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year. Sir Edward Barnes' portrait was painted, for Ceylon, by Church: Gairdner's Church in the XVIth Century; Pollard's John Wood, and a memorial statue was erected in Colombo.

Henry VIII. and Cranmer; Herzog-Hauck, Realencyklopädie, 3rd ed.

(A. F. P.) BARNES, JOSHUA (1654-1712), English scholar, was born in London on the roth of January 1654. Educated at Christ's BARNES, THOMAS (1785-1841), British journalist, was born Hospital and at Emmanuel College, Cambridge, he was in 1695 about 1785. Educated at Christ's Hospital and Pembroke chosen regius professor of Greek, a language which he wrote College, Cambridge, he came to London and soon joined the and spoke with the utmost facility. One of his first publications famous literary circle of which Hunt, Lamb and Hazlitt were was entitled Gerania; a New Discovery of a Little Sort of People, prominent members. Upon the retirement of Dr Stoddart in anciently discoursed of, called Pygmies (1675), a whimsical sketch | 1817 he was appointed editor of The Times, a position which he to which Sviit's Voyage to Lillipul possibly owes something. held until his death, when he was succeeded by Delane. Lord Among his other works are a History of that Most Victorious Lyndhurst gave expression to a very widely-held opinion when blonarch Edward III. (1688), in which he introduces long and he described him as “ the most powerful man in the country.". elaborate speeches into the narrative; editions of Euripides (1694) He died on the 7th of May 1841. and of Ilomer (1711), also one of Anacreon (1705) which contains BARNES, WILLIAM (1800-1886), the Dorsetshire poet, was titles of Greek verses of his own which he hoped to publish He born on the 22nd of February 1800, at Rushay, near Pentridge died on the 3rd of August 1712, at Hemingsord, near St Ives, in Dorset, the son of John Barnes and Grace Scott, of the farmer Hunts.

