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At the afternoon session, on the same day, the following papers were read:

A Principal's Responsibilities and Duties-W. A. Palmer, of Dallas. Discussion by Mrs. Jessie Renfro, of Tyler.

The Teacher and the Text Book-M. M. Dupre, of Troupe.

In the absence of J. S. Kendall, of Denton, who was to read a paper on "The Selection of the Teacher; How and by Whom?" this subject was discussed by Prof. Sutton, of the University, and Superintendent Fulton, of Cleburne. After the papers and discussions, the Association went into election of officers, electing: W. A. Palmer, of Dallas, president; A. N. McCallum, of Seguin, vice-president; O. E. Arbuckle, of Waco, secretary and treasurer.

At a night session held in the Auditorium at the University, the exercises included a short address on the "Life and Works of Francis W. Parker" by W. S. Sutton, of the University; papers on "The Public Schools from the Standpoint of a Trustee," by Trustee Boynton, of Waco, and on "School Laws and Needed Legislation," by State Superintendent Arthur Lefevre; an interesting lecture given by Dr. Bray, of the University, under the auspices of the Academy of Science, on "The Evolution of the Flower in Its Relation to Insects and Other Pollinating Agencies," and the installation of the newly elected officers of the Superintendents' and Principals' Association.

On Tuesday, December the 30th, the general association was called to order at 10 a. m. in the University Auditorium by President J. F. Estill, of Huntsville, and, after invocation by the Rev. Dr. Wright, of Austin, and a vocal solo by Miss Jackson, of Austin, President Prather, of the University, and Governor Sayers both delivered addresses, heartily greeting the teachers and bidding them welcome to the University and to the capital of the State. Superintendent J. W. Clark, of Rockdale, responded on behalf of the teachers, and dwelt on the spirit which should pervade the great body there assembled, after which a paper was read by Superintendent Peyton Irving, Jr., of Sulphur Springs, on "Character Training in the School." This paper contained many points calculated to arouse interest, and the original, strong and entertaining remarks of Dr. S. J. Jones, of Salado, on the same subject, were keenly enjoyed. The program for the morning closed with a paper on "The Movement Toward Free Text Books," by Superintendent Barnett, of Houston. Owing to the lateness of the hour, this paper was not discussed.

The afternoon of this, the second day, was given over to the section meetings, the chief features of which are outlined below.

In the Rural School Section, County Superintendent J. S. Magee, of Tyler, chairman, the following was the program:

"Consolidation of Rural Schools"-W. J. Hanna, Greenville; E. P. Guenther, of Hallettsville.

"Should Elementary Branches in Agriculture and Horticulture Be Taught in the Public Schools?"-M. L. Moody, Beaumont.

"Institute Work"-J. S. Carlisle, Denton; J. H. Hill, McKinney.

"What Changes in Our School Laws Are Needed to Improve the Rural Schools?"-J. R. Stubblefield, Eastland; H. R. Orgain, Belton.

In the Primary Section, Miss I. Barclay, of El Paso, presiding, papers were read as follows:

"Manual Training in Primary Work"-Miss E. Felder, San Antonio. "Importance of Little Things"-Miss E. Blanchard, Temple.

The exercises of the Intermediate School Section included papers by Mrs. Henderson, of Dallas, on "Language Teaching Below the High School," and by P. H. Underwood, of Galveston, on "Fundamental Processes in Arithmetic." The chairman was Principal J. M. Fendley, of Galveston.

The High School Section was presided over by Principal Joseph Morgan, of Dallas.

Owing to the absence of E. D. Criddle, of Waxahachie, whose paper was the first on the program, the meeting opened with the paper by R. G. Hall, of Cleburne, on "University Bulletin No. 1, From the Standpoint of a High School Teacher." The bulletin discussed by Mr. Hall outlines the work expected by The University of Texas of its affiliated High Schools, and this circumstance, together with a deep conviction concerning the importance to the University of the ideals and practice of the High Schools, caused a considerable number of the instructors of the University to attend the meeting and become interested listeners to this and the subsequent papers. Mr. Hall discussed the main points of the Bulletin in an able and lucid paper, manifesting an intelligent appreciation and a most generous reception of the plan offered to the High Schools, as well as a most gratifying spirit of willingness to co-operate with the University.

