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With the Revolution of 1688, and the passing of the Act of | There is, however, no national Union. Indeed, the Strict Baptists Toleration in 1689, the history of the persecution of Baptists, are themselves divided into the Standard" and Vessel " parties as well as of other Protestant dissenters, ends. The removal of Vessel," the organs of the rival groups.

-names derived from the Gospel Standard and "Earthen the remaining disabilities, such as those imposed by the Test The general characteristic of the Strict Baptists is their rigorous and Corporation Acts repealed in 1828, has no special bearing on adherence to a type of Calvinistic theology now generally obsolete, Baptists more than on other nonconformists. The ministers of and their insistence upon baptism as the condition of Christian the "three denominations of dissenters,”—Presbyterians, accurate statistics, but the number of their adherents is sınall.

communion. Their loose organization makes it impossible to obtain Independents and Baptists,-resident in London and the There is a strict Baptist Missionary Society (founded 1860, reneighbourhood, had the privilege accorded to them of presenting founded 1897) which conducts mission work in South India. The on proper occasions an address to the sovereign in state, a

income of this society was {1146 in 1905. It comprises 730 church privilege which they still enjoy under the name of “the General

members and 72 pastors and workers.

The Baptists early felt the necessity of providing an educated Body of Protestant Dissenting Ministers of the three Denomina- ministry for their congregations. Some of their leading pastors had tions." The“ General Body" was not organized until 1727. been educated in one or other of the English universities. Others

The Baptists, having had a double origin, continued for many had by their own efforts obtained a large amount of learning, amongst years in two sections—those who in accordance with Arminian shown in his Exposition of the Holy Scriptures, a work in 9 vols. folio. views held the doctrine of " General Redemption," and those 1746-1766. Edward Terrill, who died in 1685, left a considerable who, agreeing with the Calvinistic theory, held the doctrine of part of his estate for the instruction of young men desiring to be “ Particular Redemption "; and hence they were known respec- 1 of the Broadmead Church, Bristol, of which he was a member. Other

trained for the ministry, under the superintendence of the pastor tively as General Baptists and Particular Baptists. In the 18th bequests for the same purpose were made, and from the year 1720 century many of the General Baptists gradually adopted the the Baptist Academy, as it was then called, received young men as Arian, or, perhaps, the Socinian theory; whilst, on the other students for the ministry among the Baptists. In 1770 the Bristol hand, the Calvinism of the Particular Baptists in many of the Education Society was formed to enlarge this academy; and about churches became more rigid, and approached or actually became the north of England a similar education society was formed in 1804 Antinomianism. In 1770 the orthodox portion of the General at Bradford, Yorkshire, which has since been removed to Rawdon, Baptists, mainly under the influence of Dan Taylor (b. 1738), near Leeds. In London another college was formed in 1810 at formed themselves into a separate association, under the name Stepney; it was removed to Regent's Park in 1856. The Pastors of the General Baptist New Connection, since which time the tuted in 1856, and in 1866 the present Baptist College at Manchester

College in connexion with the Metropolitan Tabernacle was insti. "Old Connection " has gradually merged into the Unitarian was instituted at Bury in the interests of the "Strict " Baptist denomination. By the beginning of the 19th century the New views. Besides these, which were voluntary colleges not under Connection numbered 40 churches and 3400 members. The old denominational control, the General Baptists maintained a college General Baptists “still keep up a shadowy legal existence.” since 1797, which, since the amalgamation of the two Baptist bodies,

has become also a voluntary institution, though previously supTowards the end of the 18th century many of the Particular ported by the General Baptist Association. It is called the MidBaptist churches became more moderate in their Calvinism, a land Baptist College," and is situated in Nottingham. There is also result largely attributable to the writings of Andrew Fuller. a Baptist theological college in Glasgow, and there are two colleges

in Wales and one in Ireland. The total number of students in these Up to this time a great majority of the Baptists admitted none

institutions is about 210. either to membership or communion who were not baptized,

The Baptists were the first denomination of British Christians the principal exception being the churches in Bedfordshire and to undertake in a systematic way that work of missions to the Hertfordshire, founded or influenced by Bunyan, who maintained heathen, which became so prominent a fcature in the religious that difference of opinion in respect to water baptism was no activity of the 19th century: As carly as the year 1784 the Northbar to communion. At the beginning of the 19th century mend that the first Monday of every month should be set apart for

amptonshire Association of Baptist churches resolved to recomthis question was the occasion of great and long-continued prayer for the spread of the gospel. Shortly after, in 1792, the discussion, in which the celebrated Robert Hall (1764-1831) took Baptist Missionary Society was formed at Kettering in Northamptona principal part. The practice of mixed communion gradually shire, after a sermon on Isaiah !ii. 2, 3, preached by William Carey spread in the denomination. Still more recently many Baptist points: "Expect great things from God; attempt great things for

