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Matilda) being in the arms of another. In one of the letters is his will, bequeathing two-thirds of his property to Matilda, and the remainder to the family of the gentleman above named. The letters are dated the 27th ult. and it is supposed he perpetrated the horrid deed on that day. He had been seen near the monument, with a book in his hand, and on being observed, drew his hat over his eyes. The book was found on the ground by his side, and was "The Sorrows of Werter."--It lay open at the place where Werter writes to Charlotte, "They are loaded the clock strikes twelve-I go-Charlotte, Charlotte! Farewell! Farewell!" That and several other passages in the book, corresponding with his unhappy situation, were marked by him with a
RETROSPECT OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.
On October 27th the President of the United States addressed a message to both houses of Congress. It begins with recapitulating the circumstances which occasioned the mission of ministers to London for the purpose of settling the differences between the two countries-the cause of the rejection of the offered treaty, and the resumption of the negotiations. It then adverts to the outrage committed on the Chesapeak frigate and its consequences, and speaks of the necessity of excluding armed vessels, for the future, from the harbours of the United States. It proceeds to mention an additional violation of maritime rights by the English government, by its order interdicting all trade of neutrals between parts not at amity with it. On this subject it is remarkable that not the least notice is taken of the French declaration of blockade; and indeed, throughout the message, no allusion whatever is made to the conduct of France or its system of policy: it is even included in the general assertion, that with all the other nations of Europe harmony has been uninterrupted, and commerce and friendly intercourse have been maintained on their usual footing. The President goes on to mention, that the differences with Spain remain unsettled; and that symptoms of ferment have appeared among the remote Indians in the North-west. He notices the application of certain appropriations of revenue to the defence of New York, Charleston, and New Orleans, and hints at further measures of preparation. He alludes to the matter of Aaron Burr, and the defeat of the attempts against the public peace; and concludes with a very favourable statement of the public finances.
On the whole, it is manifest from this address, that the differences with England are at present the prominent objects of consideration in the United States, that they are regarded in the most serious light, and that the President, in particular, has adopted sentiments very hostile to this country. It is said, however, that some subsequent debates in Congress have left the anti-anglican party in a minority; but when the account of the last orders of council reaches America, there is reason to apprehend such an additional exasperation as will produce some violent resolutions.
The entrance of a Russian squadron into the Tagus some time since excited a suspicion of approaching hostilities between England and Russia, though that circumstance since a; pears to have been unconnected with any political plan. All doubts, however, have since been removed by a declaration issued from the imperial court of Petersburgh, in the beginning of November, of a directly hostile tendency. This paper, after stating various complaints against England for want of co-operation in the war with France, the aggression on Den mark
Denmark, &c. proceeds to annul every connexion and subsisting convention between the two countries, to assert the principles of the armed neutrality of the empress Catharine, to demand satisfaction for the detention of vessels belonging to Russian subjects, and to declare that there shall be no re-establishment of concord till satisfaction be given to Denmark, and peace be made with the French emperor. An ukase was at the same time issued, laying an embargo upon all British ships, and property on board them and in the customhouses. It decrees that British immoveable property, and what does not consist of goods, shall be left in the possession of the owners, but not to be sold, transferred, or mortgaged.
In consequence of these measures, the British ambassador quitted Russia; and a Russian frigate, with a quantity of specie on board, lying at Spithead, has been seized and brought into Portsmouth. An answer to the declaration has since appeared in the London Gazette, couched in moderate but firm lan guage, and powerfully refuting all the allegations made by the Russian cabinet. It is followed by an order for reprisals upon the vessels, goods, &c. of that country. The two nations, therefore, are now at open war.
The emperor Napoleon is at present making a tour in his Italian dominions, and has visited Milan, Venice, and other cities. Some new measures may be expected to succeed. It is said that he is reconciled to his brother Lucien, who has for some time resided at Rome.
The legislative body in Holland have addressed their king in terms expressive of an ardent desire for peace. He has since returned a message, containing a report of the state of the nation, by no means flattering. His court is now at Utrecht.
At Madrid another royal decree was published, dated Nov. 5th, in which the king declares he has forgiven his son in consequence of his having made known the authors of "the horrible plan," and laid open the whole in a legal form. Two billets are annexed, from the prince of Asturias to the king and queen, in which he acknowledges his "failure of duty," and submissively begs pardon. To add to the mystery of this strange affair, the prince, it is said, bas since been nominated generalissimo of the army destined against Portugal.