J. E. Pearce, of Austin, then read a paper on the same subject. This likewise proved interesting. Besides discussing certain points of the Bulletin, and its general influence on the High School work in the State, Mr. Pearce indicated some practical difficulties which High School teachers have to confront, and dwelt on the growing necessity to bear in mind the duty of the High School towards those who do not, as well as to those who do, proceed to the University or a college.

The next papers, on "Electives and Elective Courses in the High School," by T. B. Kendrick, of Dallas, and W. A. James, of Galveston, were likewise excellent and suggestive, Mr. Kendrick showing, by a clear and careful account of what has actually been done, the possibilities of a judicious application of the elective system in the High School, while Mr. James, though rather more conservative, likewise indicated that a partial elective system might, under wise direction, help to overcome certain difficulties.

The last paper on the program, "Educational Waste in the High School," by W. D. Williams, of Fort Worth, touched a timely subject in an interesting manner, and aptly closed a profitable afternoon. It being late there was no discussion.

In the College Section, Chairman S. L. Hornbeak, of Trinity University, being absent, President L. C. Kirkes, of Trinity University, presided.

The first subject presented was "The Bible in the College Course," treated by President L. C. Kirkes, of Trinity University, and President

Fisher, of Fort Worth University; this was followed by "The Function of College Fraternities," by Dr. W. J. Battle, of The University of Texas, all three papers being full of interesting and suggestive points. The rest of the program included "Some Weaknesses in the Preparation for College," by F. Eby, of Baylor University, "Some Fundamental Causes of Defects in Preparation for College," by Dr. H. E. Bolton, of The University of Texas, and "The Encouragement and Control of College Athletics," by J. A. McLaughlin, of Austin College, and B. E. Looney, of Trinity University. All the papers were notable; the last two, which were both quite conservative, were lengthily discussed, from a different and enthusiastic standpoint, by Dr. A. C. Ellis, of The University of Texas, and the discussion developed was very interesting. The afternoon's proceedings likewise included resolutions on the study of the Bible in Colleges, and others recommending to the Regents of The University of Texas the introduction, whenever practicable, of the study of the Hebrew language into the curriculum of the University.

Tuesday night, the session was a special event. On the program proper were the following:

"The Duty of Texas Teachers Toward Civic Betterment," a pointed and entertaining address by Mrs. Pennybacker, of Austin; an impressive and practical address on "Demands of Our Modern Civilization upon State Education," by Dr. T. W. Page, of The University of Texas, and an address by Dr. Dabney, of the University of Tennessee, concerning the work of the Southern Educational Association. Mr. A. P. Wooldridge, of Austin, likewise spoke, introducing a resolution, which was unanimously adopted, asking the State administration to improve the facilities of the State Library, and Mr. Louis J. Wortham spoke of the Texas educational exhibit at the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, to be held at St. Louis. During the evening, music was furnished by the orchestra of the State Institution for the Blind, and, after the program, the teachers were tendered a brilliant reception, under the auspices of the University. The library and corridor were resplendent with lights and were tastefully decorated, refreshments were served in the festively adorned Regents' room, and, altogether, the scene was a beautiful one, the occasion proving enjoyable for all parties concerned.

Wednesday morning the convention held its last session.
Addresses were delivered as follows:

"School Finances; Relation of Expenditures to Needs"-Superintendent R. B. Cousins, of Mexia.

"Future of Manual Training in Texas"-Dr. A. C. Ellis, of The University of Texas.

"Co-operation of Home and School"-Miss Lula Elliott, of Corsicana. Miss Dillworth, of Austin, read a paper by Mrs. J. C. Terrell, of Fort Worth, concerning "Progress and Future of the Library Movement in Texes;" another paper by Miss Lawrence, of the Sam Houston Normal Institute, on "Use of the Library in the School," was likewise read; a declaration of principles was adopted, and, after various resolutions, the

Association proceeded to select Marlin for next place of meeting, and to elect officers for the ensuing year, Superintendent J. W. Hopkins, of Galveston, being elected President.