(1761-1834), the prime mover in the work, in which he urged two churches have considered it right to admit to full membership God." In the course of the following year Carey sailed for India, persons professing faith in Christ, who do not agree with them where he was joined a few years later by Marshman and Ward, and respecting the ordinance of baptism. Such churches justify De Carey's life was the translation of the Bible into the various

the mission was established at Serampore. The great work of their practice on the ground that they ought to grant to all their languages and dialects of India. The society's operations are now fellow-Christians the same right of private judgment as they carried on, not only in the East, but in the West Indies, China, claim for themselves. It may not be out of place here to correct Africa (chiefly on the Congo river), and Europe. the mistake, which is by no means uncommon, that the terms

In regard to church government, the Baptists agree with the ConParticular and General as applied to Baptist congregations were has, therefore, power to choose its own ministers and to make such

gregationalists that each separate church is complete in itself, and intended to express this difference in their practice, whercas regulations as it deems to be most in accordance with the purpose these terms related, as has been already said, to the difference of its existence, that is, the advancement of the kingdom of Christ. in their doctrinal views. The difícrence now under consideration

A comparatively small section of the denomination maintain that a is expressed by the terms “strict” and “open,” according as

plurality of clders" or pastors is required for the complete organiza

tion of every separate church. This is the distinctive peculiarity of communion (or membership) is or is not confined to persons those churches in Scotland and the north of England which are known who, according to their view, are baptized.

as Scotch Baptists. The largest church of this section, consisting of In 1891, largely under the influence of Dr John Clifford, a approximately 500 members, originated in Edinburgh in 1765, beleading General Baptist, the two denominations, General and formed about 1750-appears to have existed in Scotland. The

forc which date only one Baptist church--that of Keiss in Caithness, Particular, were united, there being now but one body called greater number of the churches are united in association voluntarily ** The Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland.” This Union, formed, all of them determined by geographical limits. The associa: however, is purely voluntary, and some Baptist churches, a few tions, as well as the churches not in connexion with them, are united of them prosperous and powerful, hold aloof from their sister together in the Baptist Union of Great Britain and Ireland, formed churches so far as organization is concerned.

in 1813 by the Particular Baptists. This union, however, exerts

no authoritative action over the separate churches. One iniport. There are other Baptist bodies outside the Baptist Union beside ant part of the work of the union is the collection of information certain isolated churches. Throughout England there are many in which all the churches are interested. In 1909 there were in * Strict " Baptist churches which really form a separate denomina- the United Kingdom: Baptist churches, 3046; chapels, 4124;

For the most part they are linked together according to sittings, 1,450.352; members, 424,008: Sunday school teachers, prographical distribution in associations, such as the " Metropolitan 58,687: Sunday scholars, 578,344: local prcáchers, 5615; and Association of Strict Baptist Churches," and the “Suffolk and pastors in charge, 2078. Norfolk Association of Particular Baptist Churches." In the latter At the beginning of the 20th century the Baptist Union collected case the name " Particular" is preferred, but the association holds a “ Twentieth Century Fund " of £250,000, which has largely aloof (rom other Baptist churches because its principles are “strict." assisted the formation of new churches, and gives an indication of 40

1

106

21
10

629

the unity and virility of the denomination. A still stronger evidence India

1,215 121,716 to the same effect was given by the Religious Census taken in 1904. Japan

2.326 While this only applied to London, its results are valuable as showing Palestine the comparative strength of the Baptist Church. These results are Philippines

425 to the effect that in all respects the Baptists come second to the Congo.

4.673 Anglicans in the following three particulars :-(1) Percentage of West Africa attendances at public worship contributed by Baptists, 10.81 (London County), 10.70 (Greater London): (?) aggregate of attend

Total

72,681 7,454,165 ances, 54.597; (3) number of places of worship, 443. 2. The Continent of Europe.-During the 19th century what

In 1909 the comparative totals were roughly :- 72,983 we have called the modern Baptist movement made its appear churches ; 7.480,940 members. In both sets of figures the ance in nearly every European country. In Roman Catholic Disciples of Christ (U.S.A.) are included. countries Baptist churches were formed by missionaries coming lists (4 vols. London, 1738-1740) : D. Masson, Life of John Milton