class. He was a delicate child, in direct contrast to a strong race BARNES, ROBERT (1495-1540), English reformer and of forebears, and inherited from his mother a refined, retiring martyr, born about 1495, was educated at Cambridge, where disposition and a love for books. He went to school at Sturminster he was a member, and afterwards prior of the convent of Austin Newton, where he was considered the clever boy of the school; Friars, and graduated D.D. in 1523. He was apparently one of and when a solicitor named Dashwood applied to the master for the Cambridge men who were wont to gather at the White a quick-witted boy to join him as pupil, Barnes was selected for Horse Tavern for Bible-reading and theological discussion early the post. He worked with the village parson in his spare hours in the third decade of the 16th century. In 1526, he was brought at classics and studied music under the organist. In 1818 he leít before the vice-chancellor for preaching a heterodox sermon, Sturminster for the office of one Coombs at Dorchester, where and was subsequently examined by Wolsey and four other he continued his evening education with another kindly clergybishops. He was condemned to abjure or be burnt; and He also made great progress in the art of wood-engraving, preferring the former alternative, was committed to the Fleet and with the money he received for a series of blocks for a work prison and afterwards to the Austin Friars in London. He called Walks about Dorchester, he printed and published his first escaped thence to Antwerp in 1528, and also visited Wittenberg, book, Orra, a Lapland Tale, in 1822. In the same year he became where he made Luther's acquaintance. He also came across engaged to Julia Miles, the daughter of an excise officer. In 1823 Stephen Vaughan, an agent of Thomas Cromwell and an advanced he took a school at Mere in Wiltshire, and four years later married reformer, who recommended him to Cromwell: “ Look well,” and settled in Chantry House, a fine old Tudor mansion in that he wrote, “ upon Dr Barnes' book. It is such a piece of work town. The school grew in numbers, and Barnes occupied all his as I have not yet seen any like it. I think he shall seal it with spare time in assiduous study, reading during these years bis blood(Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. v. 593). In authors so diverse in character as Herodotus, Sallust, Ovid, 1531 Barnes returned to England, and became one of the chief Petrarch, Buffon and Burns. He also began to write poetry, intermediaries between the English government and Lutheran and printed many of his verses in the Dorsel County Chronicle. Germany. In 1535 he was sent to Germany, in the hope of His chief studies, however, were philological; and in 1829 he inducing Lutheran divines to approve of Henry's divorce from published An Etymological Glossary oj English Words of Foreign Catherine of Aragon, and four years later he was employed in Derivation. In 1832 a strolling company of actors visited Mere, Degotiations connected with Anne of Cleves's marriage. The and Barnes wrote a farce, The Honest Thief, which they produced, policy was Cromwell's, but Henry VIII. had already in 1538 and a comedy which was played at Wincanton. Barnes also refused to adopt Lutheran theology, and the statute of Six Articles wrote a number of educational books, such as Elements of (1539), followed by the king's disgust with Anne of Cleves (1540), Perspective, Oullincs of Geography, and in 1833 first began his brought the agents of that policy to ruin. An attack upon poems in the Dorsetshire dialect, among them the two eclogues Bishop Gardiner by Barnes in a sermon at St Paul's Cross was “ The 'Lotments "and" A Bit o'Sly Coorten," in the pages of the the signal for a bitter struggle between the Protestant and local paper. In 1835 he leít Mere, and returned to Dorchester, reactionary parties in Henry's council, which raged during where he started another school, removing in 1837 into larger the spring of 1540. Barnes was forced to apologize and recant; quarters. In 1844 he published Poems of Rural Life in the and Gardiner delivered a series of sermons at St Paul's Cross Dorsct Dialect. Three years later Barnes took holy orders, and to counteract Barnes' invective. But a month or so later was appointed to the cure of Whitcombe, 3 m. from DorCromwell was made earl of Essex, Gardiner's friend, Bishop chester. He had been for some years upon the books of St John's Sampson, was sent to the Tower, and Barnes reverted to College, Cambridge, and took the degree of B.D. in 1850. He Lutheranism. It was a delusive victory. In July, Cromwell resigned Whitcombe in 1852, finding the work too hard in was attainted, Anne of Cleves was divorced and Barnes was connexion with his mastership; and in June of that year he burnt (30th July 1540). He also had an act of attainder passed sustained a severe bereavement by the death of his wife. Conagainst him, a somewhat novel distinction for a heretic, which tinuing his studies in the science of language, he published his illustrates the way in which Henry VIII. employed secular Philological Grammar in 1854, drawing examples from more than machinery for ecclesiastical purposes, and regarded heresy as an sixty languages. For the copyright of this erudite work he ofience against the state rather than against the church. Barnes received £5. The second series of dialect poems, Hwomely was one of six executed on the same day: two, William Jerome, Rhymes, appeared in 1859 (2nd ed. 1863). Hwomely Rhymes and Thomas Gerrard, were, like himself, burnt for heresy under contained some of his best-known pieces, and in the year of its the Six Articles; three, Thomas Abel, Richard Fetherstone publication he first began to give readings from his works. As and Edward Powell, were hanged for treason in denying the their reputation grew he travelled all over the country, delighting royal supremacy. Both Lutherans and Catholics on the con- large audiences with his quaint humour and natural pathos. tinent were shocked. Luther published Barnes' confession with In 1861 he was awarded a civil list pension of £70 a year, and in a preface of bis own as Bekenntnis des Glaubens (1540), which the next year published Tiw, the most striking of his philological is included in Walch's edition of Luther's Werke xxi. 186. studies, in which the Teutonic roots in the English language are See Letters and Papers of Henry VIII. vols. iv.-XV. passim: discussed. Barnes had a horror of Latin forms in English, and Wriothesley's Chronicle; Foxe's Acts and Monuments, ed. G. Town: would have substituted English compounds for many Latin Bend; Burnet's Hist. of the Ref., ed. Pocock; Dixon's Hist. of the l forms in common use. In 1862 he broke up his school, and removed to the rectory of Winterborne Came, to which he was in A minor (1864), and followed this with a number of composi, presented by his old friend, Captain Seymour Dawson Damer. tions for orchestra, strings or pianoforte. His cantata The Here he worked continuously at verse and prose, contributing Ancient Mariner was brought out at Birmingham in 1867, and largely to the magazines. A new series of Poems of Rural Life another, Paradise and the Peri, in 1870, both with great success. in the Dorsel Dialect appeared in 1862, and he was persuaded in In 1873 his most important work, the oratorio The Raising of 1868 to publish a series of Poems of Rural Life in Common English, Lazarus, was written, and in 1876 produced at Hereford. Many which was less successful than his dialect poems. These latter other cantatas, pianoforte pieces, &c. were composed by him, were collected into a single volume in 1879, and on the 7th of and successfully brought out; and he took an active part as a October 1886 Barnes died at Winterborne Came. His poetry professor in the work of the Guildhall School of Music and Royal is essentially English in character; no other writer has given College of Music. quite so simple and sincere a picture of the homely life and labour BARNETT, SAMUEL AUGUSTUS (1844- ), English clergy of rural England. His work is full of humour and the clean, man and social reformer, was born at Bristol on the 8th of manly joy of life; and its rusticity is singularly allied to a literary February 1844, the son of Francis Augustus Barnett, an iron sense and to high technical finish. He is indeed the Victorian manufacturer. After leaving Wadham College, Oxford, in 1866, Theocritus; and, as English country life is slowly swept away he visited the United States. Next year he was ordained to the before the advance of the railway and the telegraph, he will be curacy of St Mary's, Bryanston Square, and took priest's orders more and more read for his warm-hearted and fragrant record of in 1868. In 1872 he became vicar uf St Jude's, Commercial Street, rustic love and piety. His original and suggestive books on the Whitechapel, and in the next year married Henrietta Octavia English language, which are valuable in spite of their eccen- Rowland, who had been a co-worker with Miss Octavia tricities, include: -Se Gefylsta: an Anglo-Saxon Delectus (1849); Hill and was no less ardent a philanthropist than her husband. A Grammar and Glossary of the Dorset Dialect (1864); An Oulline Mr and Mrs Barnett worked hard for the poor of their parish, of English Speech-Craft (1878); and A Glossary of the Dorset opening evening schools for adults, providing them with music Dialect (Dorchester, 1886).

