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siders the vast unexplored resources of the State and is alive to the urgent need of increasing the commercial efficiency of the commonwealth. The great forces of nature can only be controlled and utilized as the result of obedient study. Natura non vincitur nisi parendo. The condition of our forest, crops, fisheries and cattle interests are such as to demand immediate and exhaustive studies in Economic Zoology. The young people of Texas should be given an opportunity to make careful study of the habits of the many noxious insects that annually destroy a large portion of the wealth of the State. Until this is done the development of commercial prosperity and attendant culture must be greatly retarded if not altogether inhibited.

"The applications of the physiological aspect of Zoology are, if anything, even more important than those above indicated. Allusion is made to all those subjects which have to do with public and individual sanitation, matters of great moment in any State, but especially in Texas, where the stamping out of diseases, which, like malaria, owe their origin in men and animals to parasitic infection, has not yet been seriously considered. Whole regions of the State of Texas must ultimately depend for their prosperity and development on these applications of zoological science. Both the more advanced nations of the Old World and the more enterprising comonwealths of our own country have long since found that merely as a business proposition the investing of money in furnishing opportunities for obtaining a knowledge of nature is vastly more lucrative than all other investments which it is within the power of men to make."

A full review is next made of the Mineral Survey. After explaining its establishment and organization and the removal of the collections of the former geological survey from the capitol to the University the Report describes the work of the survey in detail. In eighteen months as the product of extensive field work no less than four elaborate Bulletins have been issued, the first on Texas Petroleum (July, 1901), the second entitled Sulphur, Oil and Quicksilver in Trans-Pecos Texas (February, 1902), the third on Coal, Lignite and Asphalt Rocks (May, 1902), the fourth on the Quicksilver Deposits of Brewster County (October, 1902). In conjunction with the United States Geological Survey the University Mineral Survey is making a topographical map of the southwest part of Brewster County and the southeast part of Presidio County.

"Due attention has been paid also to the erection of astronomical points for the assistance of engineers and surveyors. There have been erected at Terlingua permanent monuments of the true and the magnetic meridian, so that the variations of compass bearings may be accurately ascertained."

The Chemical Work is stated to have been of the most varied character. "The total number of analyses completed from May 1, 1901, to August 31, 1902, was 848. Many of these analyses required a considerable number of separate estimations, so that the total number of such estimations would run about five thousand."

The office work has been extensive. In all 16,084 pieces of mail matter have been sent out. Moreover much pains have been spent on relabeling and reclassifying the collections of the old Survey and in completing valuable files.

A discussion follows of the part the Mineral Survey should play in the State's exhibit at St. Louis. The University and Survey collections should, it is held, be drawn on for St. Louis, of course under proper precautions to secure safe return of the specimens sent.

As for the future of the Survey itself the Regents maintain that it has justified its existence.

"The plans that have been made for future work embrace reports on the following subjects, viz.:

Cement and cement rocks.

Clays and the Clay industry.



Ores of gold, silver, lead and copper.

Building and ornamental stones.

Coal measures of the carboniferous.

"As at present outlined, this work will require four additional years for completion. Allowing four thousand copies for each bulletin the total number to be distributed would be 28,000 and adding to this the 23,000 that will be distributed by April 1, 1903, the total number of copies distributed by 1907 would be 51,000. To accomplish this work would call for an expenditure of $60,000, or $15,000 for each of the four years. By the expiration of this time the series of economic bulletins would have embraced the most important of the subjects now demanding attention, and work could then be prosecuted along other and cognate lines. By that time also there would have been collected and permanently installed a magnificent display of the minerals and the mineral products of the State, a great object lesson in natural wealth.

"Is all of this worth doing? If the results of experience elsewhere can be relied upon, it is certainly worth doing. In no other way can the capital needed to develop what we have be secured except by plain, straightforward reliable reports prepared by men who have no other object in view than to ascertain the truth."

The Library is the next subject taken up. Record is made of the receipt of the Ashbel Smith library, of the new steel cases purchased, and of the installation of the collections of the Texas State Historical Society and of the Texas Academy of Science. The section concludes with an argument for a new building and for adequate funds to buy books.

A brief treatment follows of these subjects: Training in the Gymnasium, Athletics, Band and Glee Club, Literary Societies, Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A., Student Associations, University Hall, Fellowship. All these have received notice in recent numbers of the Record.

Under the heading University Funds mention is made of a sum of eleven or twelve thousand dollars now in the State Treasury and bearing no

interest. "It is respectfully asked that some steps be taken by the Legislature to make this fund productive."

The next section describes the improvements in the buildings and equipment of the Medical Department, here called the Medical College. The Department is in better condition than ever before.

