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Association proceeded to select Marlin for next place of meeting, and to elect officers for the ensuing year, Superintendent J. W. Hopkins, of Galveston, being elected President.
The Association then adjourned, having held a session admirably adapted, by the conjunction of happy circumstances, to promote good fellowship among the various elements most deeply concerned in the cause of education in Texas.
L. M. C.
An interesting and stimulating document is the recent Bulletin of the University of Missouri, by President R. H. Jesse, entitled “What the
University Has Done for Missouri.” With his record A Stimulating
of the past President Jesse couples certain remarks Example.
concerning some of the lines along which the University should work in the future-remarks as applicable to Texas as to Missouri. Indeed conditions in Missouri and Texas are so similar and the course traveled by the University of Missouri so nearly that which The Uni. versity of Texas must travel that we are moved to reprint certain passages from the Bulletin. What the University of Missouri has done and aims to do The University of Texas can certainly do also, seeing that Texas has about the same population as Missouri, nearly four times the area, about the same aggregate wealth, and far greater resources.
"Eleven years ago there were not in all the State more than 6 high schools that were preparing students to meet the present requirements of this University. Now there are 113. This is astounding growth in eleven years. While there have been other causes for this progress, by far the greatest single cause has been the strenuous influence of the University.
“But there has been an increase not only in the number of good high schools but also in the enrollment of pupils in them. In 1891 there were not more than 5,000 pupils in good high schools in all Missouri; there are more than 30,000 now. While there have been many causes for this increase, by far the greatest single cause has been the untiring labors of the University in behalf of the public schools.
“We have maintained summer schools for the better training of teachers. We have kept in the field constantly an Examiner who has spent his time visiting high schools and teachers' institutes. Guided by his reports, the officers of the University advise and encourage the schools to equip their laboratories, to furnish their libraries, to increase the staff of teachers, to lengthen the course of study, and to make the work in every respect first class. Nearly a fourth of the President's time is given to correspondence with the officers of high schools. Largely as a result of the labors of the University the number of good high schools has increased in 11 years from 6 to 113 and the enrollment of pupils in them from about 5,000 to more than 30,000.
“But the improvement of the high schools means the improvement of the district schools below them. The attempt to build up good district schools without good high schools above them has been tried far and wide and always disastrously. New York City tried it for a number of years but finally established high schools because dry-rot was striking the seventh and eighth grades of the district schools. St. Louis has just established two more high schools that there may be a stronger pull upward upon her ward schools. When, therefore, in 11 years the number of really good high schools in Missouri has increased from 6 to 113, who can estimate the resulting improvement in the district schools? If the University has been the most potent factor in the improvement of the high schools should she not be credited, in large measure, with such improvement of the district schools as has come from that of the high schools ?
"I wish heartily that the State would give her aid to the establishment of rural high schools in which should be taught agriculture, horticulture, entomology, botany, manual training, and domestic economy, as well as languages, mathematics, sciences, history, and English. In my opinion the greatest educational problem before Missouri today is how to develop, through State aid and local aid and county aid, a great system of rural high schools—literary, scientific and industrial.
“Not the least contribution of the University to the State has been in the raising of standards in education. We have held aloft the idea that no col. lege or university ought to maintain on its campus a preparatory department. The mixture of a college and an academy in one institution is most unwholesome. By abolishing its preparatory department and by raising the standards of admission so that a student must have a good high school education to enter any department at Columbia or at Rolla, the University has set in higher education an example that, sooner or later, will be substantially followed by every real college in the State.
“The University requires a high school education as a preparation for Law or Medicine. All sound thinkers on education are agreed that it is. unfortunate for these professions to admit to them men who have not had proper academic training. After the student has entered the University, we require three years of study for a Law diploma, and four years of nine months each for a Medical diploma, The University has introduced into the State the idea that medical laboratories of Anatomy, Histology, Physiology, Physiological Chemistry, Pharmacology, Hygiene, Bacteriology and Pathology should be filled by men, supported by salaries, who give their whole time to reading, writing, teaching and research, and who do not practice at all. This idea is being adopted gradually by the other medical schools of the State. The greatest contribution of the University to education in Law and in Medicine has been through the raising of the standards of education in these professions.
“In the summer of 1900, the University at its own expense made a complete survey of all the water power in South Missouri, publishing the results in a bulletin which was circulated widely among manufacturers. We showed where there was water power and how it could be carried over electric wires to the nearest railroad station.
“In 1901, the University sent an officer to every important coal mine in Missouri, to take samples-neither the best nor the worst—for analysis in our laboratories. The geological surveys had shown where the coal beds were and the thickness of the veins, but nobody had yet tested the steam producing power of Missouri coals in comparison with those of other States. This work, done thoroughly by the University, was published in a bulletin which was scattered widely among manufacturers.