and reasonable entertainment, and serving on the board of See The Life of William Barnes, Poet and Philologist (1887), by guardians and on the managing committees of schools. Mr his daughter, Lucy E. Baxter, who is known as a writer on art by Barnett did much to discourage outdoor relier, as tending to the the pseudonym of Leader Scott; and a notice by Thomas Hardy pauperization of the neighbourhood. At the same time the in the Athenaeum (16th of October 1886).

conditions of indoor relief were improved, and the various BARNET, a residential district in the mid or St Albans parlia- charities were co-ordinated, by co-operation with the Charity 'mentary division of Hertfordshire, England; 10 m. N. of London, Organization Society and the parish board of guardians. In served by the main line and branches of the Great Northern 1875 Arnold Toynbee paid a visit, the first of many, to Whiterailway. The three chief divisions are as follows:-(1) CHIPPING chapel, and Mr Barnett, who kept in constant touch with Oxford, or High BARNET, a market town and urban district (Barnet), formed in 1877 a small committee, over which he presided himself, pop. (1901) 7876. The second epithet designates its position to consider the organization of university extension in London, on a hill, but the first is given it from the market granted to the his chief assistants being Leonard Montcfiore, a young Oxford abbots of St Albans to be kept there, by Henry II. Near the man, and Frederick Rogers, a member of the vellum binders' town, round a point marked by an obelisk, was fought in 1471 the trade union. The committce received influential support, and decisive battle between the houses of York and Lancaster, in in October four courses of lectures, one by Dr S. R. Gardiner on which the earl of Warwick fell and the Lancastrians were totally English history, were given in Whitechapel. The Barneits were defeated. The town is on the Great North Road, on which it was also associated with the building of model dwellings, with the formerly an important coaching station. A large annual horse establishment of the children's country holiday fund and the and cattle fair is held. (2) East BARNET, 2 m. S.E. of Chipping annual loan exhibitions of fine art at the Whitechapel gallery. Barnet, has an ancient parish church retaining Norman portions, In 1884 an article by Mr Barnett in the Nineteenth Century though enlarged in modern times. Pop. of East Barnet Valley discussed the question of university settlements. This resulted urban district, 10,094.. (3) New BARNET lies i m. E. by S. from in July in the formation of the University Settlements AssociaChipping Barnet.

tion, and when Toynbee Hall was built shortly afterwards Mr Friern Barnet, in the Enfield parliamentary division of Barnett became its warden. He was a select preacher at Oxford Middlesex, lies 3 m. S. of Chipping Barnet. Pop. of urban in 1895-1897, and at Cambridge in 1900; he received a canonry district, 11,566. The prefix recalls the former lordship of the in Bristol cathedral in 1893, but retained his wardenship of manor possessed by the friary of St John of Jerusalem in Clerken- Toynbee Hall, while relinquishing the living of Si Jude's.' In well, London. Friern Barnet adjoins Finchley on the north June 1906 he was preferred to a canonry at Westminster, and and Whetstone on the south, the whole district being residential. when in December he resigned the wardenship of Toynbee Hall

BARNETT, JOHN (1802-1890), English musical composer, son the position of president was created so that he mighi retain his of a Prussian named Bernhard Beer, who changed his name on connexion with the institution. Among Canon Barnett's works settling in England as a jeweller, was born at Bedford, and at the is Practicable Socialism (1888, 2nd ed. 1894), written in conjuncage of eleven sang on the Lyceum stage in London. His good tion with his wife. voice led to his being given a musical education, and he soon BARNFIELD, RICHARD (1574-1627), English poet, was born began writing songs and lighter pieces for the stage. In 1834 he at Norbury, Staffordshire, and baptized on the 13th of June 1574. published a collection of Lyrical Illustrations of the Modern Poets. His obscure though close relationship with Shakespeare has long His Mountain Sylph-with which his name is chiefly connected- made him interesting to students and has attracted of late years received a warm welcome when produced at the Lyceum on further attention from the circumstance that important disAugust 25, 1834, as the first modern English opera: and it was coveries regarding his life have been made. Until recently followed by another opera Fair Rosamund in 1837, and by nothing whatever was known about the facts of Barnield's Farinelli in 1839. He had a large connexion as a singing-master career, whose very existence had been doubted. It was, however, at Cheltenham, and published Systems and Singing-masters (1842) discovered by the late Dr A. B. Grosart that the poet was the son and School for lhe Voice (1844). He died on the 16th of April 1890. of Richard Barnfield (or Barnefield) and Maria Skrymsher, bis