The Association then adjourned, having held a session admirably adapted, by the conjunction of happy circumstances, to promote good fellowship among the various elements most deeply concerned in the cause of education in Texas. L. M. C.

An interesting and stimulating document is the recent Bulletin of the University of Missouri, by President R. H. Jesse, entitled "What the University Has Done for Missouri." With his record A Stimulating of the past President Jesse couples certain remarks Example. concerning some of the lines along which the University should work in the future-remarks as applicable to Texas as to Missouri. Indeed conditions in Missouri and Texas are so similar and the course traveled by the University of Missouri so nearly that which The University of Texas must travel that we are moved to reprint certain passages from the Bulletin. What the University of Missouri has done and aims to do The University of Texas can certainly do also, seeing that Texas has about the same population as Missouri, nearly four times the area, about the same aggregate wealth, and far greater resources.

HIGH SCHOOLS.

"Eleven years ago there were not in all the State more than 6 high schools that were preparing students to meet the present requirements of this University. Now there are 113. This is astounding growth in eleven years. While there have been other causes for this progress, by far the greatest single cause has been the strenuous influence of the University.

"But there has been an increase not only in the number of good high schools but also in the enrollment of pupils in them. In 1891 there were not more than 5,000 pupils in good high schools in all Missouri; there are more than 30,000 now. While there have been many causes for this increase, by far the greatest single cause has been the untiring labors of the University in behalf of the public schools.

"We have maintained summer schools for the better training of teachers. We have kept in the field constantly an Examiner who has spent his time visiting high schools and teachers' institutes. Guided by his reports, the officers of the University advise and encourage the schools to equip their laboratories, to furnish their libraries, to increase the staff of teachers. to lengthen the course of study, and to make the work in every respect first class. Nearly a fourth of the President's time is given to correspondence with the officers of high schools. Largely as a result of the labors of the University the number of good high schools has increased in 11 years from 6 to 113 and the enrollment of pupils in them from about 5,000 to more than 30,000.

"But the improvement of the high schools means the improvement of the district schools below them. The attempt to build up good district schools without good high schools above them has been tried far and wide and always disastrously. New York City tried it for a number of years but finally established high schools because dry-rot was striking the seventh and eighth grades of the district schools. St. Louis has just established two more high schools that there may be a stronger pull upward upon her ward schools. When, therefore, in 11 years the number of really good high schools in Missouri has increased from 6 to 113, who can estimate the resulting improvement in the district schools? If the University has been the most potent factor in the improvement of the high schools should she not be credited, in large measure, with such improvement of the district schools as has come from that of the high schools?

"I wish heartily that the State would give her aid to the establishment of rural high schools in which should be taught agriculture, horticulture, entomology, botany, manual training, and domestic economy, as well as languages, mathematics, sciences, history, and English. In my opinion the greatest educational problem before Missouri today is how to develop, through State aid and local aid and county aid, a great system of rural high schools-literary, scientific and industrial.

RAISING STANDARDS.

"Not the least contribution of the University to the State has been in the raising of standards in education. We have held aloft the idea that no college or university ought to maintain on its campus a preparatory department. The mixture of a college and an academy in one institution is most unwholesome. By abolishing its preparatory department and by raising the standards of admission so that a student must have a good high school education to enter any department at Columbia or at Rolla, the University has set in higher education an example that, sooner or later, will be substantially followed by every real college in the State.

"The University requires a high school education as a preparation for Law or Medicine. All sound thinkers on education are agreed that it is. unfortunate for these professions to admit to them men who have not had proper academic training. After the student has entered the University, we require three years of study for a Law diploma, and four years of nine months each for a Medical diploma. The University has introduced into the State the idea that medical laboratories of Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Physiological Chemistry, Pharmacology, Hygiene, Bacteriology and Pathology should be filled by men, supported by salaries, who give their whole time to reading, writing, teaching and research, and who do not practice at all. This idea is being adopted gradually by the other medical schools of the State. The greatest contribution of the University to education in Law and in Medicine has been through the raising of the standards of education in these professions.

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