“In the last two years the departments of Geology and Agricultural Chemistry have been trying to determine whether certain deposits in Missouri can be converted into cement.
Our experiments have proved that Missouri contains at various places immense deposits of rock that can 'be converted into Portland cement.
“The departments of Engineering and Agriculture at Columbia have made the most careful and elaborate tests that have ever been made on the effect of wide tires upon roads and upon teams. To test the matter thoroughly the experiment had to be conducted on roads of different compositions, and in every sort of weather. Everybody knows that in some kinds of weather wide tires decrease the draft. We found that in some unusual conditions of the roads they increase the draft, but in nine cases out of ten, they represent a decided saving to the team and a benefit to the roadbed. The pamphlet embodying the result of this experiment has been called for by engineers all over the country. It has become a standard authority on the subject.
“In the laboratory of Agricultural Chemistry at Columbia all the mineral waters of Missouri have been carefully analyzed. The book which the Agricultural Chemist of the University published on this subject has become the authority for the State.
“The same laboratory for years has tested the purity of all fertilizers sold in this State to farmers, fruit growers, and gardeners.
"Missouri should have a Pure Food and Drug law, the tests under which should be conducted in this same laboratory, which has rendered in the past. so great public service.
“The Department of Sociology sent last fall a printed list of questionsto every Alms House in the State. Replies from 40 were received. Upon the basis of these replies we have issued a bulletin describing the evils that now exist in these institutions in Missouri, and pointing out some methods of rational reform. This bulletin shows conclusively that some legislation: on Alms Houses is necessary. We find, for instance, that some of them contaiu children who are being bred to pauperism; some, lunatics who ought to be in asylums; and some, epileptics and feeble minded people who ought to be at Marshall. Very few Alms Houses have religious exercises at any time. In many counties the keeping of the indigent poor is let to the lowest bidder who in turn makes a profit. Few Alms Houses provide even such work as the inmates can do.
“A similar inquiry will be made promptly into the condition of the jails of Missouri and a bulletin on these institutions will be published. Is it not a part of liberal education to teach our students to sympathize with the unfortunates of society and to think intelligently upon the best way of caring for them?
“The history of Missouri is of great importance and is full of interest and romance. The teachers of history in the University and the advanced students should, and undoubtedly will, investigate the history of the State, publishing the results in monographs.
“Our Department of Law should make its contribution to the jurisprudence of Missouri, not only through training men, but also through wise publications. Is the jurisprudence of Missouri so developed that learned skill can not improve it? To point out its deficiencies would be good work. David Dudley Field alone did much in this respect for New York.
“The Department of Economics and Political Science will investigate with the greatest care the problems of taxation, municipal government, and administration in this commonwealth. These problems are yet only par. tially solved. Why should not the professors of these subjects in the University help toward the solution of such problems? The history of Banking in Missouri is full of interest and illumination and other inviting fields are waiting for investigation.
“The Medical Department should, and undoubtedly will, in the course
of years make valuable contributions to sanitation and public health in Missouri.
“Our museum at Columbia should abound in fossils and in Indian remains which are plentiful in this commonwealth. The museums of some other Universities contain case after case filled with such specimens from Missouri. We ought to have skeletons and mounted specimens of all the wild animals, fishes, insects, and birds that now live in Missouri, or that have lived here in the past. The College of Agriculture is eager to make a Soil Survey of the State and also a Botanical Survey. Our Herbarium should contain well mounted specimens of every plant that grows in Missouri. The department of History should be adorned with fac-similes of important documents illustrating the history of Missouri, and with portraits, busts, or photographs of all her greatest men and women.
“The University is eager to make these collections if only the means were supplied by the Legislature or by private beneficence. This, too, is a form of Public Service.
SCHOOL OF MINES.
“In one biennial period our School of Mines at Rolla, examined for miners, prospectors and capitalists, 8,000 specimens of Missouri rock and soil supposed to contain mineral. This is not the only contribution which the School of Mines has made to the material welfare of the State.
“Every chair in a State University should endeavor, so far as possible, to maintain four lines of work: 1. Teaching; 2. Influence for good on students and institution; 3. Research and Publication; 4. Public Service. The Public Service should aid interests of the State outside of the University and such interests only as can be reached by scientific skill. Such service should not be divorced from the purposes for which a University is maintained.
CARING FOR MISSOURI.
“The State is spending annually a small sum of money for her University. What we are asking out of the General Revenue Fund for maintenance in the next biennial period amounts to one cent on every $100 of property in the State. A man whose assessment is $1,000 would pay 10 cents a year for maintaining the University. Ten times what our maintenance costs is saved every year to citizens of Missouri through the applications and the results of our scientific work in feeding live stock, in destroying insect pests, in increasing the yield of fruits, vegetables, and crops, and in discovering deposits of cement-rock and other minerals. But the greatest return that the State receives from the University is in the vast improve