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his originality. Since his work is here self-directed, it develops his moral power and self-control.
6. In addition to these potent advantages, it can be claimed that this work develops the body and develops the esthetic sense. When properly taught, this is true.
7. Another great benefit undoubtedly arising from this work in the schools is the development in the child of a love for occupation and an appreciation of the dignity of labor; it makes possible a development of some real sympathy and mutual appreciation between the laboring and professional classes.
As yet no claim has been made whatever for this work, because it prepares for some useful occupation in after life. It is perfectly plain that it belongs in a rational system of education, and should be open to all children, even if they never expect to touch a trade in after life, just as percentage and interest and partial payments are studied by all children as a part of general education, even though they expect never to be either a borrower or lender of money.
Now let us consider some of the objections brought against the introduction of this work into our public school system: It is claimed:
1. That there are already so many studies in our schools that the children cannot keep up with what they have; all the time given to industrial education must be taken from something else already in the school; and there is simply no time for industrial training in public schools.
2. That a vast majority of our boys and girls are to be neither carpenters nor cooks, and they would be wasting time to study it.
3. That equipment and teachers for this work cost too much.
Taking these up in order: The first objection, that time cannot be found for it is already answered by the bald fact that time has been found and the work put to practical test in several hundred public schools in America, and among these are the very best schools in the country. Instead of weakening the purely intellectual training in the schools, practical experience has shown that in many cases it improves it. The reason for this is obvious to one who has studied this work. The manual and domestic work is not simply an interesting physical diversion which children welcome after hours of routine class work, but it is taught so as to practically apply the general principles learned in the other studies, especially in the Arithmetic, Physics, Chemistry, Physiology, and Drawing. Thus the child learns that his other studies do have some practical bearing and must be mastered in order to do his work well. The practical application in the manual and domestic work of the facts and principles learned in the class-room helps to hold these in mind.
I had heard educators claim this for years, but I did not really appreciate it until as a college graduate I entered a high school course in manual training and personally tried to find how to set my lathe to turn a six-inch-long piece of one-inch iron rod down to seven-eighths of an inch in diameter for one inch of the length, and then taper the other five inches uniformly on down to one-half inch in diameter at the end. This gave me food for meditation until I tried, with the same lathe, to turn out a screw with twelve threads to the inch. That lathe got its power from a belt running over a twenty-four inch wheel. This belt could be worked on either of three pulleys on the lathe, each one rotating the piece of iron at a different rate. The lathe shaft on which these pulleys worked had a cog-wheel of a certain number of teeth, which might mesh with either or four other cog-wheels, each with different number of teeth; and finally the shaft on which these four cogwheels worked was itself threaded so many threads to the inch, and served as it rotated to drive along the tool which cut the threads in the bar of iron out of which I was trying to make that screw. By the time I got those belts on the right pulleys and meshed those cogs so that that piece of iron turned over twelve times while that tool passed along one inch, I must confess that I had done more fractions and compound proportion and downright hard, clear thinking than I had done before for several days. What was true in this case is true all through this work, the student is meeting with practical problems which demand that he know the useful general principles that are taught in his classes, and he is given the best sort of mental exercise in being forced to recall and apply these laws.
The same is true in the domestic economy taught the girls. For instance, in a class of twelve-year-old girls I heard a teacher ask why toasted bread was more wholesome than soggy or thick biscuit, and the pupil replied, “The starch in the bread is made up of little grains or cells, each of which has a covering of cellulose. This cellulose can resist the action of the digestive fluids of the alimentary canal. Ordinary baking often fails to burst this cellulose coating, but the high temperature giving in toasting pops open these tough coverings and thus leaves the starch on the inside open to the action of the digestive fluids when the toast is eaten.'
Now in the name of psychology and of common sense, one must ask why is not the learning, or the thinking out, of such mental problems as these just as developing to the human mind as committing to memory the dates and facts of history, the declensions of a foreign tongue, the boundaries and capitals and principal cities and exports and imports of all the states and countries and islands of the sea—not one-tenth of which will any rationalminded person be able to recall after he gets grown, or need it if he should recall it?
These very homely practical illustrations have been given because most teachers even possess such a vague and indefinite idea as to the kind of stuff that is taught in these manual and domestic
When one sees that they practically apply the knowledge gained in the other classes in the school, and present rational problems to pupils to solve, it is easy to understand how their presence not only does not diminish the efficiency of the other work, but in some ways may actually increase it. So much for the objection that the manual training will injure the other school work.
