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BAYOU (pronounced bai-yoo, probably a corruption of Fr. | at the back, one, the Fürstenloge, being reserved for distinguished boyau, gut), an "ox-bow" lake left behind by a river that has guests, the other, above it, for the townspeople. Immediately abandoned its old channel in, the lower stages of its course. in front of the foremost row of seats a hood or sloping screen Good examples are found in Palmyra Lake, in the Mississippi | of wood covers a part of the orchestra, and another hood of valley below Vicksburg, and in Osage river, Missouri. As a river similar shape starts from the front of the stage at a slightly swings from side to side in a series of curves which widen laterally lower level. Thus there is left a space between the two hoods where the current is slow and the country more or less level, through which the sound of the orchestra ascends with wonderthere is a tendency in flood times for the water to impinge more fully blended cffect; the conductor, sitting at the highest point strongly upon the convex bank where the curve leaves the main of the orchestra, though under the screen, has a complete view channel. This bank will be eaten away, and the process will be of the stage as well as of his instrumentalists, and the sound of repeated until the base of the " isthmus" is cut through, and the the orchestra is sent most forcibly in the direction of the stage, descending channel meets the returning curve, which is thus so that the voices are always well supported. left stranded and filled with dead water, while the stream runs directly past it in the shorter course cut by the flood waters that deepen the new channel, and leave an isolated ox-bow lake in the old curve.

As an important addition to the work of the theatre, a permanent school has been established at Bayreuth for the sake of training young musicians to take part in the festival performances, which were at first exclusively, and then partially, undertaken by artists from other German and foreign theatres. The special feature upon which most stress has been laid, ever since Wagner's death in 1883, has been not so much the musical as the dramatic significance of the works; it is contended by the inmost circle of Wagnerian adherents that none but they can fully realize the master's intentions or hand down his traditions. What is called the "Bayreuth Idea is set forth in much detail from this point of view by Houston Stewart Chamberlain, in his Richard Wagner (1897 and 1900).

BAYREUTH, or BAIREUTH, a town of Bavaria, Germany, district of Upper Franconia, 58 m. by rail N.N.E. from Nuremberg. Pop. (1900) 29,384. In Richard-Wagner-strasse is Wagner's house, with his grave in the garden. Franz Liszt (1811-1886) is buried here, as well as Jean Paul Friedrich Richter, who is commemorated by a monument (1841). His house was in Friedrichstrasse. Most of the buildings are of comparatively modern date, the city having suffered severely from the Hussites in 1430 and from a conflagration in 1621. There should be mentioned the palace of Duke Alexander of Württemberg, the administrative offices, the statue of King Maximilian II. (1860) and the collections of the historical society Among the ecclesiastical buildings, the Stadt-Pfarrkirche, dating from 1439, and containing the monuments of the margraves of Bayreuth, is the most important. Bayreuth is a railway junction and has an active trade, chiefly in grain and horses. It manufactures woollen, linen and cotton goods, leather, delft and other earthenware, and tobacco, and has also several breweries and distilleries. The village of St Georgen is a suburb to the north-east noted for its marble works; and about 2 m. to the cast is the Hermitage, a fanciful building, erected in 1715 by the margrave George William (d. 1726), with gardens containing terraces, statues and fountains. Bayreuth was formerly the capital of a principality of the same name, which was annexed in 1791 to the kingdom of Prussia. In 1807 it was ceded by Prussia to France, which kept possession of it till 1810, when it was transferred to Bavaria.

Baza is the Roman Basti, the medieval Basta or Bastiana; and numerous relics of antiquity, both Roman and medieval, have been found in the neighbourhood. Its bishopric was founded in 306. Under Moorish rule (c. 713-1489) it was one of the three most important cities in the kingdom of Granada, with an extensive trade, and a population estimated at 50,000. In 1489, after a stubborn defence lasting seven months, it was captured by the Spaniards under Isabella of Castile, whose cannon still adorn the Alameda or public promenade. On the 10th of August 1810 the French under Marshal Soult defeated a large Spanish force close to the town.

