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became as well governed and prosperous as a British district. I of the mercury in the basin, leaving in the top of the tube an He repeatedly visited Europe in company with his wife. In apparent vacuum, which is now called the Torricellian vacuum; 1887 the queen-empress conferred upon him at Windsor the this experiment is sometimes known as the Torricellian experimesi. insignia of G.C.S.I., and in 1892 upon his wife thc Imperial order Torricelli's views rapidly gained ground, notwithstanding the of the crown of India.

objections of certain philosophers. Valuable confirmation was The gross revenue of the state is more than a million sterling. afforded by the variation of the barometric column at different In 1901 the state currency of Babashai rupees was withdrawn, elevations. René Descartes and Blaise Pascal predicted a fall and the British rupee was introduced. The regular military in the height when the barometer was carried to the top of a force consists of a field battery, with several regiments of cavalry mountain, since, the pressure of the atmosphere being diminished, and battalions of infantry. In addition, there is an irregular it necessarily followed that the column of mercury sustained force of horse and foot. Compulsory education has been carried by the atmosphere would be diminished also. This was on experimentally since 1893 in the Amreli division with apparent experimentally observed by Pascal's brother-in-law, Florin success, the compulsory age being 7 to 12 for boys and 7 to 10 Périer (1605-1672), who measured the height of the mercury for girls. Special measures are also adopted for the education column at various altitudes on the Puy de Dôme. Pascal of low castes and aboriginal tribes. There is a female training himself tried the cxperiment at several towers in Paris, Notre college under a Christian lady superintendent. The Kala Bhavan, Dame, St Jacques de la Boucherie, &c. The results of his or technical school, has departments for drawing, carpentry, researches were embodied in his treatises De l'équilibre des dyeing, weaving and agriculture. There is also a state museum liqueurs and De la pesanteur de la masse d'air, which were written under a European director, and a state library. Portions of before 1651, but were not published till 1663 after his death. the state are crossed by thc Bombay & Baroda and the Corroboration wasalso afforded by Marin Mersenneand Christiaan Rajputana railways. In addition, the state has constructed Huygens. It was not long before it was discovered that the three railways of its own, on three different gauges. Other height of the column varied at the same place, and that a rise railways are in contemplation. The state possesses a cotton mill. or fall was accompanied by meteorological changes. The

The city of Baroda is situated on the river Viswamitri, a instrument thus came to be used as a means of predicting the station on the Bombay & Baroda railway, 245 m. N. of Bombay weather, and it was frequently known as the weather-glass. The by rail. Pop. (1901) 103,790. The whole aspect of the city relation of the barometric pressure to the weather is mentioned by has been changed by the construction of handsome public Robert Boyle, who expressed the opinion that it is exceedingly buildings, the laying-out of parks and the widening of the streets. difficult to draw any correct conclusions. Edmund Halley, An excellent water-supply is provided from the Ajwa lake. Leibnitz, Jean André Deluc (1727-1817) and many others The cantonments, garrisoned by a native infantry regiment, investigated this subject, giving rules for predicting the weather are under British jurisdiction, and have a population of 4000. and attempting explanations for the phenomena. Since the The city contains a college and many schools. The chief height of the barometric column varies with the elevation of the hospitals are called after the countess of Dufferin, Sayaji Rao station at which it is observed, it follows that observations of the and Jamnabai, the widow of Khande Rao.

barometer afford a means for measuring altitudes. The early See Baroda Gazelleer, 1908.

experiments of Pascal were developed by Edmund Halley, BAROMETER (from Gr. Bápos, pressure, and métpov, Edme Mariotte, J. Cassini, D. Bernoulli, and more especially by measure), an instrument by which the weight or pressure of the Deluc in his Recherches sur les modifications de l'atmosphère (1772), atmosphere is measured. The ordinary or mercurial barometer which contains a full account of the early history of the barometer consists of a tube about 36 in. long, hermetically closed at the and its applications. More highly mathematical investigations upper end and containing mercury. In the " cistern barometer " have been given by Laplace, and also by Richard Rühlmann the tube is placed with its open end in a basin of mercury, and the (Barometrischen Höhenmessung., Leipzig, 1870). The modera atmospheric pressure is measured by the difference of the heights aspects of the relation between atmospheric pressure and the of the mercury in the tube and the cistern. In the “siphon weather and altitudes are treated in the article METEOROLOGY. barometer " the cistern is dispensed with, the tube being bent Many attempts have been made by which the variation in the round upon itself at its lower end; the reading is taken of the height of the mercury column could be magnified, and so more dificrence in the levels of the mercury in the two limbs. The exact measurements taken. It is not possible to enumerate

