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of the first distinction at her house, there was an air, a dignity, will hardly be equalled, and never can be surpassed. But the noble manner, the imposing ceremonial of her life, leave but slight vestiges for remembrance, compared to those intrinsic and domestic virtues which give to the female sex their truest ornament. In all the private relations of life, she was, to the utmost, valuable! Her maternal duties she fulfilled with the enlightened spirit, and more, perhaps, than the sensibility of a Cornelia. They could only be equalled by the unceasing assiduities, the soothing tenderness, the sweet and pious and filial regards which accompanied her to her last hour. Ireland will long have cause to regret her-she cultivated its best interests-to the gentry, she displayed an example of attachment to the country which they might have well imitated— to the peasantry, of all descriptions, she was a guardian friend-to every illiberal party-distinction, whether arising from a false zeal for the state or religion, she was an unprejudiced enlightened opponent. From the contemplation of such a character it is indeed not easy to withdraw.

FOREIGN OCCURRENCES.

Married. At Paramaribo, Surinam, Oct. 18, 1807, Charles Frederici, Esq. (son of J. F. Frederici, Esq. late governor of that colony) to Miss Van Ommaron, of the same place.

Died. Suddenly, Christian VII. king of Denmark. He was born on the 29th of January, 1749. In the year 1766 he was married to the Princess Carolina Matilda, sister of our Monarch. The unfortunate history of that princess, owing, it is generally supposed, to the eumity of the queen dowager, has long been a subject of regret in this country. The late king of Denmark came over to this country in the year 1767, and was received with every possible demonstration of respect by all ranks of people. Soon after his return to Denmark his faculties, which were never bright, sunk into a decay which wholly unfitted him for the duties of his situation, and his kingdom has ever since been governed under his name, without the least chance that he should have been able to resume his royal functions.

Drowned, near Memel, Lord Royston, eldest son of the Earl of Hardwicke. He had embarked at Leiban for Sweden, but the vessel in which he sailed was stranded near Memel, and his Lordship, with two of his servants, and several other passengers, were washed overboard and lost. Perhaps a more promising young nobleman was never given to a country's hopes, or more untimely Snatched away. At an age when most are content to study the ancient authors, with a view only to attain the language in which they wrote, his Lordship was so thoroughly master of their contents, that he translated the most obscure of them with a spirit and clearness not inferior to the originals. It was from the desire of adding to the store of ancient and modern learning which he possessed, the advantages which result from personal observation and from travel, that his Lordship quitted the splendour of au affinent home, and encountered the dangers under which he finally perished. By his death the reversionary interest of the Earl of Hardwicke's family in the patent place of Clerk of the Common Pleas, in the Court of Exchequer in Ireland, is reduced to the two lives of the Earl and his surviving son, Lord Charles, on whom the title of Royston devolves.

"Uno avulso non defecit alter
"Aureus, et simili frondescit virga metallo."

RETROSPECT OF PUBLIC AFFAIRS.

The country to which the public curiosity has been principally attracted during the last month, is Spain. The policy of Napoleon in causing the Spanish troops to be sent upon distant service, whilst he gradually inundated

Spain with French soldiers, rendered him, under the deplorable weakness of the crown, and unpopularity of the minister, the undisputed arbiter of its fate. Immediately after the revolution which placed the Prince of Asturias on the throne in the room of his deposed father, the Grand Duke of Berg (General Murat) on March 24, entered Madrid at the head of the French army, and was received with apparent cordiality by the inhabitants. The Spanish nation in general continued to express their joy on the change of the crown, and especially on the fall of the Prince of Peace, who was committed to custody, while all his effects were seized and confiscated. In the meantime the French emperor advanced to Bayonne, without any explicit declaration of the part he meant to act on the occasion. It soon, however, appeared, that it was his intention to assume the decision of the great cause between the father and son; and Bayonne presently witnessed the arrival of the old king of Spain with his queen, and of the new king, to put themselves in the hands of the modern disposer of crowns and sceptres, and await his final award. In the true spirit of a regular and established sovereign, Napoleon has declared against a popular revolution, and has decreed the restoration of king Charles, and the deposition of king Ferdinand; but in order to prevent any renewal of the contest, he has most considerately kept them both, with the Prince of Peace, in France, and has appointed the Grand Duke of Berg lieutenant-general of the kingdom of Spain-that is, his lieutenant-general. This open subversion of the independence of a great nation has not taken place without some tokens of the spirit by which it was once actuated. On May 2d a very serious insurrection broke out in Madrid, in which it appears that the Grand Duke was brought into great personal danger till he was rescued by some of his grenadiers. It became necessary to employ all the force of the French troops, with thirty pieces of cannon, loaded with grape-shot, to clear the streets, before tranquillity could be restored; and doubtless a number of lives have been lost on the occasion. Risings in favour of Ferdinand have also taken place at Toledo and in other cities, but have been quelled by the French arms. These disturbances have moved Napoleon to declare, that any further outrages offered to his soldiers shall be attended "with the subjugation of all Spain." Is any thing, then, wanting to its subjugation? It is to be observed, that the details of these transactions are as yet imperfectly known, and that some accounts state the first losses of the French at Madrid to have been very serious.

