Lives of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewart, the Second and Third Marquesses of Londonderry; with Annals of Contemporary Events in which They Bore a Part, from the Original Papers of the Family, Volume 2

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W. Blackwood and Sons, 1861 - Great Britain
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Contents

Debate as to an immediate attack on the team
10
Remarkable conversation between Cathcart
12
An attack on Dresden is again resolved on
13
Napoleons return towards Dresden
14
Napoleons change of plan in consequence of the information from Dres den on the 25th
15
Danger of the Emperor on approaching Dresden
16
Dispositions of Napoleon to defend Dresden
17
Commencement of the storm of Dresden
18
Sortie of Napoleons Guards
20
Which is attended by great success
21
Forces on both sides on the next day
22
Disposition of the French troops
23
Disposition of the Allies
24
Commencement of the battle on the 27th
25
Mortal wound of Moreau in the centre
26
A retreat ordered
27
Disasters and difficulties with which it was attended
28
Great discouragement in the Allied army and their losses
29
Great advantages thus gained by Napoleon and discouragement of the Allies
31
Napoleons plan of operations
32
Forces under Vandamme
34
Advance to Culm and extreme terror at Töplitz
35
Vandammes first battle at Culm
36
Preparations for the second battle of Culm
38
Measures on both sides immediately before the battle
39
Total defeat of the French
40
Total defeat of Vandamme
41
Desperate conflict in the pass in rear
42
Great moral effect of this victory
43
Wound and honour of Sir Charles Stewart
44
Receipt of the disastrous news by Napoleon
45
Napoleons false charges against Vandamme for disobedience of orders
46
Great error here committed by Napoleon
47
Simultaneous movement of Oudinot on Berlin
49
Battle of Gross Beeren
50
Real cause of this fatal dispersion of forces
51
Advances of Macdonald against Blucher
52
Bluchers simultaneous advance against him
53
Defeat of Macdonald with immense loss
54
Retreat and immense losses of the French
55
Effect of these disasters on Napoleon
56
Causes of Napoleons early success and late disasters
57
Napoleons march to support Macdonald
59
Blucher falls back and Napoleon returns to Dresden
60
Advance of Ney against Bernadotte
61
Battle of Dennewitz
62
Alarming position of the French army
64
Renewed movement of Schwartzenberg against Dresden
66
Action at Nollendorf and retreat of the Allies
67
Napoleons conversation with St Cyr on the art of war
68
Halt of Napoleon on the summit of the Geyersberg 69 un仍仍任的行8 66 Reasons of Napoleons retreat to Dresden
71
Fresh combats on the mountains
72
Reasons on both sides for delaying great operations
73
Sharp action on the French left followed by a retreat
74
Great losses of the French in this hill campaign
75
Great successes of the Allied light troops in the French rear
77
Fresh treaties concluded between England Russia and Prussia
78
Napoleon in vain marches against Blucher and returns to Dresden
79
Alarming intelligence from the rear and Lower Elbe
80
Napoleons new plan of operations
82
Forces and situation of the Allies
83
Allied plan of operations against Napoleon
85
Dissatisfaction of the Allies with Bernadotte and consequent mission of Sir Charles Stewart to his headquarters
86
Napoleons plan for the remainder of the campaign
88
CHAPTER XI
90
Advance of the Grand Army into the plains of Lepsic
92
Napoleons plans at this period
93
Napoleons advance against Blucher
94
The opposite armies mutually pass each other
95
Timid conduct of Bernadotte which endangers Blucher
97
Napoleon in consequence leaves St Cyr at Dresden
98
Napoleons own account of his views at this time
99
Discontent in the French army at this project
100
Napoleons interesting conversation with Marshal Marmont 101
101
The Emperor is obliged to change his plan by advices from Murat
103
Reasons for Napoleons change of plan
104
Severe cavalry action at Borna on the 14th
105
Inactivity of Bernadotte at Köthen
106
Fall of the kingdom of Westphalia and defection of Bavaria
108
Interesting conversation of Napoleon with his marshals on the evening of the 14th
112
Position of the French and Allies
114
Forces on both sides
116
Description of the town of Leipsic
117
Schwartzenbergs address to his troops
118
Commencement of the battle of Wachau
119
Battle at Wachau in the centre
120
Great advantages gained by the French in the centre
121
The Allies are further worsted in the centre
122
Grand cavalry attack on the centre
123
Which is repulsed with great loss
124
Close of the battle and its results