aneroid ” barometer (from the Gr. a- privative, and mpós, in this article the many devices which have been proposed; and wet) employs no liquid, but depends upon the changes in volume the reader is referred to Charles Hutton's Mathematical as experienced by an exhausted metallic chamber under varying Philosophical Dictionary (1815), William Ellis's paper on the pressures. Baroscopes" simply indicate variations in the history of the barometer in the Quarterly Journal of the Royal atmospheric pressure, without supplying quantitative data. Meteorological Society, vol. xii. (1886), and E. Gerland and “ Barographs are barometers which automatically record any F. Traumüller's Geschichle der physikalischen Experimentier kursi variations in pressure.

(1899). Descartes suggested a method which Huygens put into Philosophers prior to Galileo had endeavoured to explain the practice. The barometer tube was expanded into a cylindrical action of a suction pump by postulating a principle that“ Nature vessel at the top, and into this chamber a fine tube partly filled

abhorred a vacuum." When Galileo observed that a with water was inserted. A slight motion of the mercury Historical.

common suction pump could not raise water to a greater occasioned a larger displacement of the water, and hence the height than about 32 st. he considered that the “abhorrence" changes in the barometric pressure were more readily detected was limited to 32 ft., and commended the matter to the attention and estimated. But the instrument failed as all water-barometers of his pupil Evangelista Torricelli. Torricelli perceived a ready do, for the gases dissolved in the water coupled with its high explanation of the observed phenomenon if only it could be vapour tension destroy its efficacy. The substitution of methyl proved that the atmosphere had weight, and the pressure which salicylate for the water has been attended with success. Its it exerted was equal to that of a 32-st. column of water. He low vapour tension (Sir William Ramsay and Sydney Young proved this to be the correct cxplanation by reasoning as give no value below 70° C.), its low specific gravity (1·18 at 10° follows:-If the atmosphere supports 32 feet of water, then it C.), its freedom from viscosity, have contributed to its successful should also support a column of about 2} ft. of mercury, for this use. In the form patented by C. O. Bartrum it is claimed that liquid is about 13 times heavier than water. This he proved in readings to .001 of an inch of mercury can be taken without the following manner. He selected a glass tube about a quarter the use of a vernier. of an inch in diameter and 4 st. long, and hermetically sealed one The diagonal barometer, in which the upper part of the tube of its ends; he then filled it with mercury and, applying his is inclined to the lower part, was suggested by Bernardo finger to the open end, inverted it in a basin containing mercury. Ramazzini (1633-1714), and also by Sir Samuel Morland (or The mercury instantly sank to nearly 30 in. above the surface Moreland). This form has many defects, and even wbca the

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tube is bent through 45o the readings are only increased in the this rate. The instrument in which the error of capacity is ratio of 7 to 5. The wheel barometer of Dr R. Hooke, and the satisfactorily (indeed, entirely) got rid of is Fortin's Barometer. steel-yard barometer, endeavour to magnify the oscillation of the Fig. 3 shows how this is effected. The upper part

Fortla's mercury column by means of a float resting on the surface of the of the cistern is formed of a glass cylinder, through barometer. mercury in the cistern; the motion of the float due to any which the level of the mercury may be seen. The alteration in the level of the mercury being rendered apparent bottom is made like a bag, of flexible leather, against which a by a change in the position of the wheel or stocl-yard. The screw works. At the top of the interior of the cistern is a pendant barometer of G. Amontons, invented in 1695, con- small piece of ivory, the point of which coincides with the zero sists of a funnel-shaped tube, which is hung vertically with the of the scale. By means of the screw, which acts on the Bexible wide end downwards and closed in at the upper end. The tube cistern boitom, the level of the mercury can contains mercury which adjusts itself in the tube so that the be raised or depressed so as to bring the ivory length of the column balances the atmospheric pressure. The point exactly to the surface of the mercury in instability of this instrument is obvious, for any jar would cause the cistern. In some barometers the cistern is the mercury to leave the tube.