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BAZAAR (Pers. bazar, market), a permanent market or street of shops, or a group of short narrow streets of stalls under one roof. The word has spread westward into Arabic, Turkish and, in special senses, into European languages, and eastward it has invaded India, where it has been generally adopted. In southern India and Ceylon bazaar means a single shop or stall. The word seems to have early reached South Europe (probably through Turkish), for F. Balducci Pegolotti in his mercantile handbook (c. 1340) gives "bazarra" as a Genoese word for market-place. The Malayan peoples have adopted the word as pazar. The meaning of the word has been much extended in English, where it is now equivalent to any sale, for charitable or mere commercial purposes, of mixed goods and fancy work. BAZAINE, ACHILLE FRANÇOIS (1811-1888), marshal of France, was born at Versailles on the 13th of February 1811. He entered the army as a private soldier in 1831, with a view to service in Algeria, and received a commission as sub-lieutenant in 1833. By his gallantry in action he won the cross of the Legion of Honour, and he was promoted lieutenant in 1835. He served two campaigns with the Foreign Legion against the Carlists in Spain in 1837-38, returning to Africa as captain in 1839. During the succeeding decade he saw continual active service in Africa, and rose to be a brigadier-general with the charge of the district of Tlemçen. In the Crimean War he commanded a brigade, and maintained his reputation in the trenches before Sevastopol. On the capture of the south side he was appointed governor of the place, and was promoted general of

The Wagner Theatre.-Among the many advantages which Wagner gained from his intimacy with Ludwig II., king of Bavaria, not the least was the practical support given to his plan of erecting a theatre for the ideal performance of his own music-dramas. The first plan of building a new theatre for the purpose in Munich itself was rejected, because Wagner rightly felt that the appeal of. his advanced works, like the Nibelungen trilogy, would be far stronger if the comparatively small number of people who wished to hear them were removed from the distractions of a large capital; Bayreuth possessed the desired seclusion, being on a line of railway that could not be approached from any quarter without changing. The municipality furthered Wagner's scheme in every way, and in May 1872 the foundation stone of the Festspielhaus was laid, the event being commemorated by a notable performance of Beethoven's Choral Symphony in the old opera-house. The funds for the erection of the theatre were raised in part by the issue of 1000 certificates of patronage (Patronatsscheine), but the bulk of the sum was raised by founding "Wagner Societies" from St Petersburg to Cairo, from London to New York; these societies sprang up with such success that the theatre was opened in the summer of 1876 with the first complete performance of Der Ring des Nibelungen. The theatre, which stands on a height a little under a mile from the town, is built from the plans of Gustav Semper, the idea of the design being Wagner's own, an experiment indeed, but one which succeeded beyond all expectation. The seats are arranged on a kind of sloping wedge, in such a manner that every one has an almost equally good view of the stage, for there are no boxes, and the only galleries are quite

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BAZA, a town of southern Spain, in the province of Granada; in the Hoya de Baza, a fruitful valley of the Sierra Nevada, not far from the small river Gallego, and at the terminus of a railway from Lorca. Pop. (1900) 12,770. The dome-shaped mountain of Javaleon (4715 ft.) overlooks the town from the north-west. The ancient collegiate church of San Maximo occupies the traditional site of a cathedral founded by the Visigothic king Reccared about 600, and afterwards converted into a mosque. There is a brisk local trade in farm produce, and in the linen, hempen goods and pottery manufactured in Baza. The town nearly doubled its population in the last quarter of the 19th century. Sulphurous springs exist in the vicinity.

division. He also commanded the French forces in the expedi- | tion to Kinburn. In Lombardy in 1859 he was wounded when in command of a division at Melegnano, and took a conspicuous part in the battle of Solferino. For his services in the campaign he received the grand cross of the Legion of Honour, of which he was already (1855) a commander. He commanded with great distinction the first division under General (afterwards marshal) Forey in the Mexican expedition in 1862, succeeded him in supreme command in 1863, and became marshal and senator of France in the following year. He at first pursued the war with great vigour and success, entering Mexico in 1863 and driving President Juarez to the frontier. The marshal's African experience as a soldier and as an administrator stood him in good stead in dealing with the guerrilleros of the Juarez party, but he was less successful in his relations with Maximilian, with whose court the French headquarters was in constant strife. Here, as later in his own country, Bazaine's policy seems to have been directed, at least in part, to his own establishment in the rôle of a mayor of the palace. His own army thought that he aspired to play the part of a Bernadotte. His marriage to a rich Mexican lady, whose family were supporters of Juarez, still further complicated his relations with the unfortunate emperor, and when at the close of the American Civil War the United States sent a powerful war-trained army to the Mexican frontier, the French forces were withdrawn (sce MEXICO, History). Bazaine skilfully conducted the retreat and embarkation at Vera Cruz (1867). On his return to Paris he was but coldly received by his sovereign; public opinion was, however, in his favour, and he was held to have been made a scapegoat for the faults of others.