125
Dispositions for the battle of Möckern
127
Battle there in which the French are worsted
128
French account of this battle
129
Decisive importance of this battle
131
Both armies are inactive on the 17th
134
Extreme difficulties of Napoleons situation and negotiation with Meer feldt
136
Napoleons conversation with Meerfeldt on a peace 138
138
Which leads to no suspension of hostilities and the battle is postponed till next day
141
The Crown Prince is at length brought forward
142
Napoleon makes no preparations for a retreat on the 17th
144
Napoleons final dispositions for the battle
145
Allied dispositions for the battle
146
Napoleons nocturnal visit to Ney
148
Commencement of the battle
149
Success of the Allies on their leſt at Dolitz
150
Desperate attack on Probstheyda
151
Probstheyda is regained by the French
152
Operations in the north and desertion of the Saxons
153
Action between Ney Marmont Blucher and Bernadotte
154
Close of the battle and its results on both sides
156
Napoleon on the evening after the battle
157
Immense embarrassment occasioned by the single line of retreat to the French
159
Last interview of Napoleon and the King of Saxony
160
Preparations for an assault of Leipsic
161
Storming of Leipsic
162
Blowing up of the bridge and surrender of the troops in the town
164
Death of Prince Poniatowski and capture of the whole French rearguard and losses on both sides
165
Entry of the Allied sovereigns and generals into Leipsic
166
Deplorable state of the French army during the retreat to the Rhine
168
New distribution of the Allied armies
172
Disastrous retreat to the Rhine and great losses incurred in course of it
173
Battle of Hanau and retreat of the French across the Rhine
174
Napoleons orders to the Grand Park and garrisons in the rear
175
Deplorable state and surrender of the fortresses
177
Immense force displayed by Napoleon on this occasion
178
Removal of Sir R Wilson to the Austrian army in Italy
179
The real reason of this change
180
Powerful agency of the Stewart family in the deliverance of Europe
182
Immense errors of Napoleon in this campaign
184
CHAPTER XII
186
State of affairs in Italy
187
Gloomy uspect of affairs in Spain at the same period
188
Discontent and despair in the interior
189
Cause of this inactivity on the part of the Allies
190
Pacific offers of the Allies from Frankfort by Metternich
192
Proposals intrusted to M de Saint Aignan
193
Extreme gloom and depression at Paris
196
Ruinous condition of the French fortresses
204
State of the Allied forces on the Rhine and in Germany
211
Dissatisfaction of Lord Castlereagh at the terms proposed at Frankfort
218
Double invasion of France from Switzerland and Coblentz
224
Napoleons address to the Legislative Body and references to committees
230
His noble speech to the Senators
236
Napoleon sends M de Caulaincourt to the Allied headquarters as pleni
245
Chatillon is fixed on as the place of congress and near approach of
251
Battle of La Rothière and defeat of the French
254
State of the Allied counsels on Lord Castlereaghs arrival
256
The Emperor Alexanders conversation with Lord Castlereagh
258
Composition of the Congress of Chatillo
259
Views of Lord Castlereagh on the negotiations 261
261
His representations and entire accord with Austria
264
Answer of Alexander 532 533
265
Lord Castlereaghs projects for the separate interests of Great Britain and their admission by the Allies
266
Similar assurances of pacific intentions from Russia and England and terms proposed 194 1
267
Instructions to the British plenipotentiaries and preliminary conferences
268
Napoleon at length gives full powers to Caulaincourt
270
Agreement as to the form of the negotiations
271
Project of the Allies for a basis of pacification
272
de Caulaincourts reply to the Allies
273
Answer of the Allied representatives
278
Caulaincourt endeavours to gain time and to obtain a suspension of hos tilities
279
Separation of the Allied armies of which Napoleon resolves to take advantage
280
Serious error of Blucher at this period
281
Napoleons project of attacking Blucher in detail
282
March on and victory of Champaubert
284
Napoleons joy and sanguine expectations at this victory
285
Battle of ChateauThierry
287
Battle of Vauchamps
288
Movements of Schwartzenberg towards Paris
290
Division between the Czar and Lord Castlereagh and Prince Metternich as to resuming hostilities
292
Proposals of the Allies on which a suspension of hostilities was to depend
293
Caulaincourts advice to Napoleon regarding these terms
294
Napoleons indignant answer
295
Napoleons secret letter to the Emperor of Austria
296
Napoleon after the victory of Vauchamps turns on Schwartzenberg