His nephew, John FRANCIS BARNETT (1837– ), son of John's wise, who were married in April 1572. They resided in the parish brother, Joseph Alfred, also a professor of music, carried on the of Norbury, in Staffordshire, on the borders of Salop, where the traditions of the family as a composer and teacher. He obtained poet was baptized on the 13th of June 1574. The mother died a queen's scholarship at the Royal Academy of Music, and in giving birth to a daughter early in 1581, and her unmarried developed into an accomplished pianist, visiting Germany to sister, Elizabeth Skrymsher, seems to have devoted herself to study in 1857 and playing at a Gewandhaus concert at Leipzig the care of the children. In November 1589 Barnfield matricuin 1860. He came into notice as a composer with his symphony lated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and took his degree is February 1592. He “performed the exercise for his master's correct, but Barnfield claimed one of the two picces just mentioned, gown,” but seems to have left the university abruptly, without not only in 1598, but again in 1605. It is certain that both are his, proceeding to the M.A. It is conjectured that he came up to and possibly other things in The Passionate Pilgrim also; ShakeLondon in 1593, and became acquainted with Watson, Drayton, speare's share in the twenty poems of that miscellany being and perhaps with Spenser. The death of Sir Philip Sidney had doubtless confined to the five short pieces which have been occurred while Barnfield was still a school-boy, but it seems to definitely identified as his. In the opinion of the present writer have strongly affected his imagination and to have inspired the sonnet beginning “Sweet Cytherea" has unmistakably the some of his earliest verses. In November 1594, in his twenty-first stamp of Barnfield, and is probably a gloss on the first rapturous year, Barnfield published inonymously his first work, The perusal of Venus and Adonis; the same is to be said of "Scarce Afectionc!e Shepherd, dedicated with familiar devotion to had the sun,” which is out Barnfield, au diabolus. One or two Pepelope, Lady Rich. This was a sort of florid romance, in two other contributions to The Passionate Pilgrim may be conjectured, books of six-line stanza, in the manner of Lodge and Shakespeare, with less confidence, to be Barnfield's. It has been stated that dealing at large with “ the complaint of Daphnis for the love of the poet was now studying the law at Gray's Inn, but for this the Ganymede.” As the author expressly admitted later, it was an writer is unable to discover the authority, except that several expansion or paraphrasc of Virgil's second eclogue

members of that society are mentioned in the course of the volume "Furmosum pastor Corydon ardebat Alexin."

of 1598. In all probability Barnfield now married and withdrew This poem of Barnfield's was the most extraordinary specimen to his estate of Dorlestone (or Darlaston), in the county of Statiord, hitherto produced in England of the licence introduced from Italy a house romantically situated on the river Trent, where he henceat the Renaissance. Although the poem was successful, it did not forth resided as a country gentleman. In 1605 he reprinted his pass without censure from the moral point of view. Into the Lady Pecunia, and this was his latest appearance as a man of conventional outlines of The Affectionale Shepherd the young poet letters. His son Robert Barnfield and his cousin Elinor Skrymsher has poured all his fancy, all his epithets, and all his coloured were his executors when his will was proved at Lichfield; his touches of nature. If we are not repclled by the absurd subject, wife, therefore, doubtless predeceased him. Barnfield died at we have to admit that none of the immediate imitators of Venus Dorlestone Hall, and was buried in the neighbouring parish and Adonis has equalled the juvenile Barnfield in the picturesque church of St Michael's, Stone, on the 6th of March 1627. The ness of his “ fine ruff-footed doves," his “speckled flower callid | labours of Dr Grosart and of Professor Arber have thrown much sops-in-wine," or his desire “ by the bright glimmering of the light on the circumstances of Barnfield's career. He has taken of starry light, to catch the long-billid woodcock.” Two months late years a far more prominent place than ever before in the later, in January 1595, Barnfield published his second volume, history of English literature. This is due partly to the remarkable Cynthia, with certain Sonnels, and this time signed the preface, merit of his graceful, melodious and highly-coloured verse, which which was dedicated, in terms which imply close personal rela- was practically unknown until it was privately printed in 1876 tions, to William Stanley, the new earl of Derby. This is a book of (ed. Grosart, Roxburghe Club), and at length given to the public extreme interest; it exemplifies the earliest study both of Spenser in 1882 (ed. Arber, English Scholars' Library). It is also due to and Shakespeare. "Cynthia ” itself, a panegyric on Queen the mysterious personal relation of Barnfield to Shakespeare, a Elizabeth, is written in the Spenserian stanza, of which it is relation not casy to prove in detail, as it is built up on a great probably the earliest example extant outside The Faeric Quecne. variety of small indications. It is, however, obvious that This is followed by a sequence of twenty sonnets, which have the Barnfield warmly admired Shakespeare, whose carliest imitator extraordinary interest that, while preceding the publication of he may be said to have been, and that between 1595 and 1600 the Shakespeare's sonnets by fourteen years, they are closer to them younger poct was so close to the elder that the compositions of the in manner than are any others of the Elizabethan age. They former could be confused with those of the latter. Barnfield died, celebrate, with extravagant ardour, the charms of a young man as a poet, in his twenty-fifth ycar. Up to that time he had diswhose initials seem to have been J. U. or J. V., and of whom played a talent which, if he had pursued it, might have placed nothing else seems known. These sonnets, which preceded even him very high among the English pocts. As it is, he will always the Amorelli of Spenser, are of unusual merit as poetry, and would interest a certain number of readers as being, in his languid rank as high in quality as in date of publication if their subject- “Italianate” way, a sort of ineffectual Meleager in the rich matter were not so preposterous. They show the influence of Elizabethan anthology, Drayton's Idea, which had appeared a few months before; in that Besides the editions already cited, The Affectionale Shepherd was collection also, it is to be observed, there had appeared amatory English Poetry, vol. xx.): The Encomion of Pecunia and some other