LITERATURE.-Thomas Crosby, The History of the English Basfrom either England or America: work in France began in in Connexion with the History of his Time (6 vols. 1859-1880, new 1832, in Italy missions were started in 1866 (Spezia Mission) and ed. 1881, &c.); B. Evans, The Early English Baptists, i. ii. (1862in 1884 (Baptist Missionary Society, which also has a mission in 1864); H. C. Vedder, A Short History of the Baptists (London, 1897); Brittany), and in Spain in 1888. In Protestant countries and A. H. Newman, A Manual of Church History (Philadelphia, 1900in Russia the Baptist movement began without missionary and Practices of the Baptists (1903); E. C. Pike, The Story of the

1903); R. Heath, Anabaptism (1895); C. Williams, The Principles intervention from England or America. J. G. Oncken (1800- Anabaptists (1994); J. H. Shakespeare, Baptist and Congregational 1884) formed the first church in Hamburg in 1834, and thereafter Pioneers; J. G. Lehmann, Geschichte der deutschen Baptisten (1896Baptist churches were formed in other countries as follows: 1900); G Tumbült, Die Wiederläufer (Bielefeld, 1899); The Denmark (1839), Holland and Sweden (1848), Switzerland (1849), The Religious Census of London (1904).

Baptist Handbook (annually): The Baptist World Congress, 1905;

(N. H. M.) Norway (1860), Austria and Rumania (1869), Hungary (1871), and Bulgaria (1884). Baptist churches also began to be formed America was that founded in the Providence settlement on

4. United States of America.---The first Baptist Church in in Russia and Finland in the 'fifties and 'sixties.

Narragansett Bay under the leadership of Roger Williams 3. British Colonies.--In every colony the Baptists have a (9.0.). Having been sentenced to banishment (October 1635) considerable place. There are unions of Baptist churches in the by the Massachusetts Court because of his persistence in advocalfollowing colonies:- New South Wales, Victoria, S. Australia, ing separatistic views deemed unsettling and dangerous, to Western Australia, Queensland, New Zealand, Tasmania, escape deportation to England he belook himself (January Canada (four Unions) and S. Africa. The work in S. Africa is 1636) to the wilderness, where he was hospitably entertained assisted by the Baptist South African Missionary and Colonial by the natives who gave him a tract of land for a settlement Aid Society, having its seat in London. The Baptist World Alliance was formed in 1905, when the first Williams founded a commonwealth in which absolute religious

Having been joined by a few friends from Massachusetts, Baptist World Congress was held in London. The preamble of liberty was combined with civil democracy. In the firm convic, the constitution of this Alliance sufficiently indicates its nature: tion that churches of Christ should be made up exclusively of “Whereas, in the providence of God, the time has come when it regenerate members, the baptism of infants appeared to him seems fitting more fully to manifest the essential oneness in the not only valueless but a perversion of a Christian ordinance. Lord Jesus Christ, as their God and Saviour, of the churches of About March 1639, with eleven others, he decided to restore the Baptist order and faith throughout the world, and to promote believers' baptism and to form a church of baptized believers. the spirit of fellowship, service and co-operation among them, Ezekiel Holliman, who had been with him at Plymouth and shared while recognizing the independence of each particular church his separatist views, first baptized. Williams and Williams baptized and not assuming the functions of any existing organization, it the rest of the company. Williams did not long continue to find is agreed to form a Baptist alliance, extending over every part satisfaction in the step he had taken. Believing that the of the world.” This alliance does in fact include Baptists in ordinances and apostolic church organization had been lost in every quarter of the globe, as will be seen from the following the general apostasy, he became convinced that it was prestatistics:

Churches. Members.

sumptuous for any man or company of men to undertake their United States

restoration without a special divine commission. He felt com. National Baptist Convention 16,996 2,110,269

pelled to withdraw from the church and to assume the position Southern Baptist Convention 20,431 1,832,638

of a secker. He continued on friendly terms with the Baptists “Disciples of Christ "

11,157 1,235,798 of Providence, and in his writings he expressed the conviction Thirty-five Northern States 8,894 986,821 Fourteen other Bodies

that their practice came nearer than that of other communities

7.921 414.775 Australasia

to the first practice of Christ.