297
Combats of Nangis and Villeneuve
299
Advance of Napoleon to Montereau where he is met by the proposal for an armistice from Schwartzenberg
300
Council at BarsurAube
316
Lord Castlereaghs decision determines the Allies to give Blucher two of Bernadottes corps
318
Lord Castlereaghs measures to pacify Bernadotte
320
Division of the Allies and Lord Castlereaghs efforts to unite them
322
Treaty of Chaumont
323
Secret articles of the treaty
325
Which was a virtual dissolution of the Congress of Chatillon
326
Slow progress of the negotiation and changing instructions to the pleni potentiaries
327
Final terms proposed on Feb 17
328
Caulaincourts answer and counterproject
329
Contreprojet at length presented by Caulaincourt
330
Rejected by the Allies
331
Final proposals of Napoleon and rupture of the Congress
332
Metternichs letter to Caulaincourt urging the acceptance of the terms of the Allies
334
Napoleons resolution not to abandon Antwerp and Mantua led to the conferences being broken off
335
Chances in Napoleons favour and great importance of Lord Castle reaghs presence
337
Source of divisions regarding Poland and Alexanders views on it
339
Difficulties in Italy
342
Difficulties about Genoa from Lord William Bentincks proclamation
343
Lord Castlereaghs policy as to the Duke dAngoulême with Wel lington
345
Prince of Oranges imprudent and premature attempt in Flanders
347
General bearings of the negotiation at Chatillon
348
Seeming justice of Napoleons pleas at the Congress
349
Time has proved that Lord Castlereagh was right in the question
350
CHAPTER XIII
352
Continued retreat of the Allied Grand Army
354
Movements of the Army of Silesia
355
Renewed active operations by the Grand Army Combat of Barsur Aube
357
Important retaking of Soissons
359
Concentration of the Allied army on the road from Soissons to Laon
361
Page 9 Advance of Napoleon in pursuit and Blucher takes post at Craonne
363
Napoleons forces and reasons for hazarding an attack
364
Napoleon is repulsed at Soissons but takes BerryauBac and crosses the Aisne
367
Battle of Craonne
368
Winzingerodes detour obliges Blucher to retreat
369
Retreat of the Russians and results of the battle
370
Material results of the battle
371
Its moral results
372
The Allies concentrate around Laon and Napoleon advances to attack them
373
Plan and movements of Napoleon
375
Preparations for a nocturnal attack on Marmont
377
Napoleon continues the attack on the 10th
378
Desperate position of Napoleons affairs
380
Secret history of the inactivity of Blucher after the battle
381
Beneficial effect of the battle of Laon on the Allied army
383
Gloomy state of general feeling in Paris
384
Napoleon moves against Schwartzenberg
386
Consternation in the Grand Army at his approach
387
Napoleons movements and those of the Allies
388
Battle of ArcissurAube
389
The French are repulsed
390
The French retire on the second day
392
Napoleons designs after the battle
393
Napoleons march to St Dizier
394
Important interrupted despatches of Napoleon
395
Sir Charles Stewart and Volkonsky advise to march with both armies to Paris
396
Considerations urged on the other side
397
Volkonskys opinions on an advance to Paris
399
Defeat of Winzingerode in following Napoleon
401
First combat of FèreChampenoise
402
Second combat at FèreChampenoise
403
Results of these combats and advance of the Allies to Paris
405
Advance of the Allied armies to Paris
407
Extreme consternation in Paris
409
It is determined that the Empress and King of Rome should go beyond the Loire
411
Departure of the Empress and King of Rome for the Loire
412
Treacherous conduct of Talleyrand
413
Forces of the French for the efence of Paris
414
Forces of the Allies and their plan of attack
415
Battle of Paris
417
Results of the battle
418
Entry of the Allies into Paris
420
Sir Charles Stewarts important letter with regard to giving Elba as
460
Difficulties with regard to Norway
466
Universal defection at Fontainebleau and Blois from the Emperor
473
Difficulties of the negotiation for peace so far as France and the other
479
Convention on April 23 for evacuation of all the French conquests
480
Definitive treaty
482
The secret treaty
483
Honours bestowed on Lord Castlereagh and discussion in Parliament on the Peace
485
Mr Cannings éloge of the Peace
486
General errors as to the fall of Napoleon
488
Napoleon had good reasons for his latter conduct though it ruined bim
489
Great effects of Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewarts courage
490
Cooperation of Alexander Wellington and Castlereagh in Napoleons overthrow
491
Which of the three was the greatest ?