edited by Mr J. O. Halliwell-Phillipps for the Percy Society (Early sonnets addressed to a young man. If editors would courageously poenis by J. Boswell (Roxburghe Club, 1816); and by J. P. Collier alter the gender of the pronouns, several of Barnfield's glowing in Illustrations of Old English Literature (vol. i., 1866).

(E.G.) sonnets might take their place at once in our anthologies. Before BARNIM, the name of a district between the Spree, the Oder the publication of his volume, however, he had repented of his and the Havel, which was added to the mark of Brandenburg heresies, and had become enamoured of a “lass" named Eliza during the 13th century. In the 15th century it was divided into (or Elizabeth), whom he celebrates with effusion in an “Ode." upper and lower Barnim, and these names are now borne by two This is probably the lady whom he presently married, and as we circles (Kreise) in the kingdom of Prussia. find him a grandfather in 1626 it is unlikely that the wedding was BARNIM, the name of thirteen dukes who ruled over various long delayed. In 1598 Barnfield published his third volume, The divisions of the duchy of Pomerania. The following are the most Ercomion of Lady Pecunia, a poem in praise of money, followed important:by a sort of continuation, in the same six-line stanza, called “ The BARNIM I. (c. 1209–1278), called the Good, was the son of Complaint of Poetry for the Death of Liberality.” In this volume Bogislaus II., duke of Pomerania-Stettin, and succeeded to this there is already a decline in poetic quality. But an appendix of duchy on his father's death in 1220. After he became of age he “ Poems in diverse Humours to this volume of 1598 presents was engaged in a long struggle with external enemies, and in 1250 some very interesting features. Here appears what secms to be was compelled to recognize the supremacy of the margrave of the absolutely earliest praise of Shakespeare in a piece entitled | Brandenburg. Having in 1264 united the whole of Pomerania "A Remembrance of some English Poets," in which the still under his rule, Barnim devoted his energies to improving its unrecognized author of Venus and Adonis is celebrated by the side internal condition. He introduced German settlers and customs of Spenser, Daniel and Drayton. Here also are the sonnet, “ If into the duchy, founded many towns, and was extremely generous Music and sweet.Poetry agree," and the beautiful ode beginning towards ecclesiastical foundations. He died on the 13th or 14th As it fell upon a day,” which were until recently attributed to of November 1278. Shakespeare himself. In the next year, 1599, The Passionate BARNIM III. (c. 1303-1368), called the Great, was the son of Pilgrim was published, with the words “ By W. Shakespeare "on Otto I., duke of Pomerania-Stettin, and took a prominent part the title-page. It was long supposed that this attribution was in the defence and government of the duchy before his father's

death in 1344.” A long and intermittent struggle with the repre- , sons for their lives. Besides these charters and others granting
sentatives of the emperor Louis IV., who had invested his own land in Barnsley to the monks of Pontefract there is very little
son Louis with the mark of Brandenburg, enabled him to gain history of the town, since it was not until after the introduction
military experience and distinction. A victory gained by him of the linen manufacture in 1744 that it became really important
in August 1332 was mainly instrumental in freeing Pomerania Before that time the chief industry had been wire-drawing, but
for a time from the vexatious claim of Brandenburg to supremacy this trade began to decrease about the end of the 18th century,
over the duchy, which moreover he extended by conquest. just as the linen trade was becoming important. In 1869
Barnim assisted the emperor Charles IV. in his struggle with the Barnsley was incorporated.
family of Wittelsbach. He died on the 24th of August 1368. See Rowland Jackson, The History of the Town and Township