23,253 Canada

985 103,062 In November 1637 John Clarke (1609–1676), a physician, of S. Africa

4,865

religious zeal and theological acumen, arrived at Boston, where, United Kingdom

2,934 426,563 Austria Hungary

instead of the religious freedom he was seeking, he found the

9.783 Denmark

dominant party in the Antinomian controversy on the point

3.954 Finland

of banishing the Antinomian minority, including Mrs Anne France

2,278 Hutchinson (q.v.)and her family, John Wheelwright(c.1593-1679), Germany

32,462

and William Coddington (1601-1678). Whether from sympathy Italy

1,375 Mexico and Central America

with the persecuted or aversion to the persecutors, he cast in

1,820 Netherlands

1,413

his lot with the former and after two unsuccessful attempts at Norway

2,849 settlement assisted the fugitives in forming a colony on the island Rumania and Bulgaria

374 of Aquidnek (Rhode Island), procured from the Indians through * Russia and Poland

24,136 S. America

3,641

the good offices of Williams. By 1641 there were, according Spain

245

to John Winthrop, "professed Anabaptists” on the island, Sweden

43.305 and Clarke was probably their leader. Robert Lenthall, who Switzerland

796 West Indies

joined the Newport company in 1640 when driven from Massa318

42,310 Ceylon

chusetts, probably brought with him antipaedobaptist coa25

1,044 China .

137 12,160

victions. Mrs Scott, sister of Mrs Hutchinson, is thought to 1 The figures for Russia include only the German-speaking Baptists. founded. Mark Lucar, who was baptized by immersion in London

have been an aggressive antipaedobaptist when the colony was It is impossible to ascertain the numbers of properly Russian Baptists." Estimates have been made which vary from 60,000 to in January 1642 (N.S.) and was a member of a Baptist church

there, reached Newport about 1644. A few years later we fad

270

52

2,301

37 29 43 28 180 53 58 22

131

8

100,000.

him associated with Clarke as one of the most active members at Kittery, Me. Persecution led to migration, Screven and some of the Newport church, and as the date of the organization is un of the members making their way to South Carolina, where, certain, there is some reason to suspect that he was a constituent with a number of English Baptists of wealth and position, what member and that asa baptized man he took the initiative in baptiz- became the First Baptist church in Charleston, was organized ing and organizing. At any rate we have in Lucar an interesting (about 1684). This became one of the most important of connecting link between early English and American Baptists. early Baptist centres, and through Screven's efforts Baptist

The Providence church maintained a rather feeble existence principles became widely disseminated throughout that region. after Williams's withdrawal, with Thomas Olney (d. 1682), The withdrawal of members to form other churches in the William Wickenden, Chad Brown (d. 1665) and Gregory Dexter neighbourhood and the intrusion of Socinianism almost as leading members. A schism occurred in 1652, the last three extinguished the Charleston church about 1746. with a majority of the members contending for general redemp- A few Baptists of the general (Arminian) type appeared in tion and for the laying on of hands as indispensable to fellowship, Virginia from 1714 onward, and were organized and fostered Olney, with the minority, maintaining particular redemption by missionaries from the English General Baptists. By 1727 they and rejecting the laying on of hands as an ordinance. Oiney's had invaded North Carolina and a church was constituted there. party became extinct soon after his death in 1682. The surviving From 1643 onward antipaedobaptists from New England and church became involved in Socinianism and Universalism, but elsewhere had settled in the New Netherlands (New York). maintained a somewhat vigorous life and, through Wickenden Lady Deborah Moody left Massachusetts for the New Netherand others, exerted considerable influence at Newport, in Con- lands in 1643 because of her antipaedobaptist views and on her necticut, New York and elsewhere. Dexter became, with way stopped at New Haven, where she won to her principles Williams and Clarke, a leading statesman in Rhode Island and Mrs Eaton, the wife of the governor, Theophilus Eaton. She Providence Plantations.

settled at Gravesend (now part of Brooklyn) having received The Newport church extended its influence into Massachusetts, from the Dutch authorities a guarantee of religious liberty. and in 1649 we find a group of Baptists at Rehoboth, with | Francis Doughty, an English Baptist, who had spent some time Obadiah Holmes as leader. The intolerance of the authorities in Rhode Island, laboured in this region in 1656 and baptized a rendered the prosecution of the work impracticable and these number of converts. This latter proceeding led to his banishMassachusetts Baptists became members of the Newport church. ment. Later in the same year William Wickenden of Providence In 1651 Clarke, Holmes and Joseph Crandall of the Newport evangelized and administered the ordinances at Flushing, but church made a religious visit to Lynn, Mass. While holding was heavily fined and banished. From 1711 onward Valentine a meeting in a private house they were arrested and were com- Wightman (1631-1747) of Connecticut (General Baptist) made pelled to attend the church services of the standing order. occasional missionary visits to New York at the invitation of For holding an unlawful meeting and refusing to participate Nicolas Eyres, a business man who had adopted Baptist views, quietly in the public service they were fined, imprisoned and and in 1714 baptized Eyres and several others, and assisted them otherwise maltreated. While in England on public business in organizing a church. The church was well-nigh wrecked(1730) in 1652, Clarke published Ill News from New England, which by debt incurred in the erection of a meeting-house. A number contained an impressive account of the proceedings against of Baptists settled on Block Island about 1663. Some time himself and his brethren at Lynn, and an earnest and well before 1724 a Baptist church (probably Arminian) was formed reasoned plea for liberty of conscience.