The section on Water System deserves to be quoted in full:

"During the past year a system of waterpipes 4, 6, 10 and 12 inches in diameter has been laid upon the campus, which, if an adequate supply of water can be had, as was promised by the city authorities of Austin before the pipe was laid, would solve not only the problem of fire protection for the buildings of the University and their contents, but would also make it possible to grow trees, shrubbery and grass successfully upon the University grounds. This would add greatly to the comfort and beauty of the surroundings. After, however, the pipe was laid a test was made of the pressure and it was found to range from 0 to 30 pounds. This rendered it useless to erect a standpipe, as was contemplated, since the pressure would not fill it. The University, which is located on the highest point in the city, and is 53 feet above Capitol Hill, has for several years been subjected to great inconvenience and danger from the lack of an adequate supply of water and a reliable pressure. The laboratories of Chemistry and of Botany and Zoology (the two last named being on the third floor of the Main University building) have frequently been without water, and at times there has been no water in any part of the building. This is dangerous to health and property, to say nothing of the great inconvenience. Many processes and experiments in chemistry require not only water, but also that there shall be a regular and sustained pressure. These cannot be conducted as we are now situated, and must of necessity be omitted. In addition to a standpipe on the campus, there should be erected in the Main University building three water pipes, four inches in diameter, running from the basement to the third story, two to be located at the ends of the east and west corridors respectively, and one at the north end of the central corridor, with plugs and fire hose attached for immediate use in case of fire. This provision inside, with the fire hydrants outside, would, it is believed, afford reasonable protection from fire, in case adequate pressure could be secured. Some provision must be made to get reliable and adequate supply of water, or we may suffer a calamity that will require years to retrieve."

After this comes a discussion of the condition of the University buildings. This is said to be better than ever before. Since January, 1899, $5,964.42 have been expended on the betterment of the Medical Department, and $61,940.53 on the Main University, in all $67,904.95. If we add to this the unexpended balance for the Woman's Building, now on hand, $32,730.97, we have a total of $100,635.92 spent in building or improvement during Governor Sayers's administration.

The next section is headed Buildings Needed. The development of the University has greatly crowded the present buildings. To relieve the pres

ent congestion and to provide for certain growth the most pressing needs are for a building for Civil, Mining and Electrical Engineering, and one for Law.

"We have reached that point in the development of the University where it behooves us to plan broadly and wisely for the future. We should now mature our plans and select the locations for future buildings if we would avoid the costly mistakes others have made. It is therefore necessary that the Regents should have a large part of the available funds of the University for the next two years for the erection of necessary buildings and their equipment; for furnishing, heating and lighting the new Women's Building; for grading and improving the Campus of the University; for planting trees and shrubbery, and constructing roadways and walks thereon, and for acquiring additional adjacent ground while it can be purchased at a reasonable price.

"It is the opinion of the Board of Regents that there will be required for the above named and other permanent improvements the use of the interest upon the bonds and the income from the land leases for the next two years. This would leave, of the available University fund, the interest on land notes and matriculation fees to be supplemented by an appropriation from the general revenue sufficient to pay the running expenses of the University. The Regents recognize that the Constitution of the State forbids appropriations from the general revenue for the erection of University buildings. It was evidently the intention of the framers of the Constitution, and a plain necessity, that the available University fund should be used for the erection of necessary buildings and the permanent upbuilding of the institution. Otherwise the University might forever remain in an undeveloped condition, and fail to keep pace with the growth of the State and the constantly increasing demand of our people for higher education. The mandate of the Constitution that "The Legislature shall, as soon as practicable, establish, organize and provide for the maintenance, support and direction of a University of the first class,' would be of no avail unless there was some way of obtaining buildings. Since appropriations out of the general revenue for 'the establishment and erection of the buildings of the University of Texas' is prohibited by the Constitution, it is plain that these can only be provied out of the available University fund, since there is no other. The command of the Constitution that the Legislature shall provide for the maintenance, support and direction of a University of the first class' can be obeyed and carried out by adequate appropriations from the general revenue to pay all current expenses."

Thus the way is prepared for a statement of the Appropriation Needed for the University.

"The amounts which will be required from the general revenue to pay salaries and current expenses for each of the following two years will be, at the

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Interest on bonds and income from land leases will be needed for buildings and other permanent improvements. Matriculation fees, estimated....

Interest on land sales, estimated.

Appropriation needed from general revenue..

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With an appeal for a real University such as the Constitution prescribes the Report proper ends. Numerous appendices, however, are added under the name of exhibits.

The first four exhibits are (A) Enrollment of Students in The University of Texas, 1900-1, 1901-2; (B) Requirements for Admission and for Graduation and Courses of Instruction; (C) List of Affiliated Schools; (D) List

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