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At the outbreak of the Franco-German War (q.v.) Marshal Bazaine was placed in command of the III. corps of the Army of the Rhine. He took no part in the earlier battles, but Napoleon III. soon handed over the chief command of the army | to him. How far his inaction was the cause of the disaster of Spicheren is a matter of dispute. The best that can be said of his conduct is that the evil traditions of warfare on a small scale and the mania for taking up (6 strong positions," common to the French generals of 1870, were in Bazaine's own case emphasized by his personal dislike for the "schoolmaster" Frossard, lately the Prince Imperial's tutor and now commander of the army corps posted at Spicheren. Frossard himself, the leader of the strong positions" school, could only blame his own theories for the paralysis of the rest of the army, which left the corps at Spicheren to fight unsupported. Bazaine, indeed, when called upon for help, moved part of his corps forward, but only to" take up strong positions," not to strike a blow on the battlefield. A few days later he took up the chief command, and his tenure of it is the central act in the tragedy of 1870. He found the army in retreat, ill-equipped and numerically at a great disadvantage, and the generals and staffs discouraged and distrustful of one another. There was practically no chance of success. The question was one of extricating the army and the government from a disastrous adventure, and Bazaine's solution of it was to bring back his army to Metz. For the events which led up to the battles before Metz and the investment of Bazaine's whole army in the fortress, see FRANCO-GERMAN WAR and METZ, Battles.

commanders, fell far short of the idea. The minutely cautious methods of movement, which Algerian experience had evolved suitable enough for small African desert columns, which were liable to surprise rushes and ambushes, reduced the mobility of a large army, which had favourable marching conditions, to 5 m. a day as against the enemy's rate of 15. When, before he had finally decided to stay in Metz, Bazaine attempted halfheartedly to begin a retreat on Verdun, the staff work and organization of the movement over the Moselle was so ineffective that when the German staff calculated that Bazaine was nearing Verdun, the French had in reality barely got their artillery and baggage trains through the town of Metz. Even on the battlefield the marshal forbade the general staff to appear, and conducted the fighting by means of his personal orderly officers. After the cumbrous army had passed through Metz it encountered an isolated corps of the enemy, which was commanded by the brilliant leader Constantin von Alvensleben, and promptly attacked the French. At almost every moment of the day victory was in Bazaine's hands. Two corps of the Germans fought all day for bare existence. But Bazaine had no confidence in his generals or his troops, and contented himself with inflicting severe losses on the most aggressive portions of the German army. Two days later, while the French actually retreated on Metz-taking seven hours to cover 5 to 6 m.-the masses of the Germans gathered in front of him, intercepting his communication with the interior of France. This Bazaine expected, and feeling certain that the Germans would sooner or later attack him in his chosen position, he made no attempt to interfere with their concentration. The great battle was fought, and having inflicted severe punishment on his assailants, Bazaine fell back within the entrenched camp of Metz. But although he made no appeals for help, public opinion, alarmed and excited, condemned the only remaining army of France, Marshal MacMahon's "Army of Châlons," to rescue Bazaine at all.costs. The adventure ended at Sedan, and with Sedan the Third Empire collapsed.

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It seems to be clearly established that the charges of treason to which later events gave so strong a colour had, as yet, no foundation in fact. Nor, indeed, can his unwillingness to leave the Moselle region, while there was yet time to slip past the advancing enemy, be considered even as proof of special incompetence. The resolution to stay in the neighbourhood of Metz was based on the knowledge that if the slow-moving French army ventured far out it would infallibly be headed off and brought to battle in the open by superior numbers. In "strong positions close to his stronghold, however, Bazaine hoped that he could inflict damaging repulses and heavy slaughter on the ardent Germans, and in the main the result justified the expectation. The scheme was creditable, and even heroic, but the execution throughout all ranks, from the marshal to the battalion

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Up to this point Bazaine had served his country perhaps as well as circumstances allowed, and certainly with enough skill and a sufficient measure of success to justify his appointment. His experience, wide as it was, had not fitted him for the command of a large army in a delicate position. Since his Mexican expedition, moreover, he had himself fallen into a state of moral and physical lethargy, which, imperceptible on the field of battle, because his reputation for impassive bearing under fire was beyond question, was only too obvious in the staff offices, where the work of manoeuvring the army and framing plans and orders was chiefly done. But, in spite of these defects, it cannot be asserted that any one of Bazaine's subordinates would have done better, with the possible exception of Ladmirault, and Ladmirault was one of the junior corps commanders.