at Oyster Bay. Henry Dunster (1612–1659), the first president of the college The Quaker colonies, with their large measure of religious at Cambridge (Harvard), had by 1653 become convinced that liberty, early attracted a considerable number of Baptists from * visible believers only should be baptized.” Being unwilling to New England, England and Wales. About 1684 a Baptist church hold his views in abeyance, he relinquished in 1654, under circum- was founded at Cold Spring, Bucks county, Pa., through the stances of considerable hardship, the work that he greatly loved. efforts of Thomas Dungan, an Irish Baptist minister who had

In 1663 John Myles (1621-1683), a Welsh Baptist who had spent some time in Rhode Island. The Pennepek church was been one of Cromwell's Tryers, with his congregation, took refuge formed in 1688 through the labours of Elias Keach, son of in Massachusetts from the intolerance of the government of Benjamin Keach (1640–1704), the famous English evangelist. Charles II. They were allowed to settle in Rehoboth, Mass., Services were held in Philadelphia under the auspices of the and even after they were discovered to be Baptists they were Pennepek church from 1687 onward, but independent organizaallowed to remain on condition of establishing their mecting-tion did not occur till 1698. Several Keithian Quakers united place at a considerable distance from that of the standing order. with the church, which ultimately became possessed of the Myles did much to promote the growth of the Baptist Church Keithian meeting-housc. Almost from the beginning general in Massachusetts, and was of service to the denomination in meetings had been held by the churches of these colonies. In Boston and elsewhere. Thomas Gould of Charlestown seems 1707 the Philadelphia Association was formed as a delegated to have been in close touch with President Dunster and to have body “to consult about such things as were wanting in the shared his antipaedobaptist views as early as 1654. Some churches and to set them in order." From its inception this body time before 1665 several English Baptists had settled in the proved highly influential in promoting Baptist co-operation in neighbourhood of Boston and several others had adopted missionary and educational work, in efforts to supply the churches Baptist views. These, with Gould, were baptized (May 1665) with suitable ministers and to silence unworthy ones, and in and joined with those who had been baptized in England in a maintaining sound doctrine. Sabbatarianism appeared within church covenant. The church was severely persecuted, the the bounds of the association at an early date and Seventh-day members being frequently imprisoned and fined and denied Baptist churches were formed (1705 onward). the use of a building they had erected as a meeting-house. The decades preceding the “Great Awakening" of 1740-1743 Long alter the Act of Toleration (1689) was in full forcein England, were a time of religious declension. A Socinianized Arminianism the Boston Baptists pleaded in vain for the privileges to which had paralysed evangelistic effort. The First Church, Providence, they were thereby entitled, and it required the most earnest had long since become Arminian and held aloof from the efforts of English Baptists and other dissenters to gain for them evangelism of Edwards, Whitefield and their coadjutors. The a recognition of the right to exist. A mandate from Charles II. First Church, Boston, had become Socinianized and discounten(July 1679), in which the Massachusetts authorities were sharply anced the revival. The First Church, Newport, had been rent rebuked for denying to others the liberty to secure which they asunder by Arminianism, and the nominally Calvinistic remnant themselves had gone into exile, had produced little effect. had itself become divided on the question of the laying on of