Barnim XI. (1501-1573), son of Bogislaus X., duke of Of Barnsley (1858); Victoria County History— Yorkshire.
Pomerania, became duke on his father's death in 1523. He ruled

BARNSTABLE, a seaport township and the county-seat of for a time in common with his elder brother George; and after the county of the same name, in Massachusetts, U.S.A. Pop. George's death in 1531 he shared the duchy with his nephew (1900), 4364, of whom 391 were foreign-born; (1910, U. S. Philip I., retaining for himself the duchy of Pomerania-Stettin. census) 4676. Barnstable is served by the New York, New The carlier years of his rule were troubled by a quarrel with the

Haven & Hartford Railway. It is situated between Cape Cod margrave of Brandenburg, who wished to annex Pomerania. In Bay on the N. and Nantucket Sound on the S., extending across 1529, however, a treaty was made which freed Pomerania from Cape Cod. The soil of the township, unlike that of other parts the supremacy of Brandenburg on condition that if the ducal of the county, is well adapted to agriculture, and the principal family became extinct the duchy should revert to Brandenburg. industry is the growing of vegetables and the supplying of milk Barnim adopted the doctrines of Martin Luther, and joined the and poultry for its several villages, nearly all of which are summer league of Schmalkalden, but took no part in the subsequent war.

resorts. At Hyannis is a state normal school (1897; co-educaBut as this attitude Ieft him without supporters he was obliged tional). Cranberries are raised in large quantities, and there are to submit to the emperor Charles V., to pay a heavy fine, and to oyster and other shell fisheries. In the 17th century the mackerel accept the Interim, issued from Augsburg in May 1548. In 1569 and whale fisheries were the basis of economic life; the latter Barnim handed over his duchy to his grand-nephew, John gave way later to the cod and other fisheries, but the fishing Frederick, and died at Stettin on the 2nd of June 1573.

industry is now relatively unimportant. Much of the county is BARNSLEY (BLACK, or properly BLEAK BARNSLEY), a market

a region of sands, salt-marshes, beach-grass and scattered woods. town and municipal borough in the Barnsley parliamentary From 1865 to 1895 the county diminished 20.1 % in population. division of the West Riding of Yorkshire, England, 15 m. N. of Barnstable was settled and incorporated in 1639 (county created Sheffield. Pop. (1891) 35,427; (1901) 41,086. It is served by 1685), and includes among its natives James Otis and Lemuel the Midland, Great Central, Lancashire & Yorkshire, Great

Shaw. Northern, and Hull & Barnsley railways. It is in the parish County (z vols., Boston, 1858, 1862; and other impressions 1860 to

Sec F. Freeman, The History of Cape Cod: the Annals of Barnstable of Silkstone, which gives name to important collieries. It is 1869). situated on rising ground west of the river Dearne, and, though BARNSTAPLE, a scaport, market town and municipal it loses in attraction owing to its numerous factories, its borough, in the Barnstaple parliamentary division of Devonshire, neighbourhood has considerable natural beauty. Among the England, on the river Taw, near the north coast. Pop. (1901) principal buildings and institutions are several churches, of which 14,137. It is served by the London & South-Western, the the oldest, the parish church of St Mary, was built in 1821 on an Great Western, and the Lynton & Barnstaple railways. The arly site; court house, public hall, institute and free library. | Taw is here crossed by stone bridge of sixteen arches, said to Among several educational institutions, the free grammar school have been built in the 12th or 13th century. The town manudates from 1665; and a philosophical society was founded in factures lace, gloves, sail-cloth and fishing-nets, and has extensive 1828. A monument was erected in 1905 to prominent members potteries, tanneries, sawmills and foundries, while shipbuilding of the Yorkshire Miners' Association. The park was presented is also carried on. The harbour admits only small coasting in 1862 by the widow of Joseph Locke, M.P. The manufacture vessels. The public buildings and institutions include a guildhall of iron and steel, and the weaving of linen and other cloth, are (1826), a free grammar school and a large market-place. The the two principal industries; but there are also bleach fields, poet John Gay was born in the vicinity, and received his educaprintfields, dyeworks, sawmills, cornmills and malt-houses; and tion at the grammar school, which at an earlier period had the manufacture of glass, needles and wire is carried on. There numbered Bishop Jewel among its pupils. It was founded in the are large coalfields in the neighbourhood, which, indeed, extend 14th century, in connexion with a chantry. There are also some under the town. Coal and coke are largelyexported to London and curious Jacobean almshouses. The borough is under a mayor, Hull. In the vicinity, Monk Bretton Priory, a Cluniac foundation six aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 2236 acres. of 1157, retains a Perpendicular gatehouse, some Decorated Barnstaple (Berdestaple, Barnstapol, Barstaple, also Barum) domestic remains, and fragments of the church. Wentworth ranks among the most ancient of royal boroughs. As early as Castle, built in 1730 by Thomas, earl of Strafford, stands in a Domesday, where it is several times mentioned, there were forty singularly beautiful park, and contains a fine collection of portraits burgesses within the town and nine without, who rendered 405. of historical interest. Besides the communications afforded by Tradition claims that King Athelstan threw up defensive earthrailway, Barnsley has the advantage of connexion with the Aire works here, but the existing castle is attributed to Joel of Totnes, and Calder Navigation system of canals. The borough is under who held the manor during the reign of William the Conqueror, a mayor, six aldermen and eighteen councillors. Area, 2385 acres. and also founded a Cluniac priory, dedicated to St Mary