Bazaine, therefore, in the main justified his reputation for ability. He was now to justify his reputation for intriguing and underhand diplomacy. If in Mexico he aspired to the role of mayor of the palace, it was far more so in Metz, where, as commander of the only organized army of France, he conceived himself to be the ruler of the country's destiny. Accordingly he engaged in a series of diplomatic intrigues, some of which to this day have never been properly cleared up. Negotiations passed between the outer world and the besieged commander, the purport of which remains still to some extent obscure, but it is beyond question that he proposed with the permission of the Germans to employ his army in "saving France from herself." The scheme, however, collapsed, and the army of the Rhine became prisoners of war to the number of 140,000. At the moment of the surrender a week's further resistance would have enabled the levies of the National Defence government to crush the weak forces of the Germans on the Loire and to relieve Paris. But the army of Prince Frederick Charles, set free by the sur render, hurried up in time to check and to defeat the great effort at Orleans (q.v.). The responsibility for this crushing blow was naturally enough, and justly enough, placed on Bazaine's shoulders, and although, when he returned from captivity, the

marshal enjoyed a brief immunity, he was in 1873 brought to | but by effecting a radical change in their social condition. This trial before a military court. He was found guilty of negotiating with and capitulating to the enemy before doing all that was prescribed by duty and honour, and sentenced to degradation and death, but very strongly recommended to mercy. His sentence was commuted to twenty years' seclusion, and the humiliating ceremonies attending degradation were dispensed with. He was incarcerated in the Île Sainte-Marguérite and treated rather as an exile than as a convict; thence he escaped in 1874 to Italy. He finally took up his abode in Madrid, where he was treated with marked respect by the government of Alfonso XII. He died there on the 23rd of September 1888. He published Episodes de la guerre de 1870 (Madrid, 1883). He also wrote. L'Armée du Rhin (Paris, 1872).

train of thinking naturally drew him towards the socialist philosophers of the school of Saint-Simon, whom he joined. He contributed to their journal, Le Producteur; and in 1828 began to give public lectures on the principles of the school (see SAINTSIMON). His opposition to the emancipation of women brought about a quarrel with Enfantin (q.v.) in 1831, and Bazard found himself almost deserted by the members of the society. He attacked Enfantin violently, and in a warm discussion between them he was struck down by apoplexy. After lingering for a few months he died on the 29th of July 1832.

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See the bibliography appended to the article FRANCO-GERMAN WAR; also memoir by C. Pelletan in La Grande Encyclopédie; for Bazaine's conduct see Bazaine et l'armée du Rhin (1873); J. Valfrey, Le Maréchal et l'armée du Rhin (1873); Count A. de la Guerronière, L'Homme de Metz (1871); Rossel, Les Derniers Jours de Metz (1871). See also the article BOURBAKI for the curious Regnier episode connected with the surrender of Metz.

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BAZALGETTE, SIR JOSEPH WILLIAM (1819-1891), English engineer, was born at Enfield on the 28th of March 1819. At the age of seventeen he was articled to an engineer, and a few years later he began to practise successfully on his own account. His name is best known for the engineering works he carried out in London, especially for the construction of the main drainage system and the Thames embankment. In 1848 the control of London drainage, which had hitherto been divided among eight distinct municipal bodies, was consolidated under twelve commissioners, who were in 1849 superseded by a second commission. Under the latter Bazalgette accepted an appointment which he continued to hold under the three successive commissions which in the course of a year or two followed the second one, and when finally in 1855 these bodies were replaced by the Metropolitan Board of Works, he was at once appointed its chief engineer. His plans were ready, but the work was delayed by official obstruction and formality until 1858. Once begun, however, it was vigorously pushed on, and in 1865 the system was formally opened. It consisted of 83 m. of large intercepting sewers, draining more than 100 sq. m. of buildings, and calculated to deal with 420 million gallons a day. The cost was £4,600,000. Almost simultaneously Bazalgette was engaged on the plans for the Thames embankment. The section between Westminster and Vauxhall on the Surrey side was built between 1860 and 1869, and the length between Westminster and Blackfriars was declared open by the prince of Wales in 1870. The Chelsea embankment followed in 1871-1874, and in 1876 Northumberland Avenue was formed. The total outlay on the scheme exceeded £2,000,000. Bazalgette was also responsible for various other engineering works in the metropolitan area, designing, for example, new bridges at Putney and Battersea, and the steam ferry between north and south Woolwich. He also prepared plans for a bridge over the river near the Tower and for a tunnel under it at Blackwall, but did not live to see either of these projects carried out. He died on the 15th of March 1891 at Wimbledon.