fixed, and the ivory point is brought to the
The Siphon Barometer (fig. 1) consists of a tube bent in the level of the mercury in the cistern by raising
form of a siphon, and is of the same diameter throughout. A or depressing the scale.
graduated scale passes along the whole length of the tube, and In constructing the best barometers three
the height of the barometer is ascertained by taking the difference materials are employed, viz.:-(1) brass, for
of the readings of the upper and lower limbs respectively. This the case, on which the scale is engraved; (2)

instrument may also be read by glass, for the tube containing the mercury;
bringing the zero-point of the gradu- and (3) the mercury itself. It is evident that
ated scale to the level of the surface is the coefficient of expansion of mercury and
of the lower limb by means of a brass were the same, the height of the mer-
screw, and reading off the height at cury as indicated by the brass scale would be
once from the surface of the upper the truc height of the mercurial column. But
limb. This barometer requires no this is not the case, the coefficient of expansion
correction for errors of capillarity or for mercury being considerably greater than
capacity. Since, however, impurities that for brass. The result is that if a baro-
are contracted by the mercury in the meter stand at 30 in. when the temperature of
lower limb, which is usually in open the whole instrument, mercury and brass, is
contact with the air, the satisfac- 32°, it will no longer stand at 30 in. if the Fig. 3.–Fortin's
tory working of the instrument comes temperature be raised to 69°; in fact, it will

Barometer. soon to be seriously interfered with. then stand at 30.1 in. This increase in the

Fig. 2 shows the Cistern Baromeler height of the column by the tenth of an inch is not due to any in its essential and simplest form. increase of pressure, but altogether to the greater expansion of c This barometer is subject to two the mercury at the higher temperature, as compared Correc

kinds of error, the one arising from with the expansion of the brass case with the engraved tions of the capillarity, and the other from changes scale by which the height is measured. In order, barometer

readiog. in the level of the surface of the cis- therefore, to compare with each other with exactness FIG. 1.

FIG. 2.

tern as the mercury rises and falls barometric observations made at different temperatures, it is Siphon Cistern in the tube, the latter being tech- necessary to reduce them to the heights at which they would Barometer. Barometer. nically called the error of capacity. If stand at some unisorm temperature. The temperature to which a glass tube of small bore be plunged into a vessel containing such observations are reduced is 32° Fahr. or o° cent. mercury, it will be observed that the level of the mercury in the If English units be used (Fahrenheit degrees and inches), this tube is not in the line of that of the mercury in the vessel, but correction is given by the formula x=

in the somewhat below it, and that the surface is convex. The capillary

1000. depression is inversely proportional to the diameter of the tube. centigrade-centimetre system the correction is .0001614 HT In standard barometers, the tube is about an inch in diameter, (H being the observed height and T the observed temperature). and the error due to capillarity is less than .001 of an inch. Since Devices have been invented which determine these corrections capillarity depresses the height of the column, cistern barometers mechanically, and hence obviate the necessity of applying the require an addition to be made to the observed height, in order above formula, or of referring to tables in which these corrections to give the true pressure, the amount depending, of course, on for any height of the column and any temperature are given. the diameter of the tube.

The standard temperature of the English yard being 62° and The error of capacity arises in this way. The height of the not 32°, it will be found in working out the corrections from the barometer is the perpendicular distance between the surface of above formula that the temperature of no correction is not 32° the mercury in the cistern and the upper surface of the mercurial but 28.5°. If the scale be engraved on the glass tube, or if the column. Now, when the barometer falls from 30 to 29 inches, an instrument be furnished with a glass scale or with a wooden scale, inch of mercury must fow out of the tube and pass into the different corrections are required. These may be worked out cistern, thus raising the cistern level; and, on the other hand, from the above formula by substituting for the coefficient of the when the barometer rises, mercury must flow out of the cistern cxpansion of brass that of glass, which is assumed to be o.00000498, into the tube, thus lowering the level of the mercury in the or that of wood, which is assumed to be o. Wood, however, cistern. Since the scales of barometers are usually engraved on should not be used, its expansion with temperature being untheir brass cases, which are fixed (and, consequently, the zero- steady, as well as uncertain. point from which the scale is graduated is also fixed), it follows If the brass scale be attached to a wooden frame and be free to that, from the incessant changes in the level of the cistern, the move up and down the frame, as is the case with many siphon readings would be sometimes too high and sometimes too low, barometers, the corrections for brass scales are to be used, since is no provision were made against this source of error.

