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case is somewhat different. Though in Latin documents of the their heirs apparent should be knighted on coming of age, and middle ages the term barones for liberi domini was used, it was that no one should receive the honour who had not fulfilled the not until the 17th century that the word Baron, perhaps under conditions, viz. paid 3000 marks (£166, 135. 4d.) towards the the influence of the court of Versailles, began to be used as the plantation of the colony. Four years later (17th of November 1629) equivalent of the old German Freiherr, or free lord of the Empire. the king wrote to “ the contractors for baronets,” recognizing The style Freiherr (liber dominus) implied originally a dynastic that they had advanced large sums to Sir William Alexander for status, and many Freiherren held countships without taking the plantation on the security of the payments to be made by the title of count. When the more important of them styled future baronets, and empowering them to offer a further inducethemselves counts, the Freiherren sank into an inferior class of ment to applicants; and on the same day he granted to all Nova nobility. The practice of conferring the title Freiherr by imperial Scotia baronets the right to wear about their necks, suspended letters was begun in the 16th century by Charles V., was assumed by an orange tawny ribbon, a badge bearing an azure saltire with on the ground of special imperial concessions by many of the a crowned inescutcheon of the arms of Scotland and the motto princes of the Empire, and is now exercised by all the German “ Fax mentis honestae gloria.” As the required number, howsovereigns. Though the practice of all the children taking the ever, could not be completed, Charles announced in 1633 that title of their father has tended to make that of Baron compara- English and Irish gentlemen might receive the honour, and in tively very common, and has dissociated it from all idea of 1634 they began to do so. Yet even so, he was only able to create territorial possession, it still implies considerable social status a few more than a hundred and twenty in all. In 1638 the and privilege in countries where a sharp line is drawn between creation ceased to carry with it the grant of lands in Nova Scotia, the caste of " nobles " and the common herd, whom no wealth and on the union with England (1707) the Scottish creations or intellectual eminence can place on the same social level with ceased, English and Scotsmen alike receiving thenceforth the poorest Adeliger. In Japan the title baron (Dan) is the baronetcies of Great Britain. lowest of the five titles of nobility introduced in 1885, on the It is a matter of dispute whether James I. had kept faith with European model. It was given to the least important class of the baronets of England as to limiting their number; but his son territorial nobles, but is also bestowed as a title of honour without soon rejected the restriction freely. Creations became one of his reference to territorial possession.
devices for raising money; blank patents were hawked about, See du Cange, Glossarium, s. Baro" (ed. Niort, 1883): John and in 1641 Nicholas wrote that baronetcies were to be had for Selden, Titles of Honor, p. 353 (ed. 1672); Achille Luchaire, £400 or even for £350; a patent was offered about this time to Manuel des institutions françaises (Paris, 1892); Maurice Prou, Mr Wrottesley of Wrottesley for £300. On the other hand, the art. " Baron" in La Grande Encyclopédie.
(W. A. P.)
honour appears to have been bestowed for nothing on some BARONET. Although the origin of this title has been the ardent royalists when the great struggle began. subject of learned speculation, it is not known for certain why Cromwell created a few baronets, but at the Restoration the it was selected as that of “a new Dignitic between Barons and honour was bestowed so lavishly that a letter to Sir Richard Knights " created by James I. The object of its institution was Leveson (3rd of June 1660) describes it as “ too common," and to raise money for the crown, as was also done by the sale of offers to procure it for any one in return for £300 or £400. Sir peerage dignities under this sovereign. But the money was pro- William Wiseman, however, is said to have given £500. fessedly devoted to the support of troops in Ulster, that is, each The history of the baronetage was uneventful till 1783, when in grantee was to be liable for the pay of thirty men, at 8d. a day consequence of the wrongful assumption of baronetcies, an old and for three years. This amounted to £1095, which was the sum then increasing evil, a royal warrant was issued (6th of December) paid for the honour. When it was instituted, in May 1611, the directing that no one should be recognized as a baronet in official king, to keep the baronctage select, covenanted that he would documents till he had proved his right to the dignity, and also not create more than two hundred, and that only those who that those created in future must register their arms and