This last kingdom has been the scene of a very memorable and extraordinary transaction, which adds to the wonderful events of the time. The English embassador, Lord Strangford, though removed to a British mau of war after the hostile acts against this country which the prince regent had been compelled to adopt, did not cease to preserve a communication with the court of Portugal, and to make representations of the necessary result of its conduct. By these, together with the avowed intention of the French emperor to deprive the prince of all authority, he was at length led to the determination of throwing himself into the arms of England, and, under its auspices, of quitting his European dominions to take possession of the colony of Brazil. On November 24th the whole Portuguese royal family, consisting of fifteen persons, embarked on board a fleet composed of eight sail of the line, four frigates, some small armed vessels, and thirty merchant ships, and on Dec. 1 set sail for the Brazils, accompanied by four British men of war. One of the Portuguese ships of the line was afterwards detached for an English port. Of the few left behind, one only was nearly fitted for sea. Lord Strangford accompanied hem between Madeira and the Azores, and then returned to England. No resistance was
made by the Russian squadron in the Tagus, of which it is said that only three ships are in fighting condition, and these seem to have had no orders to act. Sir Sidney Smith has since resumed the blockade of the Tagus. The prince had appointed a regency; and on his departure issued a declaration to the people of Portugal of the reasons which had induced him to take this step. It does not appear that they have taken any lively interest in his fate. The retreat of the royal family has, of course, precluded any attempt to resist the invasion of the French and Spaniards, the former of whom immediately entered Lisbon, and are, doubtless, at this time, in possession of the whole country.
The Algerines have recomnienced hostilities against the Americans, and it is said they have also declared war against the French and Spaniards. Their preference of our friendship to that of these nations will be useful for the supply of Gibraltar, which is thought to be in danger of a siege, but it is to be hoped that we shall not reckon them among our allies.
General Sir John Moore has left Sicily with a body of 8000 men, and is gone upon a secret expedition. He was last heard of from Gibraltar.
War continues on the frontiers between the Turks and Servians. The evacuation of Wallachia and Moldavia by the Russians has not yet taken place; on the contrary, the Russians are strengthening their posts in those quarters.
At the close of 1806 we gave a general view of the events of that year, and a sketch of the prospects with which it concluded. His Majesty's speech then called upon the nation to lend its utmost exertions against “the formidable and increasing power of the enemy." Every lover of his country must deeply lament the deteriorated state of our prospects with which the year 1807 terminates. The remaining hope of a continental resistance to the gigantic power of France from the numerous armies of Russia united with the remnant of Prussia, has not only totally failed, but Russia has been induced to co-operate in the schemes of the French emperor, and is converted into an open enemy to England. The only enterprize of the British arms which has been attended with success has added a new and inveterate foe to the list of our enemies, and, it is to be feared, has durably injured the national character in the eye of Europe. The exclusion of British commerce and communication has been extended to the country with which we had the most intimate political relation, and now embraces almost the whole European continent. In Egypt and South America our arms have been disgraced, and our plans completely defeated. Our single remailing ally will probably be compelled to abandon our cause, if not to join the host of our enemies; whilst hostility is perhaps impending from another and more important quarter. Thus, if the war continues, we shall have to engage single-handed against the whole martial world, with the certainty of a volcano of disaffection ready to burst forth within the empire itself. Under such circumstances, surely the most sanguine will hesitate before they urge the nation on to a blind career of warfare without aim or end, every successive year of which is likely (if we judge from past experience) to render our condition more alarming than the preceding!
MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT.