In 1632 William Screven (1629-1713) and Humphrey Church hands and showed no sympathy with the Great Awakening. wood, members of the Boston church, gathered and organized, The First Church, Charleston, had been wrecked by Socinianism. with the co-operation of the mother church, a small congregation | The Gencral (Six Principles) Baptists of Rhode Island and Connecticut had increased their congregations and membership, of the association became necessary. The General Association and before the beginning of the 18th century had inaugurated of Virginia and the Congaree Association of South Carolina now annual associational meetings. But the fact that the Great took their places side by side with the Sandy Creek. The Awakening in America was conducted on Calvinistic principles Virginia "Separate” Baptists had more than doubled their was sufficient to prevent their hearty co-operation. The churches numbers in the two years from May 1771 to May 1773. In of the Philadelphia Association were organized and engaged to 1774 some of the Virginia brethren became convinced that the some extent in missionary endeavour, but they showed little apostolic office was meant to be perpetuated and induced the interest in the Edwards-Whitefield movement. And yet the association to appoint an apostle. Samuel Harris was the Baptists ultimately profited by the Great Awakening beyond unanimous choice and was solemnly ordained. Waller and almost any of the denominations. In many New England Elijah Craig (1743–1800) were made apostles soon afterward for communities a majority in the churches of the standing order the northern district. This arrangement, soon abandoned, vas bitterly opposed the new evangelism, and those who came under no doubt suggested by Methodist superintendency. In 1775 its influence felt constrained to organize “Separate” or “New Methodist influence appeared in the contention of two of the Light” churches. These were severely persecuted by the apostles and Jeremiah Walker for universal redemption. Schisan dominant party and were denied even the scanty privileges that was narrowly averted by conciliatory statements on both sides. Baptists had succeeded in gaining. As the chief objection of the As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia Confession “Separates” to the churches of the standing order was their of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against tco refusal to insist on personal regeneration as a term of membership, rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus takes many of them were led to feel that they were inconsistent in toward harmonizing with the “Regular ” Baptists of the requiring regenerate membership and yet administering baptism Philadelphia type. When the General Association was subto unconscious infants. In several cases entire “ Separate divided (1783), a General Committee, made up of delegates iron churches reached the conviction that the baptism of infants was each district association, was constituted to consider matters not only without Scriptural warrant but was a chief corner-stone that might be for the good of the whole society. Its chief work of state-churchism, and transformed themselves into Baptist was to continue the agitation in which for some years the body churches. In many cases a division of sentiment came to prevail had been successfully engaged in favour of religious equality and on the matter of infant-baptism, and for a while mutual toleration the entire separation of church and state. Since 1780 the prevailed; but mixed churches had their manifest disadvantages Separate” Baptists had had the hearty co-operation of the and separation ultimately ensued.

“Regular” Baptists in their struggle for religious liberty and Among the Baptist leaders gained from Congregationalism as cquality. In 1787 the two bodies united and agreed to drop the a result of the awakening was Isaac Backus (1724-1806), who names "Separate” and “Regular.” The success of the Bapuists became the New England champion in the cause of religious of Virginia in securing step by step the abolition of everything liberty and equality, and the historian of his denomination. To that savoured of religious oppression, involving at last the Daniel Marshall (d. 1784) and Shubael Stearns, “ New Light disestablishment and the disendowment of the Episcopal Church, evangelists who became Baptists, the spread of Baptist principles was due in part to the fact that Virginia Baptists were among and the multiplication of Baptist churches throughout the the foremost advocates of American independence, while the southern colonies were in great measure due. The feeble Baptist Episcopal clergy were loyalists and had made themselves cause in Virginia and North Carolina had been considerably obnoxious to the people by using the authority of Great Britain strengthened by missionaries from the churches of the Phila- in extorting their tithes from unwilling parishioners, and that delphia Association, including Benjamin Griffith, John Gano they secured the co-operation of free-thinking statesmen like (1727-1804), John Thomas, Benjamin Miller, Samuel Eaton, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison and, in most measures, John Garrard and David Thomas, and several churches, formed that of the Presbyterians. or reformed under their influence, united with the association. In The Baptist cause in New England that had profited so largely 1776 the Ketockton Association was formed by this group of from the Great Awakening failed to reap a like barvest from ide churches. The Virginia colonial government, in earlier days War of Independence. The standing order in New England cruelly intolerant, gave a limited toleration to Baptists of this represented the patriotic and popular party. Baptists lost type; but the “Separate” Baptists were too enthusiastic and favour by threatening to appeal to England for a redress of their too much alive to the evils of state control in religious matters grievances at the very time when resistance to English oppressioa to be willing to take out licences for their meetings, and soon was being determined upon. The result was slowness of growth came into sharp conflict with the authorities. Stearns was an and failure to secure religious liberty. Though a large proportica evangelist of great power. With Marshall, his brother-in-law, of the New England Baptists co-operated heartily in the cause of and about a dozen fellow-believers he settled at Sandy Creek, independence, the denomination failed to win the popularity North Carolina, and in a few years had built up a church with a that comes from successful leadership. membership of more than six hundred. Marshall afterward About 1762 the Philadelphia Association began to plan for the organized and ministered to a church at Abbott's Creek establishment of a Baptist institution of learning that should about 30 m. distant. From these centres “ Separate” Baptist serve the entire denomination. Rhode Island was finally fred influence spread throughout North and South Carolina and across upon, partly as the abode of religious liberty and because of the Georgia border, Marshall himself finally settling and forming its intelligent, influential and relatively wealthy Baptist coea church at Kiokee, Georgia. From North Carolina as a centre stituency, the consequent likelihood of procuring a charter íroa