pedigree had (1000 a year in landed estate and whose paternal grand at the Heralds' College. In consequence of the opposition of the fathers had borne arms should receive the honour. But these baronets themselves, the first of these two regulations was qualifications were before long abandoned. As an inducement rescinded and the evil remained unabated. Since the union to apply for it, it was made to confer the prefix of “Sir” and with Ireland (1800) baronets have been created, not as of Great “ Lady” (or “ Dame '), and was assigned precedence above Britain or of Ireland, but as of the United Kingdom. knights, though below the younger sons of barons. Eight years In 1834 a movement was initiated by Mr Richard Broun (whose later (30th of September 1619), the baronetage of Ireland was father had assumed a Nova Scotia baronetcy some years before), instituted, the king pledging himself not to create more than a to obtain certain privileges for the order, but on the advice of the hundred baronets. Meanwhile, questions had arisen as to the Heralds' College, the request was refused. A further petition, exact precedence of the baronets, and James by royal decree for permission to all baronets to wear a badge, as did those of (28th of May 1612) had announced that it was his intention to Nova Scotia, met with the same fate in 1836. Meanwhile George rank them below the younger sons of barons. As this had the IV. had revoked (19th of December 1827), as to all future efiect of stopping applications for the honour, James issued a creations the right of baronets' eldest sons to claim knighthood. fresh commission (18th of November 1614) to encourage them, Mr Broun claimed it as an heir apparent in 1836, and on finally and finally, as “the Kinges wants might be much relieved out | meeting with refusal, publicly assumed the honour in 1842, a of the vanities and ambition of the gentrie" (in Chamberlain's foolish and futile act. In 1854 Sir J. Kingston James was words), he granted, in 1616, the further privilege that the heirs knighted as a baronet's son, and Sir Ludlow Cotter similarly in apparent of baronets should be knighted on coming of age. 1874, on his coming of age; but when Sir Claude de Crespigny's
The baronetage of Nova Scotia was devised in 1624 as a means son applied for the honour (17th of May 1895), his application of promoting the “plantation ” of that province, and James was refused, on the ground that the lord chancellor did not announced his intention of creating a hundred baronets, each of consider the clause in the patent (1805) valid. The reason for whom was to support six colonists for two years (or pay 2000 this decision appears to be unknown. marks in lieu thereof) and also to pay 1000 marks to Sir William Mr Broun's subsequent connexion with a scheme for reviving Alexander (afterwards earl of Stirling), to whom the province the territorial claims of the Nova Scotia baronets as part of a had been granted by charter in 1621. For this he was to receive colonizing scheme need not be discussed here. A fresh agitation a " free barony” of 16,000 acres in Nova Scotia, and to become was aroused in 1897 by an order giving the sons of life peers a baronet of " his Hienes Kingdom of Scotland.” James dying precedence over baronets, some of whom formed themselves, in at this point, Charles I. carried out the scheme, creating the first 1898, into “ the Honourable Society of the Baronetage” for the Scottish baronet on the 28th of May 1625, covenanting in the maintenance of its privileges. But a royal warrant was issued on creation charter that the baronets " of Scotland or of Nova the 15th of August 1898, confirming the precedence complained Scotia " should never exceed a hundred and fisty in number, that I of as an infringement of their rights. The above body, however, has continued in existence as the “ Standing Council of the BAROSS, GABOR (1848–1892), Hungarian statesman, was born Baronetage," and succeeded in obtaining invitations for some at Trencsén on the 6th of July 1848, and educated at Esztergom. representatives of the order to the coronation of King Edward He was for a time one of the professors there under Cardinal Kolos VII. It has been sought to obtain badges or other distinctions Vaszary. After acquiring considerable local reputation as chief for baronets and also to purge the order of wrongful assumptions, notary of his county, he entered parliament in 1875. He at once an evil to which the baronetage of Nova Scotia is peculiarly attached himself to Kálmán Tisza and remained faithful to his exposed, owing to the dignity being descendible to collateral chief even after the Bosnian occupation had alienated so many heirs male of the grantee as well as to those of his body. A of the supporters of the prime minister. It was he who drew up departmental committee at the home office was appointed in the reply to the malcontents on this occasion, for the first time 1906 to consider the question of such assumptions and the best demonstrating his many-sided ability and his genius for sustained means of stopping them.