BAZARD, AMAND (1791-1832), French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy, was born at Paris. He took part in the defence of Paris in 1815, and afterwards occupied a subordinate situation in the prefecture of the Seine. About 1820 he united some patriotic friends into a society, called Amis de la vérité. From this was developed a complete system of Carbonarism, the peculiar, principles of which were introduced from Italy by two of Bazard's friends. Bazard himself was at the head of the central body, and, while taking a general lead, contributed extensively to the Carbonarist journal, L'Aristarque. An unsuccessful outbreak at Belfort ruined the society, and the leaders were compelled to conceal themselves. Bazard, after remaining for some time in obscurity in Paris, came to the conclusion that the ends of those who wished well to the people would be most easily attained, not through political agitation, III IO

BAZAS, a town of south-western France, in the department of Gironde, 38 m. S.S.E. of Bordeaux by rail. Pop. (1906) town, 2505; commune, 4684. The town, which was the seat of a bishop from at least the beginning of the 6th century till 1790, has a Gothic church (formerly the cathedral) dating from the 13th to the 16th centuries. There are remains of ramparts (15th and 16th centuries) and several old houses of the 16th century. The vineyards of the vicinity produce white wine. The town is capital of an arrondissement, and carries on tanning, &c., and trade in the well-known Bazadais cattle.

Bazas (Cossio) was capital of the ancient tribe of the Vasates, and under the Romans one of the twelve cities of Novempopulana. In later times it was capital of the district of Bazadais. It was the scene of much bloodshed during the religious wars of the 16th century.

BAZIGARS, a nomad gipsy-folk of India, found throughout the peninsula, and variously known as Bazigars, Panchpiri, Nats, Bediyas, &c. They live a life apart from the surrounding Hindu population, and still preserve a certain ethnical identity, scarcely justified by any indications given by their physique. They make a living as jugglers, dancers, basketweavers and fortune-tellers; and in true European gipsy fashion each clan has its king. BAZIN, RENÉ (1853- ), French novelist and man of letters, was born at Angers on the 26th of December 1853. He studied law in Paris, and on his return to Angers became professor of law in the Catholic university there. He contributed to Parisian journals a series of sketches of provincial life and descriptions of travel, but he made his reputation by Une Tache d'encre (1888), which received a prize from the Academy. Other novels of great charm and delicacy followed: La Sarcelle bleue (1892); Madame Corentine (1893); Humble Amour (1894); De toute son âme (1897); La Terre qui meurt (1899); Les Oberlê (1901), an Alsatian story which was dramatized and acted in the following year; L'Âme alsacienne (1903); Donatienne (1903); L'Isolée (1905); Le Blé qui lève (1907); Mémoires d'une vieille fille (1908). La Terre qui meurt, a picture of the decay of peasant farming and a story of La Vendée, is an indirect plea for the development of provincial France. A volume of Questions littéraires et sociales appeared in 1906. René Bazin was admitted to the Academy on the 28th of April 1904.

BAZIRE, CLAUDE (1764-1794), French revolutionist, was deputy for the Côte d'Or in the Legislative Assembly, and made himself prominent by denouncing the court and the "Austrian committee "of the Tuileries. On the 20th of June 1792 he spoke in favour of the deposition of the king. In the Convention he sat with the Mountain, opposed adjourning the trial of Louis XVI., and voted for his death. He joined in the attack upon the Girondists, but, as member of the committee of general security, he condemned the system of the Terror. He was implicated by François Chabot in the falsification of a decree relative to the East India Company, and though his share seems to have been simply that he did not reveal the plot, of which he knew but part, he was accused before the Revolutionary Tribunal at the same time as Danton and Camille Desmoulins, and was executed on the 5th of April 1794.

BDELLIUM (Bồλov, used by Pliny and Dioscorides as the name of a plant which exuded a fragrant gum), a name applied to several gums or gum-resins that simulate and are sometimes found as adulterants of true myrrh (q.v.). I a