Separate " Baptist influence permeated Virginia and extended its legislature, and the probability that i he co-operation of ouber into Kentucky and Tennessee. The Sandy Creek Association denominations in an institution under Baptist control would be came to embrace churches in several colonies, and Stearns, available. James Manning (1738-1791), who had just beca desirous of preserving the harmonious working of the churches graduated from Princeton with high honours, was thought of 35 that recognized his leadership, resisted with vehemence all a suitable leader in the enterprise, and was sent to Rhode Island proposals for the formation of other associations.

(1763) to coníer with leading men, Baptist and other. As a From 1760 to 1770 the growth of the “Separate ”Baptist body result a charter was granted by the legislature in 1764, and after in Virginia and the Carolinas was phenomenal. Evangelists like a few years of preliminary work at Warren (where the first Samuel Harris (1724-c.1794) and John Waller (1741-1802) degrees ever bestowed by a Baptist institution were coníernd stirred whole communities and established Baptist churches in 1769), Providence was chosen as the home of the college (1770). where the Baptist name had hitherto been unknown. The Sandy Here, with Manning as president and Hezekiah Smith (1737Creek Association, with Stearns as leader, undertook to “un. 1805), his class-mate at Princeton, as financial agent and a fellowship ordinations, ministers and churches that acted fluential supporter, the institution (since 1804 known as Brosa independently," and provoked such opposition that a division | University) was for many years the only degree-conferring institution controlled by Baptists. The Warren Association organ for the dissemination of information, and the quickening (1767) was organized under the influence of Manning and Smith of interest in the missionary and educational enterprises of on the model of the Philadelphia, and became a chief agency the Triennial Convention, led Rice to establish the Latter Day for the consolidation of denominational life, the promotion of Luminary (1816) and the Columbian Star, a weekly journal denominational education and the securing of religious liberty. (1822). From the first the attempt to rouse the denomination Hezekiah Smith was a highly successful evangelist, and through to organized effort for the propagation of the gospel met with his labours scores of churches were constituted in New England. much opposition, agents of the Convention being looked upon by As chaplain in the American Revolutionary Army he also exerted the less intelligent pastors and churches as highly-paid and a widespread influence.

irresponsible collectors of money to be used they knew not how, The First Church, Charleston, which had become almost or for purposes of which they disapproved. The fact that Rice extinct through Arminianism in 1746, entered upon a career of was unduly optimistic and allowed the enterprises of the Conremarkable prosperity in 1749 under the leadership of Oliver vention to become almost hopelessly involved in debt, and was Hart (1723-1795), formerly of the Philadelphia Association. In constrained to use some of the fund collected for missions to 1751 the Charleston Association was formed, also on the model mect the exigencies of his educational and journalistic work, of the Philadelphia, and proved an element of denominational intensified the hostility of those who had suspected from the strength. The association raised funds for domestic missionary beginning the good faith of the agents and denied the scriptural work (1755 onward) and for the education of ministers (1756 authority of boards, paid agents, paid missionaries, &c. So onward). Brown University shared largely in the liberality of virulent became the opposition that in several states, as Tennesmembers of this highly-cultivated and progressive body. Among see and Kentucky, the work of the Convention was for years the beneficiaries of the education fund was Samuel Stillman cxcluded, and a large majority in cach association refused to (1737-1807), afterward the honoured pastor of the Boston receive into their fellowship those who advocated or contributed church. The most noted leader of the Baptists of South Carolina to its objects. Hyper-Calvinism, ignorance and avarice coduring the four decades following the War of Independence was operated in making the very name“ missions "odious, ministerial Richard Furman (1755-1825), pastor of the First Church, education an impertinent human effort to supplant a spirit-called Charleston. The remarkable numerical progress of Baptists in and spirit-endowed ministry, Sunday-schools and prayerSouth Carolina from 1787 to 1812 (from 1620 members to 11,325) meetings as human institutions, the aim of which was to interfere was due to the “Separate” Baptist movement under Stearns with the divine order, and the receiving of salaries for ministerial and Marshall far more than to the activity of the churches of the work as serving God for hire or rather as serving self. To Charleston Association. Both these types of Baptist life per- counteract this influence, Baptist State Conventions were formed meated Georgia, the latter making its influence felt in Savannah, by the friends of missions and education, only contributing Augusta and the more cultivated communities, the former churches, associations, missionary societies and individuals evangelizing the masses. Many negro slaves became Baptists in being invited to membership (1821 onward-Massachusetts had Virginia, the Carolinas and Georgia. In most cases they became efiected state organization in 1802). These became highly members of the churches of the white Baptists; but in Richmond, efficient in promoting foreign and domestic missions, SundaySavannah and some other towns they were encouraged to have school organization, denominational literature and education. churches of their own.