The transfer of the Portuguese government from Portugal to Brazil opens a new field for Britisk industry. Our intercourse with Brazil has hitherto been very limited, having been chiefly confined to a few of our Indiamen, who
called at some part of the coast of Brazil, generally Rio de Janeiro, in the course of their outward voyage. Now, however, Brazil has received a great accession of wealthy inhabitants; her commerce with Portugal is suspended, and England is the only link by which she remains connected with Europe. We may therefore conclude, that the restrictions on the importation of English merchandize will be removed, and employment given to a number of vessels not calling in their way to a remote destination, but regularly occupied in the Brazil trade. The extent of this country is immense; its length is not overrated at two thousand four hundred miles, and its surface is thirteen times as extensive as that of Great Britain. It comprises every variety of soil, and almost every variety of climate. The southern division partakes of the characteristics of Buenos Ayres, while the northern abounds with the rich produce of tropical regions. It has been said by some persons that the loss of Buenos Ayres is now doubly matter of regret, as that province united with Brazil might have constituted a magnificent empire. But we are by no means converts to this opinion, Brazil evidently supplies us with sufficient extent of coast and territory all that we want is, that human prudence should co operate with the bounty of nature--that is, that the trade of import and export in Brazil should be laid open by the Portuguese government, in the same way as the trade of the United States of North America. The Portuguese, like the Spaniards, are so jealous of their sovereignty, and so wedded to ancient prejudices, that this permission could never have been expected, unless at a time of pressure. But that which necessity has extorted is often continued through choice, and there can be little doubt that the people of Brazil, having once tasted the sweets of a free trade, would be averse to relinquish them, and that their government would be equally reluctant to forego its financial advantages. Assuming, therefore, that a great change is about to take place in our intercourse with Portuguese America, the next question is, in what articles will this intercourse consist? Principally in the export of cotton manufactures; although the quantity of woollens required in a country which extends to thirty-five degrees from the equator will not be inconsiderable, especially when we take into account that America is much colder in the same latitude than our own hemisphere. All articles of hardware, jewellery, saddlery, &c. will likewise be in demand; in short almost every thing that is wanted in North America, in the West Indies, or in any quarter which, like these, is an agricultural and not a manu facturing country. The returns from Brazil will be chiefly in raw produce, in cotton-wool, sugar, hides, tallow, salt provisions, &c. The precious metals, likewise, will be an important article in the exports from Brazil.
The second West India convoy, amounting to about 150 sail, proceeded on their voyage from Portsmouth on the 18th of last month, and having had very fair winds down Channel, there can be little doubt of their reaching their destination before the end of January. They will arrive in a distressed and dispirited country. A full twelvemonth has now elapsed since the public attention was called to the miserable condition of the West India planters, and nothing effectual has been done to relieve them. The approaching session of Parliament will be occupied with this subject among its first deliberations; but, unfortunately, amidst our contending prejudices there seems little prospect of aid to the unfortunate West Indian. The low price has increased the consumption during the two last years by more than one-fifth, being an addition of revenue to government of nearly 900,000l. The planter asks that during the continuance of his misery a part of this tax should be remitted, but the Minister pleads the urgency of the public wants. To oblige the distilleries to use sugar instead of barley would relieve the planter, but here is to be encountered the all-powerful opposition of the landed interest. To permit, the planter to barter sugar with the Americans in the islands for stores, would be a simple and efficacious 'remedy, and would keep within ourselves the money which the planter is forced to pay away to Americans; but this most expedient of all the measures proposed for the relief of the West Indies, is opposed by the shipping interest.
We have tlie pleasure of mentioning the arrival of the China fleet, along with two ships from Bombay.
A small East India convoy has received their dispatches, and will sail from Portsmouth
Portsmouth as soon as the wind permits. The number of bankruptcies during last month, we are sorry to say, is very considerable. Money, at the same time, was scarcely ever more pienty: this is owing to two causes-the smallness of our financial wants, and the scarcity of good securities. It is said that the sum required by way of loan will be about twelve millions, of which five millions will, it is said, be advanced by the Bank without interest during war, and the remaining seven millions may be raised by the issue of Exchequer bills, to be redeemed at a future period.
The war with Russia has caused an enhancement in the price of tallow, and consequently of candles and soap. Hemp and other articles from that quarter are likewise higher; but we can discover no good reason for raising the price of paper, as our supply of old rags does not depend on any of the countries from which we have been lately excluded. The Lottery has been contracted for by Messrs. Walsh, Nesbitt and Co. on terms advantageous to government. 20th Dec. 1807.
CURRENT PRICES OF MERCHANDIZE.
per cwt.. Ditto Pearl Barilla
Brandy, Coniac gal.
Cotton-wool, Surin. Ib.
Logwood Chips ton. 111. Os. Od to 121 Os. Od. 21 10s Od. to 31. 2s. 6d. Madder, Dutch crop cwt 4 10 0
5 10 024
-12 0 0
3 3 0
O 14 O
0 15 O
5 0 0
5 10 0
0 3 9
2 12 0
- 10 00
2 15 0
. 22 0 0
0 0 0
Silk, Raw Ditto