BEACH, a word of unknown origin; probably an old dialect | the Council of Regency suggesting that he ought to retire to the word meaning shingle, hence, by transference, the place covered Gunfleet at the mouth of the Thames, and observe the enemy by shingle. Beach sometimes denotes the material thrown up by from a distance till he could be reinforced. The council, which the waves, sometimes the long resulting ridge, but more frequently had the support of Admiral Russell, afterwards earl of Orford, the area between high and low water, or even the area between considered that a retreat to the Gunfleet would have fatal land and sea covered with material thrown up by exceptional consequences, by which they no doubt meant that it would leave the French free to land troops for the support of the Jacobites. They therefore ordered Herbert not to lose sight of the enemy, but rather to fight if he could secure an advantage of position. The admiral, who was on very bad terms with the council, elected to treat this as a peremptory order to fight. At daybreak on the 30th he got under way and bore down on the enemy. The wind was at north-east and gave him the weathergage. As his fleet was only 57 sail in all he was not able to engage the enemy from end to end, but as the French were arranged in a line from east to west he could have fallen on the end nearest him, and could have guarded himself by telling off a part of his ships to watch the remainder. Torrington preferred to bring his fleet down in such a way that his van, consisting of the Dutch ships, should be opposite the enemy's van, his centre opposite their centre, and his rear should engage their rear. The inferiority of the allies in numbers made it therefore inevitable that there should be gaps between the different divisions. As the fleets actually did come to action, the Dutch with a few English ships pressed on the French van, their leading ship being abreast of the ninth or tenth Frenchman. Torrington took his station opposite the rear of the French centre, leaving a great gap between himself and the ships in the van. Being apprehensive that the French centre would tack and pass this gap so as to put him between two fires, he kept a long way off so as to be free to manœuvre against them if they made the attempt. The English rear division, consisting of the English blue squadron under Sir Ralph Delaval, fought a close action with the French opposite to them. In the meantime the French ships, ahead of the leading Dutchman, succeeded in turning to windward and putting part of Evertsen's squadron between two fires. The Dutch ships suffered heavily, and one of them which was dismasted drifted among the French and was taken. More severe loss would have followed if the better average seamanship of the English and Dutch had not stood them in good stead. The tide turned from flood to ebb during the action, and the surface current which in the Channel sets to the west with the ebb began to carry the fleets with it. The Dutch and English dropped anchor. The French, who were not equally alert, did not and were carried westward. When the tide turned the allies retreated to the Thames, abandoning several of the most damaged ships in Pevensey Bay. The pursuit of the French was ineffective, for Tourville persisted in keeping his ships in line of battle, which forced them to regulate their speed by the slowest among them. Torrington was tried for his conduct but acquitted.

storms.

The actual character of beach material depends upon the nature and structure of the rocks inshore, the strength and direction of currents, and the force of the waves. The southern shore of the Isle of Wight furnishes a good example. The island ends westward in the well-known " Needles," consisting of chalk with flints. The disintegration of this rock by wave action separates the finer chalk, which is carried seawards in suspension, from the hard flint, which is piled in rough shingle upon the shore. The currents sweep constantly eastward up channel, and the rough flint shingle is rolled along by wave action toward the Ventnor rampart, and ground finer and finer until it arrives as a very fine flinty gravel at Ventnor pier. The sweep of Sandown Bay follows, where the cliffs are composed for the most part of greensand, and here the beach at low water is sandy and smooth. The eastern end of the island is again composed of chalk with flints, and here the beach material as at the western end consists of very coarse flint shingle. In this, as in similar cases, the material has been dragged seawards from the land by constant action of the undertow that accompanies each retreating tide and each returning wave. The resulting accumulated ridge is battered by every storm, and thrown above ordinary high-water mark in a ridge such as the Chesil Bank or the long grass-grown mound that has blocked the old channel of the Yar and diverted its waters into Yaverland Bay. Sandown furnishes an instructive example of the power of the eastward currents carrying high-storm waves. The groins built to preserve the foreshore are piled to the top with coarse shingle on the western side, while there is a drop of over 8 ft. on to the sands east of the wall; many thousands of tons of shingle having been moved bodily by the waves and deposited against each groin. The force of the waves has been measured on the west coast of Scotland and found to be as much as 3 tons per square foot. Against these forces the preservation of the shore from the advance of the sea becomes an extremely difficult and often a hopeless undertaking, since blocks of rock over 100 tons in weight have been moved by the waves. The beach is therefore unstable in its position. It advances in front of the encroaching sea, burying former beaches under the sand and mud of the now deeper water, or it retreats when the sea is withdrawn from the land or the land rises locally, leaving the old shingle stranded in a "raised beach," but its formation is in all cases due to the form and structure of the shore, the sapping action of the waves, the backward drag of the undertow plastering the shore with material, which is in turn bombarded by waves and swept by currents that cover the finer débris of the undertow with a layer of coarse fragments that are re-sorted by the daily action of currents and tides.

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BEACHY HEAD, a promontory on the coast of Sussex, England, S.W. of Eastbourne, about 3 m. from the centre of the town. It consists of a perpendicular chalk cliff 532 ft. high, and forms the eastern termination of the hill-range known as the South Downs. The old Bell Tout lighthouse, 285 ft. above highwater mark, erected in 1831 on the second cliff to the westward, in o° 10' 18" E., 50° 43′ 30′′ N., has been superseded by a new lighthouse built in the sea at the foot of the head itself.