492
CHAPTER XIV
494
The restoration of the Bourbons was the great security
495
Reasons of Lord Castlereaghs favouring that object
496
Great danger he apprehended from Russia
497
Lord Castlereaghs principle was a German confederacy and the restora tion of Poland independent of Russia
498
His views in regard to Norway and Sweden
500
Assembling of the Congress of Vienna
502
It is assembled
503
Points on which they were all agreed and on which they differed
504
The Emperor of Russia on Poland
505
Views of Prussia
507
Views of Austria
509
And of France
510
Views of Lord Castlereagh and the British Cabinet at this juncture
512
Universal passion in Great Britain for the abolition of the slave trade everywhere
515
Difficulties thrown in the way by the French
517
Preliminary question which occupied the Congress
519
Separation of the Congress into committees
520
Formation of the German Constitution
522
Concord of Russia and Prussia as to Poland and Saxony
524
Which is brought to light and extremely irritates France
525
Indignation of Alexander at this
526
Interview of Talleyrand with Alexander 527
527
Lord Castlereagh and Metternich come to an understanding
529
Lord Castlereaghs observations to Alexander
531
Measures of Talleyrand in consequence to propitiate Russia
535
Russia occupies Poland and gives Saxony to Prussia
536
Warlike preparations of Russia
537
Change in the policy of England regarding Saxony
538
Warlike measures of France and Bavaria
539
The Emperor of Russia in some degree modifies his views on Poland and 37 Stormy interview of Alexander and Talleyrand 540
540
And with M de Metternich
543
Progress of the two Emperors in Hungary and formal opening of the Congress
544
Lord Castlereagh succeeds in shaking the Prussian Cabinet
545
Effect it produced on the King of Prussia
546
Interview of the Czar with the King of Prussia
547
Fresh and secure union of Russia and Prussia
549
Decided note of Austria
551
Warlike preparations of Austria France and Bavaria
552
The Czar begins to yield
553
Secret treaty between England France and Austria
554
Origin of the contest with America at this time
556
Balanced success during the war with America
557
Lord Castlereaghs instructions to the British commissioners at Ghent
558
Progress of the negotiations
561
Concessions of Russia in regard to the Polish question at Vienna
564
Lord Castlereaghs efforts to preserve the nationality and a constitution for Poland
566
Difficulty as to who were to be members of the Committee
567
Difficulties in forming a barrier in the Low Countries
569
It is ultimately agreed to give Luxemburg to the King of the Nether lands
571
Affairs of Italy
573
Reasons for annexation of Genoa to Piedmont
574
Lord Castlereaghs views on the Spanish Government
575
Affairs of Naples
577
Bad faith on both sides with regard to Napoleon and Murat
579
Affairs of Switzerland
581
Difficulties experienced by Lord Castlereagh in his efforts to procure the abolition of the slave trade
582
Lord Castlereaghs conference with Talleyrand on the subject
583
Resolution of the Congress on the subject
585
Lord Castlereagh leaves the Congress of Vienna and returns to England to meet Parliament
587
Arrival of Wellington at Vienna
588
Murats abrupt decision which causes a declaration of war against him
589
Steps of the Allies against him
590
France
591
Resolution of the Parma question
593
His return to London through Paris
594
Return of Napoleon from Elba
595
Effect it produced on the Congress
596
Effect of Napoleons return in concluding the Saxon question
598
Great preparations of the Allies for war with France
599
Their determination not to treat with Napoleon or any of his family
602
Lord Castlereaghs speech against Napoleon
604
Great preparations of Great Britain for the war with Napoleon
605
Lord Castlereaghs reception in the House of Commons and his defence of the Treaty of Vienna
606
Battle of Waterloo and its effects on the Allied sovereigns
608
Return of Lord Castlereagh to Paris
617
Lord Castlereaghs efforts to effect the restoration of the works of art from Paris