The second objection, that the pupils will not need their trades and domestic training, is worthless, because it has been shown that the work has the highest educational value, whether the child ever practices the trade or not. But if this were not true, this objection would still be on very doubtful ground, for life is full of mishaps, and no one can ever say that he will never need a trade or she will never need to look after a home. If their school course had prepared some of our men to care for themselves when they saw fit, by taking up another occupation, perhaps we would not be compelled to see so many life-long misfits in the various professions. The notion that the girls can learn all of this at home is erroneous. I have taken occasion to ask a number of educated girls in the University the simple questions that I heard in half an hour in a class of twelve-year-old girls in the cooking school,
and but one girl has been found who knew half of these facts, and not a single one who knew all, yet these are but the simplest and most fundamental facts taught in domestic training. As much as we all venerate and love our splendid mothers we must confess that they can not teach many of these matters, because they do not know them themselves. It is not their fault; no provision has been made for their education along these lines. It is our duty to see to it that the next generation shall have their just dues.
The third objection, that the introduction of the work costs too much, is based largely on ignorance of what is needed for this work. The cost of putting this work in the schools depends largely upon the location of the school and the ingenuity of the teacher. In the primary and grammar grades the work ought to be taught by the regular teachers. Actual test in the Belgium schools shows that an intelligent teacher can prepare fairly well for teaching one or two varieties of this work in two six-weeks summer courses. They can easily learn it as a part of their normal school course, if facility for this is provided by the State. In the the high school the work is combined with drawing, and generally has a separate teacher.. This should cost the same as any other good teacher. It will be feasible, even in the high school, to divide the work out among the regular teachers, as soon as the teachers sent out from the State Normals and the University are given opportunity to learn this work as a part of their professional training.
For the primary grades the boys and the girls do the same work, paper folding and cutting, modeling in clay, card board boxes, mat weaving, delicate bent iron work, basket making, chip carving, fret sawing, etc. During the grammar grades the girls turn their attention to sewing, crochet work, millinery, paper flower making, dressmaking, laundry, cooking, gardening, etc., and continue in the high school with scientific cookery, sanitation, domestic art and economy, while the boys take up agriculture, carpentry, and machine and foundry work. Of course, no one city attempts all the above varieties of work at one time.
The equipment for the woodwork (joinery, turning and carving) cost about $500, and may be made much less in smaller towns. Equipment for the forge work, foundary work, and the large iron-working machinery costs about $2,000. These last are needed only for the most advanced courses, and, though desirable, are not at all indispensable. The primary and grammer school courses will cost anywhere from $10 to $100 a grade, depending upon what work is undertaken and the number of pupils in the grade. Basket work, leather work, knife work, are all very cheap.
The girls' work costs less than that of the boys. The supervisor of domestic economy at Pratt Institute, states that $150 could start a modest course in cooking, and that $300 would give a good equipment. The other, work, when a suitable building is furnished, is still less expensive. If a teacher knows anything about the work, and will start with just a hundred or so dollars in the grammar grades, he will soon arouse interest and get what he wants for further equipment. Obtaining material equipment then is by no means an unsurmountable obstacle.
But well-trained teachers of this work are scarce and expensive, making the introduction of it almost prohibitive in all but large schools. If each of our regular teachers knew how to teach some one branch of the manual work, the rest would be easy.
This bring us finally to the last point we are to consider, namely, what ought Texas now to do to best advance this work in manual training and domestic economy?
1. There should be a fund provided by the Legislature, which should be given to carefully selected high schools, scattered over the State, with the purpose of supplementing temporarily local funds used for the establishment of manual and domestic training in these high schools. This fund should be small, and its distribution carefully guarded, with the view of avoiding waste, and more especially with the view of encouraging local effort and local taxation. We suffer enough already from a large central educational fund, and need to be careful that everything be done to arouse local interest, local control, and local support for this new work. The establishment of special manual training departments in a few select high schools by special appropriation from the State funds can, however, at best accomplish very little. are a half dozen, or even a dozen, little departments in this enormous State? Just now they would serve as models and stimuli for others, and hence do a valuable work; but Texas must have manual and domestic training in thousands of schools, and in her rural schools, so that every home within her borders may be cleaner