hard work. But it was in the field of economics that he princiAll baronets are entitled to display in their coat of arms, either pally achieved his fame. In 1883 he was appointed secretary to on a canton or on an inescutcheon, the red hand of Ulster, save the ministry of ways and communications. Baross, who had those of Nova Scotia, who display, instead of it, the saltire of that prepared himself for quite another career, and had only become province. The precedency of baronets of Nova Scotia and of acquainted with the civilized West at the time of the Composition Ireland in relation to those of England was left undetermined by of 1867, mastered, in an incredibly short time, the details of this the Acts of Union, and appears to be still a moot point with difficult department. His zeal, conscientiousness and energy heralds. The premier baronet of England is Sir Hickman Bacon, were so universally recognized, that on the retirement of Gábor whose ancestor was the first to receive the honour in 1611. Kemény, in 1886, he was appointed minister of ways and com
See Pixley's History of the Baronetage; Playfair's “ Baronetage" munications. He devoted himself especially to the development (in British Family Antiquity, vols. vi..ix.): Foster's Baronetage; of the national railways, and the gigantic network of the AustroG. E. Cokayne's Complete Baronelage; Nichols, " The Dignity of Hungarian railway system and its unification is mainly his work. Baronet" (in Herald and Genealogisi, vol. iii.) (J. H. R.)
But his most original creation in this respect was the zone system, BARONIUS, CAESAR (1538-1607), Italian cardinal and which immensely facilitated and cheapened the circulation of all ecclesiastical historian, was born at Sora, and was educated at Veroli and Naples. At Rome he joined the Oratory in 1557 under communication with the central point at Budapest. The amal
wares and produce, and brought the remotest districts into direct St Philip Neri (q.v.) and succeeded him as superior in 1593. gamation of the ministry of commerce with the ministry of ways Clement VIII., whose confessor he was, made him cardinal in 1596 and librarian of the Vatican. At subsequent conclaves he the trade of Hungary independent of foreign influences, of
in 1889 further enabled Baross to realize his great idea of making was twice nearly elected pope, but on each occasion was opposed increasing the commercial productiveness of the kingdom and by Spain on account of his work on the Monarchy of Sicily, in which he supported the papal claims against those of the Spanish revision of tolls.
of gaining every possible advantage for her export trade by a
This patriotic policy provoked loud protests government. Baronius is best known by his Annales Ecclesias- both from Austria and Germany at the conference of Vienna in tici, undertaken by the order of St Philip as an answer to the 1890, and Baross was obliged somewhat to modify his system, Magdeburg Centuries. After nearly thirty years of lecturing on
This was by no means the only instance in which his commercial the history of the Church at the Vallicella and being trained by policy was attacked and even hampered by foreign courts. But St Philip as a great man for a great work, he began to write, and wherever he was allowed a free hand he introduced epoch-making produced twelve folios (1588-1607). In the Annales he treats
reforms in all the branches of his department, including posts, history in strict chronological order and keeps theology in the background. In spite of many errors, especially in Greek history, be turned from his course by any amount of opposition, and he
telegraphs, &c. A man of such strength of character was not to in which he had io depend upon secondhand information, the rather enjoyed to be alluded to as “ the iron-handed minister." work of Baronius stands as an honest attempt to write history, The crowning point of his railway policy was the regulation of the marked with a sincere love of truth. Sarpi, in urging Casaubon Danube at the hitherto impassable Iron-Gates Rapids by the conto write against Baronius, warns him never to charge or suspect struction of canals, which opened up the eastern trade to Hungary him of bad faith, for no one who knew him could accuse him of and was an event of international importance. It was while disloyalty to truth. Baronius makes use of the words of St inspecting his work there in March 1892 that he caught a chill, Augustine: “ I shall love with a special love the man who most
from which he died on the 8th of May. The day of his burial was rigidly and severely corrects my errors." He also undertook a new edition to the Roman martyrology (1586), which he purificd dedicated his whole time and genius to the promotion of his
a day of national mourning, and rightly so, for Baross had of many inaccuracies.
country's prosperity. His Annales, which end in 1198, were continued by Rinaldi (ó vols.,
See László Petrovics, Biography of Gabriel Baross (Hung. Eperies, 1676-1677); by Laderchi (3 vols., 1728-1737); and by Theiner (3 vols., 1856). The most useful edition is that of Mansi (38 vols., 1892).
(R. N. B.) Lucca, 1738-1759), giving Pagi's corrections at the foot of each BAROTAC NUEVO, a town of the province of Iloilo, Panay, page.