Nearly every state soon had its institutions of learning, which By 1812 there were in the United States 173,972 Baptist church aspired to become universities. members, the denominational numerical strength having consider

Before 1844 the sessions of the Triennial Convention had occaably more than doubled since the beginning of the 19th century. sionally been made unpleasant by harsh anti-slavery utterances by

Foreign Missions.-Baptists in Boston and vicinity, Phila- Northern members against their Southern brethren and somewhat delphia and Charleston, and a few other communities had acrimonious rejoinders by the latter. The controversy between from the beginning of the 19th century taken a deep interest

Francis Wayland and Richard Fuller (1804-1876) on the slavery in the missionary work of William Carey, the English missionary, organization for missionary work was advisable. The Southern

question ultimately convinced the Southern brethren that separate and his coadjutors in India, and had contributed liberally to its Baptist Convention, with its Home and Foreign Missionary Boards, support. The conversion to Baptist views of Adoniram Judson and (later) its Sunday-school Board, was formed in 1845. Since (9.7.) and Luther Rice (1812), who had just been sent, with

then Northern and Southern Baptists, though in perfect Icllowship

with each other, have found it best to carry on their home and foreign others, by the newly-formed American Board of Commissioners missionary work through separate boards and to have separate for Foreign Missions to open up missionary work in India, marks annual meetings. In 1905 a General Baptist Convention for America an epoch in American Baptist history. Judson appealed to his was formed for the promotion of fellowship, comity and denominaAmerican brethren to support him in missionary work among sectionalorganizationsorto undertake any kindof administrativework.

tional esprit de corps, but this organization is not to interfere with the the heathen, Rice returned to America to organize missionary

Since 1845 Northern and Southern Baptists alike have greatly societies to awaken interest in Judson's mission. In January increased in numbers, in missionary work, in educational insti. 1813 there was formed in Boston “ The Baptist Society for the tutions, in literary activity and in everything that pertains to the Propagation of the Gospel in India and other Foreign Parts.” equipment and organization of a great religious denomination.

Since 1812 they have increased in numbers from less than 200,000 Other societies in the Eastern, Middle and Southern states

to more than 5,000,000. In 1812 American Baptists had no theospeedily followed. The desirability of a national organization logical seminary; in 1906 they had 11 with more than 100 soon became manifest, and in May 1814 thirty-three delegates, instructors, 1300 students, and endowments and equipments valued representing eleven states, met in Philadelphia and organized at about $7,000,000. In 1812 they had only one degree-conferring the " General Missionary Convention of the Baptist Denomina- college with a small faculty,

a small

student body and almost no

endowment; in 1906 they had more than 100 universities and tion in the United States of America for Foreign Missions.” colleges with endowment and equipment valued at about $30,000,000, As its meetings were to be held every three years it came to and an annual income of about $3,000,000. In 1812 the value of be known as the “ Triennial Convention.” A Board of Com

church property was small; in 1906 it was estimated at $100,000,000.

Then a single monthly magazine, with a circulation of a few hundreds missionerswas appointed with headquarters in Philadelphia(trans

was all that the denomination possessed in the way of periodical lerred in 1826 to Boston). The necd of a larger supply of educated literature; in 1906 its quarterlies, monthlies and weeklies were ministers for home and for mission work alike soon came to be numbered by hundreds. The denomination has a single publishing profoundly felt, and resulted in the establishment of Columbian

concern (the American Baptist Publication Society) with an annual

business of nearly $1,000,000 and assets of $1,750,000. College, Washington (now George Washington University), with

Baptists in the Dominion of Canada had their rise about the close its theological department (1821), intended to be a national of the 18th century in migrations from the United States. They Baptist institution. Destitution on the frontiers led the Tricnnial have been reinforced by considerable numbers of English, Welsh Convention to engage extensively in home mission work (1817 of the Maritime Provinces, with their

Convention, their Home and

and Scottish Baptists. They are divided into four sections:-those onward), and in 1832 the American Baptist Home Mission Society Foreign Mission Boards, an Education Board and a Publication was constituted for the promotion of this work. The need of an | Board, and with M'Master University (Arts. Theological and

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