Battle of Beachy Head.-This naval battle, known to the French as Bévisier (a corruption of Pevensey), was fought on the 30th of June 1690. An allied force of 37 British sail of the line, under command of the earl of Torrington (Arthur Herbert), and of 22 Dutch under C. Evertsen, was at anchor under the headland, while a French fleet of over 70 sail, commanded by the comte de Tourville, was anchored some miles off to the south-west. The French fleet had orders to co-operate with an expected Jacobite rising in England. Torrington, to whom the general direction of the allied fleet belonged, was much disturbed by the enemy's superiority in number, and on the 26th had written to

A full account of the battle of Beachy Head, written with ample quotation of documents, and for the purpose of vindicating Herbert, will be found in Admiral Colomb's Naval Warfare (London, 1899). (D. H.) BEACON (from the O. Eng. béacn, a sign, cf. "beckon," another form of the same word), a signal, especially a fire lit on a high hill, structure or building for the purpose of sending a message of alarm or of important news over long distances. Such was the courier-fire (ayyapos wûp) that brought the news of the fall of Troy to Argos (Aeschylus, Agamemnon), or the chain of signals that told of the approach of the Spanish Armada, or which circled the British Isles in the jubilee years of 1887 and 1897. The word occurs in many names for lofty and conspicuous hills, such as Dunkery Beacon in Somerset, the highest point on Exmoor. On many such hills the remains of old beacon towers and cressets are still found. The word is used generally of a lighthouse, but technically it means either a small unattended light, a superstructure on a floating buoy, such as a staff and cage, or staff and globe, or an unlighted structure, forming a conspicuous object at sea, used in each case to guide or warn sailors. (See LIGHTHOUSE and BUOY.)