the zero-point of the scale is brought to the level of the lower A simple way of correcting the error of capacity is—to ascertain limb; but if the brass scale be fixed to a wooden frame, the (1) the neutral point of the instrument, or that height at which corrections for brass scales are only applicable provided the zero the zero of the scale is exactly at the height of the surface of the of the scale be fixed at (or nearly at) ihe zero line of the column, cistern, and (2) the rate of error as the barometer rises or falls and be free to expand upwards. In siphon barometers, with above this point, and then apply a correction proportional to which an observation is made from two readings on the scale, the

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Position of


scale must be free to expand in one direction. Again, if only, it is necessary, before comparing observations made with the the upper part of the scale, say from 27 to 31 in., be screwed to three barometers, to reduce them to the same temperature, so a wooden frame, it is cvident that not the corrections for brass as to neutralize the inequalities arising from the expansion of scales, but those for wooden scales must be used. No account the scales by heat. need be taken of the expansion of the glass tube containing the The sympiezometer was invented in 1818 by Adie of Edinburgh. mercury, it being evident that no correction for this expansion It is a revived form of Hooke's marine barometer. It consists is required in the case of any barometer the height of which is of a glass tube, with a small chamber at the top and measured from the surface of the mercury in the cistern. an open cistern below. The upper part of the tube


ometer. In fixing a barometer for observation, it is indispensable that is filled with air, and the lower part and cistern with it be hung in a perpendicular position, seeing that it is the glycerin. When atmospheric pressure is increased, the air is

perpendicular distance between the surface of the compressed by the rising of the fluid; but when it is diminished barometer. mercury in the cistern and the top of the column which the fluid falls, and the contained air expands. To correct for the

is the truc height of the barometer. The surface of the error arising from the increased pressure of the contained air when mercury column is convex, and in noting the height of the its temperature varies, a thermometer and sliding-scale are added, barometer, it is not the chord of the curve, but its tangent so that the instrument may be adjusted to the temperature at which is taken. This is done by setting the straight lower cdge each observation. It is a sensitive instrument, and well suited of the vernier, an appendage with which the barometer is for rough purposes at sea and for travelling, but not for exact furnished, as a tangent to the curve. The vernier is made to observation. It has long been superseded by the Ancroid, which slide up and down the scale, and by it the height of the barometer far exceeds it in handiness. may be read true to 0.002 or even to o•oor in.

Aneroid Barometer.-Much obscurity surrounds the invention It is essential that the barometer is at the temperature shown of barometers in which variations in pressure are rendered by the attached thermometer. No observation can be regarded apparent by the alteration in the volume of an elastic chamber. as good is the thermometer indicates a temperature differing The credit of the invention is usually given to Lucien Vidie, from that of the whole instrument by more than a degree. For who patented his instrument in 1845, but similar instruments every degree of temperature the attached thermometer differs were in use much earlier. Thus in 1799 Nicolas Jacques Conté from the barometer, the observation will be faulty to the extent (1755-1805), director of about 0.003 in., which in discussions of diurnal range, &c., of the aerostatical is a serious amount.

school at Meudon, Before being used, barometers should be thoroughly examined and a man of many as to the state of the mercury, the size of cistern (so as to admit parts - a chemist, of low readings), and their agreement with some known standard mechanician and instrument at different points of the scale. The pressure of the painter,—devised an atmosphere is not expressed by the weight of the mercury instrument in which sustained in the tube by it, but by the perpendicular height of the lid of the metal the column. Thus, when the height of the column is 30 in., chamber

supit is not said that the atmospheric pressure is 14.7 lb on the ported by internal square inch, or the weight of the mercury filling a tube at that springs; this instruheight whose transverse section equals a square inc but that ment was employed it is 30 in., meaning that the pressure will sustain a column of during the Egyptian mercury of that height.

campaign for measurIt is essential in gasometry to fix upon some standard pressure ing the altitudes of to which all measurements can be reduced. The height of the the war-balloons. Alstandard mercury column commonly used is 76 cms. (29.922 in.) though Vidie patented of pure mercury at oo; this is near the average height of the his device in 1845, the