(E. TN.) Philippine Islands, near the Jalaur river, above its mouth on the BARONY, the domain of a baron (9.0.). In Ireland counties S.E. coast, and about 15 m. N.E. of Iloilo, the capital. Pop. are divided into "baronies,” which are equivalent to the (1903) 9904; in 1903 after the census had been taken the "hundreds ” (9.0.) in England, and seem to have been formed neighbouring town of Dumangas (pop. 12,428) was annexed to out of the territories of the Irish chiefs, as each submitted to Barotac Nuevo. The town lies in a fertile plain and deals in rice, English rule (General Report of the Census of England, iv. 181, trepang and pina. Here, in what was formerly Dumangas, are 1873). In Scotland the term is applied to any large freehold a fine church and convent, built of iron, pressed brick and marble. estate even when held by a commoner. Barony also denotes the Dumangas was destroyed by fire in June 1900, during a fight with rank or dignity of a baron, and the feudal tenure" by barony." insurgents, but its rebuilding was begun in May 1901.
BAROQUE, a technical term, chiefly applicable to architecture, BAROTSE, BAROTSELAND, a people and country of South furniture and household decoration. Apparerily of Spanish Central Africa. The greater part of the country is a British origin-a barrueco is a large, irregularly-shaped pearl-the word protectorate, forming part of Rhodesia. The Barotse are the was for a time confined to the craft of the jeweller. It indicates paramount tribe in the region of the Upper Zambezi basin, but the more extravagant fashions of design that were common in by popular usage the name is also applied to contiguous subject the first half of the 18th century, chiefly in Italy and France, in tribes, Barotseland being the country over wbich the Barotse which everything is fantastic, grotesque, florid or incongruous- paramount chief exercises authority. The present article treats irregular shapes, meaningless forms, an utter lack of restraint (1) of the people, (2) of the country, (3) of the establishment of and simplicity. The word suggests much the same order of ideas the British protectorate and of subsequent developments.
1. The Barotse.-These people, originally known as Aälui, have occupied the extensive plain through which the Zambezi passes | The spirits of ancestors—especially of deceased chiefs—are also from 14° 35' S. to 16° 25' S. throughout the reigns of twenty-two objects of worship. Christianity, of a Protestant evangelical successive paramount chiefs and therefore approximately since the type, was first introduced into the country in 1884 by François commencement of the 17th century. Previously, for an indefinite Coillard and has made some progress among the people, among period, they dwelt on the Kabompo river, 200 m. to the N.E. of the converts being Letia, eldest son and heir of Lewanika, the their present country, and here the descendants of a section of the paramount chief. tribe which did not migrate still remain, under the name Balok- 2. Barotseland.-This term includes, in the sense of the wakwa (men of the ambuscade), formerly known as Aälukolui. country in which the authority of the paramount Barotse chief That the Barotse at a still more remote period emigrated from the is acknowledged, not only the lands of the Barotse
but far north-east is indicated by vague tradition as well as by a the territory of fifteen contiguous and subject tribes. This certain similarity in type and language to some tribes living in vast territory extends approximately from the Kwito river in that direction, though the fact that natives from Mashonaland the west to the Kafue river in the east, and from the Congocan understand those at Lialui (the Barotse capital) has led to the Zambezi watershed in the north to the Linyante or Kwando assumption by some writers that the Barotse are an offshoot of river and Zambezi in the south, and may be divided into three the Mashona. The variety in type among the Mashona and the groups:homogeneity of the Barotse would rather point to an opposite (a) Central provinces directly administered by the paramount conclusion.
chief from the capital Lialui (a town on the Zambezi), by the Early in the 19th century a section of the Basuto tribe known Mokwai from Nalolo, and by two chiefs of the blood from as Makololo trekked from the south of what is now the Orange Sesheke; River Colony and fought their way through Bechuanaland and (6) Outlying provinces over which, in the absence of a central the Kalahari to the land of the Barotse, whom they ultimately local system of government, Barotse chiess administer districts subdued. Their chief, Sebituane, who as an administrator and under the direction of the paramount chief; and general was far in advance of his compeers, established the rule (c) Tribes over which the local chiefs are permitted to retain of his house for some forty years, until about 1865 an organized their position subject to the payment of annual tribute and to rebellion of the Barotse led to the almost complete extinction of their doing homage in person at Lialui when called upon to do so. this Makololo oligarchy and the reinstatement of the original With the publication of the king of Italy's award in 1905 in dynasty. It was the Makololo who gave the Barotse their present the Anglo-Portuguese Barotse Boundary dispute (see below), Dame (Rotse, plain-Burotse, country of the plain-Murotse, the term Barotseland may be said to have acquired a second man of the plain-Marotse, people of the plain, the latter being meaning. By this award the western and part of the northern inaccurately rendered Berotse, Be being the equivalent of Ma section of Barotseland as described above were declared to be in certain other languages).