618
Final treaty of Vienna
620
Review of the Russians in the plain of Vertus
622
Memoir from foreign artists in Rome to Lord Castlereagh
623
Removal of Napoleon to St Helena
625
Negotiations for a final peace
626
Enormous demands of the Allied Powers
627
Terms on which peace is at length concluded
631
Retrospect of Lord Castlereaghs foreign policy
633
Proof which the Revolutionary annals afforded of the dangers to England from democracy
634
Confirmation of the same principles from subsequent experience
635
Reason of the territorial arrangements of the Congress of Vienua
636
Reasons why revolutionary Powers ever incline to France
638
Inconsistency of the foreign and domestic policy of this country in regard to revolutions
640
Light which these views throw on Lord Castlereagh and Sir Charles Stewarts memory
641

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Page 549 - Lawrence from those which fall into the Atlantic Ocean to the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River; thence down along the middle of that river to the forty-fifth degree of north latitude...
Page 437 - The allied powers having proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon is the sole obstacle to the re-establishment of peace in Europe, the Emperor Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares that he is ready to descend from the throne, to quit France...
Page 248 - His Royal Highness the Prince Regent, acting in the name and on the behalf of His Majesty, has...
Page 545 - ... limits shall take place; you will also throw out the importance of the two States entering into arrangements, which may hereafter place their mutual relations with each other as well as with the several Indian nations, upon a footing of less jealousy and irritation. This may be best effected by a mutual guarantee of the Indian possessions, as they shall be established upon the peace against encroachment on the part of either State.
Page 549 - Whereas neither that point of the highlands lying due north from the source of the river St. Croix, and designated in the former treaty of peace between the two Powers as the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, nor the northwesternmost head of Connecticut River, has yet been ascertained...
Page 397 - I have given, and with the spirit of all my letters, you are in no event to permit the empress and the King of Rome to fall into the hands of the enemy. I am about to manoeuvre in such a manner that you may possibly be several days without hearing from me.
Page 161 - In the event of the whole of the enemy's forces being carried against either of the armies, they were reciprocally to support each other, and concert further movements ; that part of the enemy's force which for some time had been opposed to the prince royal of Sweden and general...
Page 466 - It is impossible not to perceive a great moral change coming on, in Europe, and that the principles of freedom are in full operation. The danger is, that the transition may be too sudden to ripen into anything likely to make the world better or happier. We have new constitutions launched in France, Spain, Holland, and Sicily. Let us see the result before we encourage further attempts.
Page 305 - The moment he understood that militarily speaking, the proposed plan was indispensable to success, he took his line. He stated that, in that case, the plan must be adopted, and the necessary orders immediately given ; that England had a right to expect that her allies would not be deterred from a decisive course by any such difficulties as had been urged ; and he boldly took upon himself the responsibility of any consequences as regarded the Crown Prince of Sweden.
Page 549 - Senate thereof; and the said two Commissioners so appointed shall be sworn impartially to examine and decide upon the said claims according to such evidence as shall be laid before them on the part of His Britannic Majesty and of the United States respectively.

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