Fig. 4.-Aneroid Barometer, barometer. Since the actual force exerted by the atmosphere commercial manufacture of aneroids only followed after varies with the intensity of gravity, and therefore with the posi- E. Bourdon's patent of the metallic manometer in 1849, tion on the earth's surface, a place must be specified in defining when Bourdon and Richard placed about 10,000 aneroids on the standard pressure. This may be avoided by expressing the the market. The production was stopped by an action taken force as the pressure in dynes due to a column of mercury, one by Vidie against Bourdon for infringing the former's patent, square centimetre in section, which is supported by the atmo- and in 1858 Vidie obtained 25,000 francs (£1000) damages. sphere. If H cms. be the height at oo, and g the value of gravity, Fig. 4 represents the internal construction, as seen when the the pressure is 13.596 Hg dynes (13.596 being the density of face is removed, but with the hand still attached, of an aneroid mercury). At Greenwich, where g = 981·17, the standard pressure.which differs only slightly from Vidie's form. eis a fiat circular at oo is 1,013,800 dynes. At Paris the pressure is 1,013,600 'metallic box, having its upper and under surfaces corrugated dynes. The closeness of this unit to a mega-dyne (a million in concentric circles. This box or chamber being partially dynes) has led to the suggestion that a mega-dyne per square exhausted of air, through the short tube b, which is subsequently centimetre should be adopted as the standard pressure, and it made air-tight by soldering, constitutes a spring, which is affected has been adopted by some modern writers on account of its by every variation of pressure in the external atmosphere, the convenience of calculation and independence of locality. corrugations on its surface increasing its elasticity. At the centre

The height of the barometer is expressed in English inches of the upper surface of the exhausted chamber there is a solid in England and America, but the metric system is used in all cylindrical projection x, to the top of which the principal lever

scientific work excepting in meteorology. In France cde is attached. This lever rests partly on a spiral spring at

and most European countries, the height is given in d; it is also supported by two vertical pins, with perfect freedom readings. millimetres, a millimetre being the thousandth part of motion. The end e of the lever is attached to a second or small of a metre, which equals 39-37079 English inches

. lever f, from which a chain 8 extends to h, where it works on a Up to 1869 the barometer was given in half-lines in Russia, which, drum attached to the axis of the hand, connected with a hair equalling the twentieth of an English inch, were readily reduced spring at h, changing the motion from vertical to horizontal, to English inches by dividing by 20. The metric barometric and regulating the hand, the attachments of which are made to scale is now used in Russia. In a few European countries the the metallic plate i. The motion originates in the corrugated French or Paris line, equalling 0.088814 in., is sometimes used. elastic box a, the surface of which is depressed or elevated as The English measure of length being a standard at 62° Fahr., the weight of the atmosphere is increased or diminished, and the old French measure at 61.2°, and the metric scale at 32°, this motion is communicated through the levers to the axis of

Baro. metric


the hand at k. The spiral spring on which the lever rests at d renewed in a multitude of parts. He died on the hand of is intended to compensate for the effects of alterations of tem- December 1729. perature. The actual movement at the centre of the exhausted His son ETIENNE MICHEL BARON (1676-1711) was also a fine box, whence the indications emanate, is very slight, but by the actor, and left a son and two daughters who all played at the action of the levers is multiplied 657 times at the point of the Comédie Française. hand, so that a movement of the 220th part of an inch in the box

See George Monval, Un Comédien amateur d'art (1893); also the carries the point of the hand through three inches on the dial. Abbé d'Allamial's Lettres d mylord XXX. sur Baron el la demoiselle The effect of this combination is to multiply the smallest degrees Lecouvreur, in F.G. J. S. Andrieux's Collection des mémoires sur l'art of atmospheric pressure, so as to render them sensible on the dramatique (1822). index. Vidie's instrument has been improved by Vaudet and

BARON. This word, of uncertain origin, was introduced into Hulot. Eugène Bourdon's aneroid depends on the same principle. England at the Conquest to denote“ the man "(i.e. one who had The aneroid requires, however, to be repeatedly compared with done him“ homage ") of a great lord, and more especially of the a mercurial barometer, being liable to changes from the elasticity king. All who held “in chief” (i.e. directly) of the king were alike of the metal chamber changing, or from changes in the system barones regis, bound to perform a stipulated service, and members, of levers which work the pointer. Though ancroids are con

in theory at least, of his council. Great nobles, whether earls or structed showing great accuracy in their indications, yet none can not, also spoke of their tenants as " barons," where lesser maglay any claim to the exactness of mercurial barometers. The nates spoke of their “men” (homines). This was especially the mechanism is liable to get fouled and otherwise go out of order, case in earldoms of a palatine character, such as Chester, where so that they may change 0.300 in. in a few weeks, or even indicate the earl's barons were a well-recognized body, the Venables pressure só inaccurately and so irregularly that no confidence family, “ barons of Kinderton,” continuing in existence down to can be placed in them for even a few days, if the means of com- 1679. In the palatinate of Durham also, the bishop had his paring them with a mercurial barometer be not at hand. barons, among whom the Hiltons of Hilton Castle were usually