outside the dominion of the paramount chief and therefore not The Barotse proper are comparatively few in number, but in the British sphere of influence, while tribal boundaries were as is inferred from the fact that for many generations they have complicated by the introduction of a longitudinal and latitudinal held in sway a country two and a half times the size of Great frontier. Though this award altered the political boundaries, Britain, they are the intellectual and physical superiors of the ethnologically Barotseland remains much as above described. vast majority of the negro races of Africa. Very black, tall The area of the country under British protection is about in stature, deep in chest and comparatively speaking refined 182,000 sq. m. in feature, a Barotse is readily distinguishable amidst a mixed Excluding the ridge of high ground running east and west group of natives. Being numerically small they sorm an oligarchy which, culminating at a height of 5000 ft., forms the Congoin which, with few exceptions, each man holds rank in a chief- Zambezi water-parting, the extreme east (Batoka) and the district Lainship of which there are three grades. Next to the chiess in the immediate vicinity of the Victoria Falls (q.v.) throughout rank their descendants who have not themselves acquired chief's which, with local variations, a red laterite clay predominates, rank and hold an intermediate position as freeborn; all others, the main physical features of Barotseland may be described as whether members of the subject-tribes or prisoners of war, being, a series of heavy white sand undulations covered with subup to 1906, mere slaves. This class was also graded. Slaves tropical forest vegetation. These are intersected by alluviummight own slaves who in their turn might own slaves, the highest charged valleys through which streams and rivers flow inwards grade always being directly responsible to some Barotse chief. towards the central basin of the Upper Zambezi. There is 13 a reward of gallantry or ability the paramount chief occasion evidence that this has at one time been the site of a large lake. ally conferred chicf's rank on individuals not of Barotse birth, These valleys, which towards the close of the wet season become and these ipso faclo assumed the name and privileges of the inundated, afford rich cattle pasture, the succulence of which Barotse. It was a counterpart of the feudal system of Europe prevents cattle losing condition towards the end of the dry in which every grade from king to serf found a place. In 1906 scason, as is the case in many parts of Africa. There seems to the paramount chief, by proclamation, abolished the state of be little or no indication of mineral wealth in the white sand slavery, an act which, however, left untcuched the predominant area, but in the north and east there is not only every prospect position of the Barotse and their rights to chieftainship. The of a great agricultural and pastoral future but also of considerparamount chief shares with a queen (Mokwai) his authority able mining development. Though basalt predominates in the and prerogatives. The Mokwai is not the wife but the eldest neighbourhood of the Victoria Falls and large fields of granite sister of the ruling chief. With his death her privileges lapse. crop up on the Batoka plateau and elsewhere, there is every Theoretically, these co-rulers are equal, neither may promulgate indication of the existence of useful minerals in these districts. a national decree without the assent of the other, but each has Gold, copper, tin, lead, zinc and iron have been discovered. a capital town, councillors and absolute authority in a province, Much of the area of Barotseland is within the healthy zone, the two having joint authority over all other provinces. In the healthiest districts being the Batoka and Mashikolumbwe their code of laws the Barotse show an advance on the standard plateaus in the east with extreme altitudes of 4400 and 4150 ft. of probably any other African negro state. By right, an accused respectively, and the line of the Congo-Zambezi watershed which chief is tried by his peers, each of whom in rotation from junior rises to 5000 ft. in many places. The Zambezi valley from the to senior gives his verdict, after which the president reports Victoria Falls (3000 ft.) to the Kabompo confluence (3500 ft.), the finding of the court to the paramount chief, who passes though involving little or no risk to health to the traveller, sentence. As to their religious beliefs the Barotse imagine the cannot be considered suitable for white settlement. Taking sun to be the embodiment of a great god whose sole care is for into consideration the relative value of altitude to latitude, the amelioration of man. Him they worship, though more pains the plateauland of Barotseland compares very favourably with are taken to appease evil spirits, in whose existence they also existing conditions elsewhere, being several degrees more believe, to whom every evil to which man is heir is attributed. I temperate than would be cxpected. Approximately the mean maximum and minimum temperatures stand at 80° and 55° F. as its one bar to navigation between Barotseland and the sea, respectively, with an extreme range of 100° to 35o and a will supply a cheap line of communication. (See RHODESIA) mean annual temperature of 68° to 70°. The rainfall varies See David Livingstone, Missionary Travels and Researches 15 according to district from 22 to 32 in. a year and has shown South Africa (London, 1857). Major Serpa Pinto, How I crossed extraordinary stability. Since 1884, the first year in which Africa (London, 1881); F Coillard, On the Threshold of Central a record was taken by François Coillard, Barotseland has known | Hunting in Central Africa (London, 1898), Africa South 10 North
Africa (London, 1897): Major A. St H. Gibbons, E.xploration and no droughts, though South Africa has suffered periodically in this through Marotseland (London, 1904), “ Journeys in Marotseland," respect.
