, of the woman, wrought redemption. The personalities born of the woman, by man, are earthly and natural; the personalities born of the Holy Ghost, through the Church, are heavenly and spiritual. The natural shapes a perishable model, the spiritual an eternal model. Christ, as God, is the manifestation to men of the Eternal; Christ, as Man, presents to God the ideal and real in human perfection as the first-fruits from the dead. By the first Adam we have heredity of sin and natural person; by the second Adam we obtain a higher spiritual personality, capable of righteousness, which bears fruit unto life. The Divine Life, extending through every former age, all time and space, obtains embodiment in the Incarnation of Christ, that a new race of men may begin-men of larger powers, into whom Divinity may pass and make them a Church-a Church in Christ and Christ in them.
From this will arise a new type of character. As the presence of God within a man presses out, enlarges on every side, he is continually made better and greater. A mind and soul, once narrow, obtain an expanse and elevation that transcend every thought of the past. This opens to the view an infinite enlargement in our future possession of the divine fullness. The living God manifests Himself in us by a power to overcome the evil by which we have been dominated. The assurance of the Divine Love has reconciled
us to God by the removal of the guilt which had oppressed and alienated us from the Source of all being. The possession of the new principle of life generates new affections, expels the disease by which we have been afflicted, subdues the power by which we have been enslaved and makes us free, indeed, with "the glorious liberty of the children of God." Thus shall our night be turned into day, and our life become the light of men to guide their wandering feet into paths of purity and peace.
3. The duty of this great University to the State must now seem sufficiently clear. It may be summed in three brief paragraphs:
(1) The age requires the largest development of the intellectual powers. Every student sent out into any department of life will be called upon to compete with others whose faculties have been trained in the best universities of this and foreign lands. A broad intellectual culture, affording a generous acquaintance with ancient and modern letters is simply imperative. Ability to bring forth treasures of the old and refashion and adapt them to new conditions will be called for in every walk of life. Familiarity with history will be demanded almost at every corner of the street. Mathematics, pure and applied, have a wider range of possibility than at any previous period. All the natural sciences are presenting fresh openings every day for the intellect which is qualified to use them. The young man who can furnish a remedy, chemical or otherwise, for the boll weevil, will reap a fortune in an hour. New developments in electrical application await the coming of some Marconi or Edison from the University of Texas. Law and Medicine also challenge your noblest powers and offer their golden honors to those most competent. Ethics and Philosophy are practically being rewritten and have to be studied afresh from the egg to the apple.
(2) But it will here be manifest that the whole of the mental powers must be called into play. The mystery of our emotional and spiritual nature can not be ignored. The powers of thought are not independent of imagination and feeling. Nor can these be left to such chance guidance as may possibly be found in the intervals of more serious work. The sense of moral obligation and of ill desert are among the most powerful factors in the formation