The mercurial barometer can be made self-registering by con- styled “Barons of Hilton” till extinct in 1746. Other families centrating the rays from a source of light by a lens, so that to whom the title was accorded, independently of peerage dignity

they strike the top of the mercurial column, and having and on somewhat uncertain grounds, were the barons of grapås.

a sheet of sensitized paper attached to a frame and Greystock," "the barons of Stafford," and the Cornwalls,

placed behind a screen, with a narrow vertical slit in barons of Burford.” Fantosme makes Henry II. speak of the line of the rays. The mercury being opaque throws a part of the

mes baruns de Lundres "; John's charter granting permission paper in the shade, while above the mercury the rays from the lamp to elect a mayor speaks of “our barons of our city of London," pass unobstructed to the paper. The paper being carried steadily and a London document even speaks of“ the greater barons of the round on a drum at a given rate per hour, the height of the column city.” The aldermen scem to have been loosely deemed equivaof mercury is photographed continuously on the paper. From lent to barons and were actually assessed to the poll-tax as such the photograph the height of the barometer at any instant may be under Richard II. In Ireland the palatine character of the taken. The principle of the aneroid barometer has been applied great lordships made the title not uncommon (e.g. the barons of to the construction of barographs. The lever attached to the Galtrim, the barons of Slane, the barons of the Naas). collapsible chamber terminates in an ink-fed style which records As all those who held direct of the crown by military service the pressure of the atmosphere on a moving ribbon. In all (for those who held" by serjcanty" appear to have been classed continuously registering barometers, however, it is necessary, apart), from ear downwards, were alike “barons,” the great as a check, to make eye-observations with a mercury standard difference in their position and importance must have led, from barometer hanging near the registering barometer from four to an early date, to their being roughly divided into “greater" and eight times daily.

“lesser " barons, and indeed, under Henry II., the Dialogus de See Marvin, Barometers and the Measurement of Almospheric | Scaccario already distinguishes their holdings as “ greater” or Pressure (1901); and C. Abbe, Meteorological Apparatus (1888). “lesser ” baronies. Within a century of the Conquest, as we Reference may also be made to B. Stewart and W. W. H. Gec, Practical Physics (vol. i. 1901), for the construction of standard learn from Becket's case (1164), there arose the practice of sending barometers, their corrections and method of reading.

to the greater barons a special summons to the council, while the BAROMETRIC LIGHT, the luminous glow emitted by mercury lesser barons, it is stipulated in Magna Carta (1215), were to be in a barometer tube when shaken. It was first observed by Jean summoned only through the sheriffs. Thus was introduced a Picard, and formed the subject of many experiments at the hands definite distinction, which eventually had the effect of restricting of Francis Hawksbee. The latter showed that the Torricellian to the greater barons the rights and privileges of peerage. vacuum was not essential to the phenomenon, for the same glow Thus far the baron's position was connected with the tenure was apparent when mercury was shaken with air only partially of land; in thcory the barons were those who held their lands rarefied. The glow is an effect of the electricity generated by of the king; in practice, they were those who so held a large the friction of the mercury and the air in the barometer tube. amount of land. The great change in their status was effccted