BEACONSFIELD, BENJAMIN DISRAELI, EARL OF (1804- | Isaac D'Israeli was his father's sole heritor, but change of fortune 1881), British statesman, second child and eldest son of Isaac seems to have awakened in him no ambitions for the most hopeful D'Israeli (q.v.) and Maria Basevi, who were married in 1802, was of his sons. At fifteen, not before, Benjamin was sent to a born at No. 6 John Street, Bedford Row, on the 21st of December Unitarian school at Walthamstow-a well-known school, 1804. Of Isaac D'Israeli's other children, Sarah was born in populous enough to be a little world of emulation and conflict 1802, Naphtali in 1807, Ralph (Raphael) in 1809, and James but otherwise unfit. Not there, nor in any similar institution (Jacob) in 1813. None of the family was akin to Benjamin for at that illiberal time, perhaps, was a Jewish boy likely to make genius and character, except Sarah, to whom he was deeply a fortunate entry into "the great family of mankind." His indebted for a wise, unswerving and sympathetic devotion, name, the foreign look of him, and some pronounced incomwhen, in his earlier days, he needed it most. All Isaac D'Israeli's patibilities not all chargeable to young Disraeli (as afterwards children were born into the Jewish communion, in which, how the name came to be spelt), soon raised a crop of troubles. His ever, they were not to grow up. It is a reasonable inference stay at Walthamstow was brief, his departure abrupt, and he from Isaac's character that he was never at ease in the went to school no more. With the run of his father's library, ritual of Judaism. His father died in the winter of 1816, and and the benefits of that born bookman's guidance, he now set soon afterwards Isaac formally withdrew with all his household out to educate himself. This he did with an industry stiffened from the Jewish church. His son Benjamin, who had been by matchless self-confidence and by ambitions fully mature admitted to it with the usual rites eight days after his birth, was before he was eighteen. Yet he yielded to an attempt to make a baptized at St Andrew's church in Holborn on the 31st of July man of business of him. He was barely seventeen when (in 1817. One of Isaac D'Israeli's reasons for quitting the tents of November 1821) he was taken into the office of Messrs Swain, his people was that rabbinical Judaism, with its unyielding Stevens and Co., solicitors, in Frederick's Place, Old Jewry. laws and fettering ceremonies, "cuts off the Jews from the great Here he remained for three years-" most assiduous in his family of mankind." Little did he know, when therefore he cut attention to business," said one of the partners, "and showing off the D'Israeli family from Judaism, what great things he was great ability in the transaction of it." It was then determined doing for one small member of it. The future prime minister that he should go to the bar; and accordingly he was entered was then short of thirteen years old, and there was yet time to at Lincoln's Inn in 1824. But Disraeli had found other studies provide the utmost freedom which his birth allowed for the and an alien use for his pen. Though" assiduous in his attention faculties and ambitions he was born with. Taking the worldly to business" in Frederick's Place, he found time to write for view alone, of course, most fortunate for his aspirations in youth the printer. Dr Smiles, in his Memoirs of John Murray, tells was his withdrawal from Judaism in childhood. That it was of certain pamphlets on the brightening prospects of the Spanish fully sanctioned by his intellect at maturity is evident; but the South American colonies, then in the first enjoyment of emancipavindication of unbiased choice would not have been readily tion-pamphlets seemingly written for a Mr Powles, head of a accepted had Disraeli abandoned Judaism of his own will at the great financial firm, whose acquaintance Disraeli had made. In pushing Vivian Grey period or after. And though a mind like the same year, apparently, he wrote a novel-his first, and never Disraeli's might work to satisfaction with Christianity as "com- published. Aylmer Papillon was the title of it, Dr Smiles pleted Judaism," it could but dwell on a breach of continuity informs us; and he prints a letter from Disraeli to the John which means so much to Jews and which he was never allowed Murray of that day, which indicates its character pretty clearly. to forget amongst Christians. With all, he was proud of his race The last chapter, its author says, is taken up with "Mr Papillon's as truly, if not as vehemently, as his paternal grandmother banishment under the Alien Act, from a ministerial misconcepdetested it. Family pride contributed to the feeling in his case; tion of a metaphysical sonnet." About the same time he edited for in his more speculative moods he could look back upon an a History of Paul Jones, originally published in America, the ancestry which was of those, perhaps, who colonized the shores preface of the English edition being Disraeli's first appearance of the Mediterranean from before the time of the Captivity. as an author. Murray could not publish Aylmer Papillon, More definite is the history of descent from an ennobled Spanish but he had great hopes of its boyish writer (Isaac D'Israeli was family which escaped from the Torquemada persecutions to an old friend of his), " took him into his confidence, and related Venice, there found a new home, took a new name, and prospered to him his experiences of men and affairs." Disraeli had not for six generations. The Benjamin D'Israeli, Lord Beacons- completed his twenty-first year when (in 1825) Murray was field's grandfather, who came to England in 1748, was a younger possessed by the idea of bringing out a great daily newspaper; son sent at eighteen to try his fortune in London, "A man of and if his young friend did not inspire that idea he årdent character, sanguine, courageous, speculative, fortunate, keenly urged its execution, and was entrusted by with a temper which no disappointment could disturb" (so Murray with the negotiation of all manner of pre- sentative." Lord Beaconsfield described him), he soon made the beginnings liminaries, including the attempt to bring Lockhart of a handsome fortune and turned country gentleman. That his in as editor. The title of the paper, The Representative, was grandson exaggerated his prosperity is highly probable; but Disraeli's suggestion. He chose reporters, looked to the settingthat he became a man of wealth and consideration is certain. up of a printing-office, busied himself in all ways to Murray's He married twice. His second wife was Sarah Siprout de Gabay, great satisfaction, and, as fully appears from Dr Smiles's account "a beautiful woman of strong intellect" and importunate of the matter, with extraordinary address. But when these ambitions, who hated the race she belonged to because it was arrangements were brought to the point of completion, Disraeli despised by others. She felt so keenly the social disabilities it dropped out of the scheme and had nothing more to do with it. brought upon her, and her husband's indifference to them, that He was to have had a fourth share of the proprietorship, bringing "she never pardoned him his name." Her literary son Isaac in a corresponding amount of capital. His friend Mr Powles, suffered equally or even more; for though he had ambitions he whom he had enlisted for the enterprise, was to have had a had none that she could recognize as such. She could ridicule similar share on the same conditions. Neither seems to have paid him for the aspirations which he had not and for those which he up, and that, perhaps, had to do with the quarrel which parted had; on the other hand, he never heard from her a tender word Benjamin Disraeli and John Murray before a sheet of the luckless "though she lived to be eighty." Nor did any other member of Representative was printed. Many years afterwards (1853) her family, according to her grandson. Disraeli took an active interest in The Press, a weekly journal of considerable merit but meagre fortunes.

Isaac D'Israeli was devoted to the reading and writing of books in domestic quiet; and his son Benjamin suffered appreciably from his father's gentle preoccupations. As a child-unruly and disturbing no doubt-he was sent to a school of small account at Blackheath, and was there "for years" before he was recalled at the age of twelve on the death of his grandfather. I

"The Repre

At the death of the elder Benjamin (1817), his son Isaac had moved from the King's Road, Gray's Inn (now Theobald's Road), to No. 6 Bloomsbury Square. Here he entertained the many distinguished friends, literary and political, who had been drawn to him by his "Curiosities" and other ingenious works,

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