At the time of the Domesday survey Ilbert de Lacy held Magdalene. From this date the borough and priory grew up Barnsley by gift of William the Conqueror as part of the honour of side by side, but each preserving its independent privileges and Pontefract, and the overlordship remained in his family until the rights of government until the dissolution of the latter in 1535. reign of Stephen, when it was granted by Henry de Lacy to the In Edward II.'s reign the burgesses petitioned for the restoration monks of Pontefract. Henry III. in 1249 granted the prior and of rights bestowed by a pretended charter from Athelstan. The convent of Pontefract a market every Wednesday at Barnsley, existence of this charter was denied, but the desired privileges and a fair on the vigil and feast of St Michael and two following were conceded, including the right to elect a mayor. The earliest days, and Henry VIII. in 1512 granted them a new fair on the authenticated charter is that of Henry I., which was confirmed day of the Conversion of St Paul and two following days. The in a charter of Henry II. The later charter states that the monastery evidently also held another fair there called St Ellen's burgesses should have customs similar to those granted to London, fair, for in 1583 Queen Elizabeth granted this fair and St Paul's and further charters confirmed the same right. A charter oi fair and the market "lately belonging to the dissolved monastery Queen Mary in 1556 added some new privileges, and specified of Pontefract" to one Henry Burdett, and Ralph and Henry_his l_that the common council should consist of a mayor, two aldermen and twenty-four chief burgesses. James I., by a charter dated much resembles it. Yet it is curious that it was much used 1610, increased the number of chief burgesses to twenty-five and to describe a debased form of architecture encouraged by the instituted a recorder, a clerk of the market, justices of the peace Jesuits whose church in Rome was built by Barocchio. and other officers. This charter was confirmed in 1611 and 1689, BAROCCI (or BAROCCIO), FEDERIGO (1528-1012), Italian and held force until the Municipal Corporations Act of 1835, painter, was born at Urbino, where the genius of Raphacl inspired which established six aldermen and eighteen councillors. The him. In his early youth he travelled to Rome, where he painted borough sent two members to parliament in 1295, and so con- in fresco and was warmly commended by Michelangelo. He tinued to do until the Redistribution of Seats Act of 1885, when then returned to Urbino, where, with the exception of some the representation was merged in that of the county. Barnstaple short visits to Rome, he continued to reside till his death. He was once famous for its woollen trade, now entirely declined, and acquired great fame by his paintings of religious subjects, in the as early as the reign of Edward III. was an important naval port, style of which he to some extent imitated Correggio. His own with an extensive shipping trade. That this prosperity was not followers were very numerous, but according to Lanzi (Hist. oj altogether uninterrupted is testified by the fact that, at the time Painting) carried their master's peculiarities to excess. Barocci of the Armada, the mayor pieaded inability to contribute three also etched from his own designs a few prints, which are highly ships, on account of injuries to trade consequent on the war with finished, and executed with great softness and delicacy. Spain. The Friday market and the annual four days' fair in BARODA, a native state of India, within the Gujarat province September are held by immemorial prescription.

of Bombay, but in direct relations with the governor-general. See J. B. Gribble, Memorials of Barnstaple (Barnstaple, 1830). It consists of four isolated divisions, each of which is interlaccel