BARON, MICHEL (1653-1729), French actor (whose family when their presence in that council of the realm which became name originally was Boyron), was born in Paris, the son of a the House of Lords was determined by the issue of a writ of leading actor (d. 1655) and of a talented actress (d. 1662). At summons, dependent not on the tenure of land, but only on the the age of twelve he joined the company of children known as king's will. Camden's statement that this change was made by the Pelils Comédiens Dauphins, of which he was the brightest | Henry III. after “the Barons' War" was long and widely star. Molière was delighted with his talent, and with the king's accepted, but it is now assigned, as by Stubbs, to Edward I., and permission secured him for his own company. In consequence the earliest writs accepted as creating hereditary baronies are of a misunderstanding with Molière's wife, the actor withdrew those issued in his reign. It must not, however, be supposed from the dramatist's company, but rejoined it in 1670, reappear- that those who received such summons were as yet distinguished ing as Domitien in Corneille's Tile et Bérénice, and in his Psyche. from commoners by any style or title. The only possible prefix He remained in this company until Molière's death. He then at that time was Dominus (lord), which was regularly used by became a member of the company at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, simple knights, and writs of summons were still issued to the and from this time until his retirement in 1691 was undisputed lowest order of peers as knights (chevaliers) only. The style of master of the French stage, creating many of the leading roles in baron was first introduced by Richard II. in 1387, when he Racine's tragedies, besides those in two of his own comedies, created John de Beauchamp, by patent, Lord de Beauchamp and L'Homme à bonnes fortunes (1686), and Le Coquette (1687). He baron of Kidderminster, to make him “unum parium et baronum also wrote Les Enlèvements (1685), Le Débauché (1689), and regni nostri.” But it was not till 1433 that the next "baron" translated and acted two plays of Terence. In 1720 Baron re- was created, Sir John Cornwall being then made baron of appeared at the Palais Royal, and his activity on the stage was l Fanhope. In spite, however, of these innovations, the former was only summoned to parliament by the style of ". John escutcheon, the man's being always on the dexter side, and the Beauchamp of Kidderminster," and the latter by that of “ John woman's on the sinister. But in this case the woman is supposed Cornwall, knight.” Such creations became common under not to be an heiress, for then her coat must be borne by the Henry VI., a transition period in peerage styles, but “ Baron” husband on an escutcheon of pretence. (See HERALDRY.) could not evict“Sire," " Chevalier” and “ Dominus." Patents of The foreign title of baron is occasionally borne by English creation contained the formula“ Lord A. (and) Baron of B.," but subjects, but confers no precedence in the United Kingdom. It the grantee still styled himself “ Lord ” only, and it is an histori- may be Russian, e.g. Baron Dimsdale (1762); German, e.g. cally interesting fact that to this day a baron is addressed in cor- Baron Stockmar, Baron Halkett (Hanoverian); Austrian, e.g. respondence, not by that style, but as "the Lord A.," although Baron Rothschild (1822), Baron de Worms; Italian, e.g. Baron all peers under the rank of Duke are spoken of as “lords,” while Heath; French, e.g. Baron de Teissier ; French-Canadian, c.8. they are addressed in correspondence by their proper styles. TO Baron de Longueil (1700); Dutch, e.g. Baron Mackay (Lord speak of“ Baron A.” or “ Baron B.” is an unhistorical and quite Reay).

(J. H. R.) recent practice. When a barony, however, is vested in a lady The Foreign Tille.On the continent of Europe the title baron, it is now the recognized custom to speak of her as baroness, e.g. though the same in its origin, has come, owing to a variety of Baroness Berkeley.

causes, to imply a rank and status very different from its conThe solemn investiture of barons created by patent was notation in the United Kingdom, and again varies considerably performed by the king himself, by enrobing the peer in the in different countries. Originally baro meant no more than scarlet“ robe of estate" during the reading of the patent, and man," and is so used in the Salic and other “barbarian" this form continued till 13 Jac. I., when the lawyers declared laws; e.g. Si quis morlaudil barum vel feminam, &c. (Lex Aleman. that the delivery of the letters patent without ceremony was tit. 76). In this way, too, it was long preserved in the sense of sufficient. The letters patent express the limits of inheritance husband,” as in the Assize of Jerusalem (MSS. cap. 98): Si l'on of the barony. The usual limit is to the grantee and heirs male appelle aucune chose femme qui aura baron, et il la scrit deffendre, of his body, occasionally, in default of male issue, to a collateral il la peut deffendre de son cors, &c. Gradually the word seems male relative (as in the case of Lord Brougham, 1860) or (as in the to have come to mean a "strong or powerful man," and thus case of Lord Basset, 1797, and Lord Burton, 1897) to the heirs- generally“ a magnate.” Finally, in France in the 12th century male of a daughter, and occasionally (as in the case of Lord the general expression barones was introduced in a restricted Nelson, 1301) to the heirs-male of a sister. Sometimes also sense, as applied properly to all lords possessing an important fel, (as in the case of the barony of Rayleigh, 1821) the dignity is subject to the rule of primogeniture and thus not liable to be bestowed upon a lady with remainder to the heirs-male of her divided up, and held of one overlord alone. Sometimes it inbody. The coronation robes of a baron are the same as those of cluded ecclesiastical lordships of the first rank. In the 13th an earl, except that he has only two rows of spots on each century the Register of King Philip Augustus places the barones shoulder; and, in like manner, his parliamentary robes have but regis Francie next to the dukes and counts holding in chief, the two guards of white fur, with rows of gold lace; but in other title being limited to vassals of the second rank. Towards the respects they are the same as those of other peers. King end of the century the title had come to mean that its bearer held Charles II. granted to the barons a coronet, having six large his principal fief direct from the crown, and was therefore more pearls set at equal distances on the chaplet. A baron's cap is the important than that of count, since many counts were only same as a viscount's. His style is “Right Honourable "; and mediate vassals. Thus the kings in granting a duchy or he is addressed by the king or queen, “ Right Trusty and Well-countship as an apanage to their brothers or sons used the beloved.” His children are by courtesy entitled to the prefix phrase in comitatum et baroniam. From this period, box"The Honourable.".