Geographical Journal, 1897, " Travels in the Upper Zambezi Basin," The Zambezi, as would be expected, forms a definite boundary haui Zambeze (Paris, 1898), Col Colin Harding, In Ren:otest Baretse
Geographical Journal, 1901, A Bertrand, Aux pays des Bcrotse, line in the distribution of many species of fauna and flora. In
land (London, 1905): C. W Mackintosh, Coillord of the Zambesi these respects, as well as from an ethnological standpoint, (London, 1907), with a bibliography; L. Decle. Three years in Sarare Barotseland essentially belongs not to South but to Central Africa (London, 1898). Consult also the annual reports of the British Africa. The great river has also served to prevent the spread South Africa Company, published in London. (A. ST H. G.) from South Africa into Barotseland of such disastrous cattle BAROUCHE (Ger. barutsche, Span. barrocho, Ital. baroccio, from discases as tick fever and lung sickness.
Lat. bi-rolus, double-wheeled), the name of a sort of carriage, 3. The Establishment of British Suzercinty.-By the charter with four wheels and a hood, arranged for two couples to sit granted to the British South Africa Company in October 1889, inside facing one another. the company was allowed to establish its rule in the regions north BARQUISIMETO, a city of western Venezuela, capital of the of the Middle Zambezi not included in the Portuguese dominions, state of Lara, on the Barquisimeto river, 101 m. by rail S.W of and by a treaty of the 11th of June 1891 between Great Britain Tucacas, its port on the Caribbean coast. Pop. (est. 1809) 40.000. and Portugal it was declared that the Barotse kingdom was It is built in a small, fertile valley of the Merida Cordilleras, within the British sphere of influence. The dispute between the 1985 ft. above sea-level, has a temperate, healthy climate with contracting powers as to what were the westem limits of Barotse- a mean annual temperature of 78° F., and is surrounded by a land was eventually referred to the arbitration of the king of highly productive country from which are exported coffee, sugar, Italy, who by his award of the 30th of May 1905, fixed the cacao and rum. It is also an important distributing centre ior frontier at the Kwando river as far north as 22° E., then that neighbouring districts. The city is the seat of a bishopric, is meridian up to the 13° S., which parallel it follows as far cast as regularly laid out and well built, and is well provided with 24° E., and then that meridian to the Belgian Congo frontier. educational and charitable institutions. Barquisimeto was In the meantime the British South Africa Company had entered founded in 1522 by Juan de Villegas, who was exploring the into friendly relations with Lewanika (q.v.), the paramount chief neighbourhood for gold, and it was first called Nueva Segovia of the Barotse, and an administrator was appointed on behalf of after his native city. In 1807 its population had risen to 15,000, the company to reside in the country. A native police force principally through its commercial importance, but on the 26th under the command of a British officer was raised and magistrates of March 1812 it was totally destroyed by an earthquake, and and district commissioners appointed. In the internal afíairs with it 1500 lives, including a part of the revolutionary forces of the Barotse the company did not interfere, and the relations occupying the town. It was soon rebuilt and is one of the few between the British and Barotse have been uniformly friendly. cities of Venezuela which have recovered from the ravages of the The pioneers of Western civilization were not, however, the agents war of independence and subsequent disorders. of the Chartered Company, but missionaries. F. S. Arnot, an BARR, a town of Germany, in the imperial province of Alsace Englishman, spent two years in the country (1882–1884) and in Lorraine, on the Kirneck, 13 m. N. from Schlettstadt by rail. It 1884 a mission, fruitful of good results, was established by the has an Evangelical and a Roman Catholic church and consider. Société des Missions Evangéliques de Paris. Its first agent was able tanneries. There is an active trade in wine and timber. François Coillard (1834-1904), who had previously been engaged Pop. (1900) 5243. in mission work in Basutoland and who devoted the rest of his BARRA, or BARRAY (Scand. Baraey, isle of the ocean), an life to the Barotse. Though always an admirer of British island of the outer Hebrides, Inverness-shire, Scotland. Pop. institutions and anxious that the country should ultimately fall (1901) 2362. It lies about 5 m. S.W. of South Uist, is 8 m. in under British jurisdiction, Coillard in the interests of his mission length and from 2 to 4 m. in breadth, save at the sandy isthrus was in the first instance anxious to