BARNUM, PHINEAS TAYLOR (1810-1891), American show in the most intricate fashion with British territory or with other man, was born in Bethel, Connecticut, on the 5th of July 1810, native states. Three of these divisions-Kadi, Baroda and his father being an inn- and store-keeper. Barnum first started Nausari-are in Gujarat proper; the fourth, Amreli with as a store-keeper, and was also concerned in the lottery mania Okhamandal, is in the peninsula of Kathiawar. The total area then prevailing in the United States. After failing in business, covers 8099 sq. m. In 1901 the population was 1,952,692, he started in 1829 a weekly paper, The Herald of Freedom, in showing a decrease of 19% in the decade, compared with an Danbury; after several libel suits and a prosecution hich increase of u % in the preceding decade. This decrease was due resulted in imprisonment, he moved to New York in 1834, partly to the famines of 1896-1897 and 1900-1901, partly to and in 1835 began his career as a showman, with his pur- the epidemics of cholera and fever which accompanied them, chase and exploitation of a coloured woman, Joyce Heth, and partly to the plague which attacked the state in as great reputed to have been the nurse of George Washington, and to measure as the surrounding presidency. be over a hundred and sixty years old. With this woman and The princes of Baroda were one of the chief branches of the a small company he made well-advertised and successful tours Mahratta confederacy, which in the 18th century spread devastain America till 1839, though Joyce Heth died in 1836, when hertion and terror over India. About 1721 one Pilaji gaekwar age was proved to be not more than seventy. After a period of carved a fertile slice of territory out of Gujarat, and afterwards failure, he purchased Scudder's American Museum, New York, received the title of “ Leader of the Royal Troops ” from the in 1841; to this he added considerably, and it became one of the peshwa. During the last thirty-two years of the century the most popular shows in the United States. He made a special hit house fell a prey to one of those bitter and unappcasable family by the exhibition, in 1842, of Charles Stratton, the celebrated feuds which are the ruin of great Indian families. In 1800 the * General Tom Thumb” (see DWARF). In 1844 Barnum toured inheritance descended to a prince fecble in body and almost with the dwarf in England. A remarkable instance of his idiotic in mind. British troops were sent in desence of the enterprise was the engagement of Jenny Lind to sing in America hereditary ruler against all claimants; a treaty was signed in at $1000 a night for one hundred and fifty nights, all expenses 1802, by which his independence of the peshwa and his debeing paid by the entrepreneur. The tour began in 1850. Barnum pendence on British government were secured. Three years retired from the show business in 1855, but had to settle with his later these and various other engagements were consolidated creditors in 1857, and began his old career again as showman and into a systematic plan for the administration of the Baroda museum proprietor. In 1871 he established the “Greatest Show territory, under a prince with a revenue of three-quarters of on Earth," a travelling amalgamation of circus, menagerie and a million sterling, perfectly independent in all internal matters, museum of “freaks," &c. This show, incorporated in the name but practically kept on his throne by subsidiary British troops. of “ Barnum, Bailey & Hutchinson," and later as “Barnum For some time the history of the gaek wars was very much the & Bailey's” toured all over the world. In 1907 the business same as that of most territorial houses in India: an occasional was sold to Ringling Brothers. Barnum wrote several books, able minister, more rarely an able prince; but, on the other hand, such as The Humbugs of the World ( 1865), Struggles and Triumphs a long dreary list of incompetent heads, venal advisers and (1869), and his Autobiography (1854, and later editions). He taskmasters oppressive to the people. At last a fierce family died on the 7th of April 1891.

feud came to a climax. In 1873 an English committee of inquiry BAROCCHIO (or Barozzi), GIACOMO, called DA VICNOLA was appointed to investigate various complaints of oppression (1507-1573), Italian architect, was born at Vignola in the against the gaekwar, Malhar Rao, who had recently succeeded Modenese territory on the ist of October 1507. His early work to the throne after being for a long time kept in prison by his was conducted at Bologna, Piacenza, Assisi and Perugia, until brother, the former gaekwar. No real reform resulted, and he was summoned to Rome as papal architect under Pope Julius in 1874 an attempt at poisoning the British resident led to the III. In 1564 he succeeded Michelangelo as the architect of gaekwar being formally accused of the crime and tried by a St Peter's, and executed various portions of that fabric, besides mixed commission. The result of the trial (1875) was a failure a variety of works in Rome. The designs for the Escorial were to obtain a unanimous verdict on the charge of poisoning; the also supplied by him. He is the author of an excellent work on viceroy, Lord Northbrook, however, decided to depose Malhar the Fire Orders of Architecture (Rome, 1563), and another work Rao on the ground of gross misgovernment, the widow of his on Practical Perspective (Rome, 1583). To his extensive acquire brother and predecessor, Khande Rao, being permitted to adopt ments and exquisite taste were superadded an amenity of an heir from among the descendants of the founder of the family. manners and a noble generosity that won the affection and This heir, by name Sayaji Rao, then a boy of twelve years in admiration of all who know him. He died in Rome on the 7th of the humble home of a Deccani cultivator, was educated by July 1573. He was an cminent upholder of the classic style at an English tutor, the administration being meanwhile placed for a period when the style known as baroque was corrupting the eight years under the charge of Sir T. Madhava Rao, formerly architecture of Italy. The term baroque owes its origin to the diwan of Travancore, one of the ablest and most enlightened Spanish word barrueco or berrueco, an imperfectly round pearl, of Indian statesmen. The result was a conspicuous success. and is not derived from the architect Barocchio, whose name so The gackwar showed himself a model prince, and his territories

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