Sweden alone of the other countries of Europe has excited any lively interest. Its sovereign's singular policy of deserting the defence of the part of his dominions invaded by the Russians, and endeavouring to indemnify himself by conquest from another power, has hitherto been attended with little success. The Russian troops entered Abo, the capital of Finland, in March, and the duchy was declared to be thenceforth for ever incorporated with the Russian empire. Since that time, the strong fortress of Sweaborg has surrendered to them, with the flotilla in its harbour; which last, by the terms of capitulation,, is to be restored to Sweden, when England restores to Denmark its captured fleet. The king has been so much mortified by this capture as to cashier the commander of the place and all the officers who concurred in its surrender. The Swedish army employed in the invasion of Norway has met with a check, and without the co-operation of an English force it seems likely that the enterprize will prove abortive.

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The Russians have made descents upon the isles of Gothland and Aland which they still retain.

The French appear to be dissatisfied with the exertions of the Danes n the common cause, and a body of Spanish auxiliaries has forcibly taken quarters in

Altona.

The differences between the Dey of Algiers and the French are said to be compromised.

The united Toulon and Rochefort squadrons in considerable force sailed to Corfu, with a convoy of troops and other succours to the Seven Islands, and returned in safety. They are now blocked up in Toulon by a British squadron.

The small French island of Deseada, in the West Indies, surrendered to a British armament on March 30th.

The island of Madeira has been formally restored to the Prince Regent of Portugal, who appears to be firmly established at the Brazils.

In the British parliament a new bill has been brought in and passed, for restraining the grant of reversionary places by the crown. Its operation is, however, limited to a year, and it is in several respects altered from that which was rejected by the Lords.

A bill has been introduced by the Chancellor of the Exchequer for allowing the commissioners for the redemption of the national debt to grant annuities in place of 3 per cent. stock. (See farther our Commercial Report.)

One of the principal subjects of debate in the House of Commons has been the proposed measure of employing sugar instead of grain in the distillery. It has been vigorously opposed by the country gentlemen of all parties, as preju. dicial to the agricultural interest of the nation, and ministers have had but small majorities on the divisions.

A petition to the House of Commons from the Catholics of Ireland was presented by Mr. Grattan, and gave occasion to a spirited debate; but the motion for its being referred to a committee was rejected by a large majority.

A similar motion, introduced to the House of Lords by Lord Grenville, met with a like fate.

Intelligence is received of the safe arrival of the English troops under Sir John Moore, at Gottenburg.

MONTHLY COMMERCIAL REPORT.

The Annuity plan, lately brought forward by the Chancellor of the Exche quer, has excited considerable attention. Its first effect was to raise stocks, although its object, and probably its ultimate tendency, will be to prevent their rise above a given point. The reason for the measure is as follows:Until the present year Government have had occasion to borrow a larger sum than they paid off; but it now happens that the latter is the greater of the two; the amount of the sinking fund exceeding the amount of the loan. Next year, even if we continue at war, it is likely that the loan will be still less, and the sinking fund still greater; so that the high price of stocks, instead of being a benefit to Government, becomes a disadvantage. It is now, therefore, matter of consideration to prevent the progressive rise of stocks. The direct way to do this would be, to lessen the amount of the sinking fund, by relieving the country of the most pernicious of the taxes. This is the method which would be recommended by the political economists, several of whom are adverse to the plan of a sinking fund, Mr. George Craufurd, an eminent English mer.

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chant resident at Rotterdam, has written a pamphlet to shew, that to withdraw money from the people to form a sinking fund, interferes materially with the progress of national prosperity. But the stock-holders, the bankers, and, in general, the more opulent part of our traders, regard the sinking fund as the rock of our salvation. Without much enquiry into its principles, they conclude that a measure must be generally beneficial, the operation of which is bene ficial as far as comes under the sphere of their own particular observation. We do not profess to know the sentiments of the Chancellor of the Exchequer, nor of his colleagues in office; but even were they on the side of the political economists, it is not likely that they would venture to oppose the general sense of the monied interest. The Chancellor of the Exchequer, therefore, endeavours to prevent the further rise of stocks, not by subtracting from the sinking fund, but by changing its direction. He does not venture to apply a half, a third, or a fourth of that fund to a different purpose, but he seeks to apply it to the same purpose in a different way. At present the commissioners of the sinking fund come regularly into the market, and purchase while the books are open at the rate of 300,000l. a week-an amount so large as to sweep the greatest part of the floating stock in the market. The higher, however, the price of stock, the less of it can be extinguished by a given sum of money. Therefore, to prevent a further rise of price, the Chancellor of the Exchequer wishes a portion of this sinking fund to be appropriated to annuities, the amount so appropriated to be a deduction from the 300,000l. a week at present employed for the purposes of redemption. A few days ago there was published a set of tables for the calculation of annuities, in exchange for consols and reduced stock, from which we extract the following terms, in progressions of five years. The calculation is made on the average price of the stock, from 60 to 80. We make our extract from the present price:

Annuity for every 1001. Stock, at the present Price of Consols, viz. 67 and under 68.

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It thus appears, that a person aged 35, possessed of 1001. consols or reduced, and who receives 31. a year interest if he keeps the stock for his heirs, will receive 41. 17s, during life, if he sink the stock.

Considerable doubts are entertained in regard to the extent to which this plan may be carried, an opinion being current that few persons will be desirous of buying annuities; not but that the allowance is liberal, but because it is adverse to the industrious habits of the country to sink a principal for an increase of interest. It is argued, that the business done in that way by the public offices is very limited. No doubt the known security of Government will induce many persons to sink their money who would not have adopted that measure on the security of individuals; but it still appears questionable to us

whether

whether the sum so appropriated will be of sufficient amount to make any material deduction from the sinking fund.

The other great point which has engaged the attention of the mercantile part of the community, we may add of the nation at large, is the question of distilling from sugar instead of grain. We have often adverted to the calamitous state of the West India planter, and dwelt on the necessity of relief; but this measure is recommended by another consideration-the apprehension of an enhancement in the price of provisions. During two months the price of barley has been progressively on the rise; all grain, except wheat, has likewise been at advanced rates; and even wheat, although an abundant crop and cheap till lately, now begins to feel the effect of the scarcity of other sorts of grain, and is on the rise. It is next to a certainty that we shall have no importation this season either from the Baltic or the United States; and it is clear, from the average of the last five years, that we require about 1,500,000 quarters of foreign grain to make our supply equal to our consumption. The measure of distilling from sugar instead of grain offers a saving of about half that amount in England, Scotland, and Ireland. It deserves, therefore, the most serious consideration, especially if accompanied with such provisions as may prevent injury to the farmer. Let us briefly enquire how this is managed. The committee, sensible that a continuance of the prohibition of distilling from grain for another year might lessen the quantity of barley sown, promise, and in a manner pledge themselves, that it shall be for one year only. The crop at present on the ground was sown before the report was made, so that the quantity of land appropriated for barley could not be less on that account, nor will it be less next year, if, as is likely, the farmer be apprised by Christmas that the distillation from barley will be resumed. The only effect of the prohibition, therefore, will be to prevent barley from rising higher than it is; and as it is acknowledged on all hands to be at present too high, that effect will be beneficial to the country.

In Ireland the prejudices of the people are in favour of spirits illicitly distilled, or what they currently call whiskey. But this is the case only when provisions are plenty. When provisions are scarce, the people are aware that bread is of more consequence than whiskey, and they will second the efforts of Government to put down illicit stills, and to enforce distillation from sugar.

In Scotland the distillers were at first averse to the measure, but are now desirous of it. And here we cannot help remarking the superior science which the Scotch distillers, and, we must add, the Scotch farmers discover above their southern neighbours in their examination at the committee. To what is this to be ascribed? Are they born of more affluent families, so as to have more leisure for scientific enquiry? No-they are at the outset in general less affluent. Is there any difference in the climate or physical constitution of the people? No-the idea will not bear discussion. The true reason is, that in Scotland education is more generally diffused; it costs less; the plan of teaching is better understood; the incomes of their professors depend not on fixed salaries, but on the measure of their own exertions; and the consequence is, that these professors labour hard, and a taste for science becomes general.

Money has continued plenty during the whole of last month, and is likely so to remain while our foreign commerce is interrupted. There is no record of so general a stoppage of trade as the present in the annals of civilized Europe. It is hard to say whether America or Europe suffers most under this unfortunate suspension. It has been of shorter duration in America, indeed, but a new country is less able to support these shocks than one which is possessed of acquired capital. It is owing to the latter that Holland has been able to withstand thirteen years of hardship and privation.

Cotton, like other articles from America, is dear. Coffee, on the other hand, is cheap. Sugar has advanced a few shillings the cwt. in the course of the month. A small East India fleet of six sail is preparing to leave St. Helen's; and a West India convoy, the last of the season, has been talked of for the middle of the month, but, it is likely, will be deferred. The homeward-bound Leeward Island fleet continues to be expected in the beginning of July, and the Jamaica fleet soon after.

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