delay the advent of white 2 m. below Scurrival Point, where it is only a few hundred yards men into the country It was contrary to his advice that broad. The rock formation is gneiss. The highest hill is Heaval Lewanika petitioned the “Great White Queen” to assume a (1260 ft.) and there are several small lochs. The chief village protectorate over his dominions, but from the moment Great is Castlebay, at which the Glasgow steamer calls once a week. Britain assumed responsibility and the advance of European This place derives its name from the castle of Kishmul standing civilization became inevitable, all the influence acquired by on a rock in the bay, which was once the stronghold of the Coillard's exceptional personal magnetism and singleness of M'Neills of Barra, one of the oldest of Highland clans. There purpose was used to prepare the way for the extension of British are remains of ancient chapels, Danish duns and Druidical rule. Only those few pioneers who knew the Barotse under the circles on the island. There is communication by ferry with old conditions can fully realise what civilization and England South Uist. The parish comprises a number of smaller islands owe to the co-operation of this high-minded Frenchman. and islets-among them Frida, Gighay, Hellisay, Flodda
Under the Chartered Company's rule considerable progress has to the N.E., and Vatersay, Pabbay, Mingalay (pop. 135) and been made in the development of the resources of the country, | Berneray to the S.E. - and contains 4000 acres of arable especially in opening up the mining districts in the north. The land and 18,000 acres of meadow and bill pasture. The cod, seat of the administration, Kalomo, is on the “ Cape to Cairo "ling and herring fisheries are important, and the coasts abound railway, about midway between the Zambezi and Kafue rivers. with shell-fish, especially cockles, for which it has always been The railway reached the Broken Hill copper mines, 110 m. N. of famous. On Barra Head, the highest point of Berneray, and also the Kafue in 1906, and the Belgian Congo frontier in 1910. From the most southerly point of the outer Hebrides chain, is a lightLobito Bay in Portuguese West Africa a railway was being built house 680 st. above high water. in 1909 which would connect with the main line near the Congo BARRACKPUR, a town and magisterial subdivision of frontier. This would not only supply Barotseland with a route to British India, in the district of Twenty-four Parganas, Bengal. the sea alternative to the Beira and Cape Town lines, but while The town is the largest cantonment in Lower Bengal, having reducing the land route by many hundred miles would also supply accommodation for two batteries of artillery, the wing of a a seaport outlet 1700 m. nearer England than Cape Town and European regiment and two native battalions. Its name is said thus create a new and more rapid mail route to southern to be derived from the fact of troops having been stationed bere Rhodesia and the Transvaal. The Zambezi also, with Kebrabasa I since 1772. It is a station on the Eastern Bengal railway. Job
Charnock, the founder of Calcutta, erected a bungalow and not more than two between any two windows: inlet ventilators established a small bazaar here in 1689. The cantonment is are fixed high up in the side walls, and an extract shaft warmed situated on the left bank of the Hugli; it has also a large bazaar by the chimney flue keeps up a circulation of air through the and several large tanks, and also a parade ground. To the south room: the door is usually at one end of the room and the fireof the cantonment is situated the park, created by the taste and place at the opposite end: over each man's bed is a locker and public spirit of Lord Wellesley. Within the park is situated the shelf where he keeps his kit, and his rifle stands near the head of Government House, a noble building begun by Lord Minto, and his bed. Convenient of access from the door to the barrack-room enlarged into its present state by the marquess of Hastings. The is the ablution-room with basins and foot-bath, also disconnected park is beautifully laid out, and contains a small menagerie. Its by a lobby is a water-closet and urinal for night use, others for day most interesting feature is now Lady Canning's tomb. Barrack- use being provided in separate external blocks. Baths are usually pur played an important part in the two Sepoy mutinies of 1824 grouped in a central bath-house adjacent to the cook-house, and and 1857, but the details of these belong to the general history have hot water laid on. For every two or four barrack-rooms, of British rule in India. North Barrackpur had a population in a small single room is provided for the occupation of the sergeant 1901 of 12,600 and south Barrackpur of 19,307.