ever, the title tends to sink in comparative importance. Barons of the Exchequer were formerly six judges (a chief When, in the 14th century, the feudal hierarchy was combaron and five puisne barons) to whom the administration of pleted and stereotyped, the barons are ranked not only below justice was committed in causes betwixt the king and his subjects counts, but below viscounts, though in power and possessions relative to matters of revenue. Selden, in his Titles of Honour, many barons were superior to many counts. In any case, conjectures that they were originally chosen from among the until the 17th century, the title of baron could only be borne barons of the kingdom, and hence their name; but it would by the holder of a territorial barony; and it was Louis XIV. probably be more exact to say that they were officers of a branch who first cheapened the title in France by creating numerous of the king's Curia, which was theoretically composed of his barons by royal letters. This entire dissociation of the title "barons." The title has become obsolete since 1875, when the from the idea of feudal rights and obligations was completed court of exchequer was merged in the High Court of Judicature. by Napoleon's decree of March 1, 1808, reviving the ancient

Barons of the Cinque Ports (originally Hastings, Dover, Hythe, titles. By this instrument the title of baron was to be borne Romney and Sandwich) were at first the whole body of their ex officio by a number of high officials, e.g. ministers, senators, freemen, who were so spoken of in royal charters. But the councillors of state, archbishops and bishops. It was given style was afterwards restricted to their mayors, jurats, and to the 37 mayors who attended the coronation, and could be (prior to 1831) members of the House of Commons elected by the claimed by any mayor who had served to the emperor's satisCinque Ports, two for each port. Their right to the title is faction for ten years, and by any member of an electoral college recognized in many old statutcs, but in 1606 the use of the term who had attended three sessions. The title was made to descend in a message from the Lower House drew forth a protest from in order of primogeniture to legitimate or adopted sons and to the peers, that "they would never acknowledge any man that the nephews of bishops, the sole condition being that proof must sitteih in the Lower House to the right or title of a baron of be presented of an actual income of 15,000 fr., of which one-third parliament (Lords' Journals). It was the ancient privilege of should descend with the title. The creation of barons was con these “barons” to bear a canopy over the sovereign at his or tinued by Louis XVIII., Charles X. and Louis Philippe, and, her coronation and retain it as their perquisite. They petitioned suspended at the revolution of 1848, was revived again on a

“barons of the Cinque Ports” to attend the coronation of generous scale by Napoleon III. The tolerant attitude of the Edward VII., and a deputation was allowed to do so.

Third Republic towards titles, which it does not officially Baron and Feme, in English law, is a phrase used for husband recognize, has increased the confusion by facilitating the assumpand wife, in relation to each other, who are accounted as one tion of the title on very slender grounds of right. The result bas person. Hence, by the old law of evidence, the one party was been that in France the title of Baron, unless borne by the reexcluded from giving evidence for or against the other in civil cognized representative of a historic name, not only involves no questions, and a relic of this is still preserved in the criminal law. political status, but confers also but very slight social distinction

Baron and Feme, in heraldry, is the term used when the coats- The same is true, mutatis mutandis, of most other European of-arms of a man and his wife are borne per pale in the same countries, and notably of Italy. In Austria and Germany the


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