in charge, who is responsible for the safety of a small store, Barrackpur subdivision was formed in 1904. It contains an where men may leave their rifle and kit when going on furlough. area of 190 sq.m., which, at the census of 1901, had a population of Adjacent to the barrack blocks and next to the cook-house are 206,311, a large proportion being workers in the mills on the left arranged the dining-rooms where the men assemble for their bank of the Hugli.
meals; no food is now served in the barrack-rooms, and the air BARRACKS (derived through the French from the Late Lat. in them is thus kept much purer and fresher than under the old barra, a bar), the buildings used for the accommodation of military or naval forces, including the quarters for officers,
Ablution warrant officers, non-commissioned officers and men, with their messes and recreation establishments, regimental offices, shops, stores, stables, vehicle sheds and other accessory buildings for
Double Company Block military or domestic purposes. The term is usually applied to permanent structures of brick or stone used for the peace occupation of troops; but many hut barracks of corrugated
NCO iron lined with wood have been built, generally in connexion with a training ground for troops, and in these the accommodation
Double Co. given is somewhat less than in permanent barracks, and con
Dining Rm. ditions more nearly approach those of a military encampment.
Brilisk System.-The accommodation to be given in British military barracks is scheduled in the Barrack Synopsis, which contains" statements of particulars, based upon decisions which have, from time to time, been laid down by authority, as regards the military buildings authorized for various units, and the accommodation and fittings to be provided in connexion therewith " Each item of ordinary accommodation is described in the synopsis, and the areas and cubic contents of rooms
Dining Rm. therein laid down form the basis of the designs for any new barrack buildings. Supplementary to the synopsis is a series of “Standard Plans,” which illustrate how the accommodation may be conveniently arranged, the object of the issue of these plans is to put in convenient form the best points of previous designs, and to avoid the necessity of making an entirely fresh
Double Company Block design for each building that is to be erected, by using the standard
8 Barrack rooms on cach floor type modified to suit local conditions. External appearance is considered with regard to the materials to be used, and the position the buildings are to occupy, convenience of plan and sound sanitary construction being the principal objects rather system The dining-rooms are lofty and well ventilated, and than external effect, designs are usually simple and depend for are warmed by hot water, tables and forms are arranged so as architectural effect more on the grouping and balance of the to make the most of the space, and room is provided for all the parts than on ornamentation such as would add to expense The men to dine simultaneously synopsis and standard plans are from time to time revised, and Next to the dining-room is the cook-house where the meals for brought up to date as improvements suggest themselves, and a half battalion are cooked, and served direct to the dining rooms increases in scale of accommodation are authorized, after due on each side. Wash-up rooms are arranged off the serving-lobby consideration of the financial effect, so that systematic evolution with plate-racks and shelves for the storage of the crockery after of barrack design is carried on.
it has been washed. The cooking apparatus is designed for Hledern British Barracks - A description of a modern barrack economical use of coal fuel, and, if carefully used, consumes little for a battalion of infantry will give an idea of the standard of more than 1 lb of coal per man per day The cook-house accommodation which is now authorized, and to which older is well lighted and ventilated by a top lantern, tables, dressers, barracks are gradually remodelled as funds permit
and pastry slab are provided for preparing and serving the meals, married soldiers are quartered in barrack rooms usually planned and a sink for washing kitchen utensils. Under the kitchen block to contain twelve men in each, this number forms a convenient is a basement coniaining the boiler for heating the dining-rooms division to suit the organization of the company, and is more and another for the supply of hot water to baths and sinks, with popular with the men than the larger numbers which were in some cases also a hot-air furnace for heating drying-rooms, for formerly the rule in each barrack room, there is a greater drying the men's clothing when they come in wet from a routeprivacy, whilst the number is not too small to keep up the feeling march or field day Not far from the barrack blocks is placed the of barrack room comradeship which plays an important part recreation establishment or soldiers' club, where the rank and file in the soldier's training. The rooms yive 600 cub. ft of air per may go for relaxation and amusement when off duty, this man, and have windows on cach side: the beds are spaced establishment has, on the ground floor, a large and lofty room with between the windows so that only one bed comes in a corner, and a stage at one end for lectures or entertainments, and at the other