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Mark.

Magyars and Slavs never willingly recognized a style which river shared the same fate, due probably to the fact to which ignored their national rights and implied the superiority of the Gibbon has drawn attention, that at this period the Danube German elements of the monarchy; to the Germans it was a was frequently frozen over. About 590 the district was settled poor substitute for a title which had represented the political by the Slovenes, or Corutanes, a Slavonic people, who formed unity of the German race under the Holy Empire. For long part of the kingdom of Samo, and were afterwards included in after the Vienna Congress of 1814-1815 the “ Kaiser "as such the extensive kingdom of the Avars. The Franks claimed some exercised a powerful influence over the imaginations of the authority over this people, and probably some of the princes German people outside the Habsburg dominions; but this was of the Slovenes had recognized this claim, but it could not be because the title was still surrounded with its ancient halo and regarded as serious while the Avars were in possession of the the essential change was not at once recognized. The outcome of land. In 791 Charlemagne, after he had established his authority the long struggle with Prussia, which in 1866 finally broke the over the Bujuvarii or Bavarians, crossed the river Enns, and spell, and the proclamation of the German empire in 1871 left moved against the Avars. This attack was followed by the title of emperor of Austria stripped of everything but a campaigns on the part of his lieutenants, and in 805 the Avars purely territorial significance. It had, moreover, by the compact were finally subdued, and their land incorporated with the with Hungary of 1867, ceased even fully to represent the relation Frankish empire. This step brought the later Austria definitely of the emperor to all his dominions; and the title which had under the rule of the Franks, and during the struggle

Establishbeen devised to cover the wholc of the Habsburg monarchy | Charlemagne erected a mark, called the East Mark, meat of sank into the official style of the sovercign of but a half; while to defend the eastern border of his empire. A series of the East even within the Austrian empire proper it is resented by those margraves ruled this small district from 799 to 907, peoples which, like the Bohemians, wish to obtain the same but as the Frankish empire grew weaker, the mark suffered recognition of their national independence as was conceded to more and more from the ravages of its eastern neighbours. Hungary. In placing the account of the origin and development During the oth century the Frankish supremacy vanished, and of the Habsburg monarchy under this heading, it is merely for the mark was overrun by the Moravians, and then by the the sake of convenience.

Magyars, or Hungarians, who destroyed the few remaining traces The first nucleus round which the present dominions of the of Frankish influence. house of Austria gradually accumulated was the mark which lay A new era dawned after Otto the Great was elected German

along the south bank of the Danube, east of the river king in 936, and it is Otto rather than Charlemagne who must Origin of Enns, founded about A.D. 800 as a defence for the be regarded as the real founder of Austria. In August the same Austria

Frankish kingdom against the Slavs. Although its 055 he gained a great victory over the Magyars on the The house

total length from east to west was only about 60 m., Lechseld, freed Bavaria from their presence, and re- berg. it was associated in the popular mind with a large and almost sounded the East Mark for the defence of his kingdom. unbroken tract of land in the east of Europe. This fact, together In 976 his son, the emperor Otto II., entrusted the government with the position of the mark with regard to Germany in general of this mark, soon to be known as Austria, to Leopold, a member and to Bavaria in particular, accounts for the name Österreich of the family of Babenberg (9.8.), and its administration was (Austria), i.e. east empire or realm, a word first used in a charter conducted with vigour and success. Leopold and his descendants of 996, where the phrase in regione vulgari nomine Ostarrichi ruled Austria until the extinction of the family in 1246, and by occurs. The development of this small mark into the Austro- their skill and foresight raised the mark to an important place Hungarian monarchy was a slow and gradual process, and falls among the German states. Their first care was to push its into two main divisions, which almost coincide with the periods eastern frontier down the Danube valley, by colonizing the lands during which the dynasties of Babenberg and Habsburg have on either side of the river, and the success of this work may be respectively ruled the land. The energies of the house of Baben- seen in the removal of their capital from Pöchlarn to Melk, then berg were chiefly spent in enlarging the area and strengthening to Tulln, and finally about 1140 to Vienna. The country as far the position of the mark itself, and when this was done the house as the Leitha was subsequently incorporated with Austria, and of Habsburg set itself with remarkable perseverance and mar- in the other direction the district between the Enns and the Inn vellous success to extend its rule over neighbouring territories. was added to the mark in 1156, an important date in

Duchy of The many vicissitudes which have attended this development Austrian history. Anxious to restore peace to Germany have not, however, altered the European position of Austria, in this year, the new king, Frederick I., raised Austria which has remained the same for over a thousand years. Stand- to the rank of a duchy, and conferred upon it exing sentinel over the valley of the middle Danube, and barring ceptional privileges. The investiture was bestowed not only the advance of the Slavs on Germany, Austria, whether mark, upon Duke Henry but upon his second wife, Theodora; in case duchy or empire, has always been the meeting-place of the of a failure of male heirs the duchy was to descend to females; Teuton and the Slav. It is this fact which gives it a unique and if the duke had no children he could nominate his successor. interest and importance in thc history of Europe, and which controlling all the jurisdiction of the land, the duke's only unites the ideas of the Germans to-day with those of Charlemagne duties towards the Empire were to appear at any diet held in and Otto the Great.

Bavaria, and to send a contingent to the imperial army for any The southern part of the country now called Austria was campaigns in the countries bordering upon Austria. In 1186 inhabited before the opening of the Christian era by the Taurisci, | Duke Leopold I. made a treaty with Ottakar IV., duke of Styria,

a Celtic tribe, who were subsequently called the Norici, an arrangement which brought Styria and upper Austria to the Early tohabitants.

and who were conquered by the Romans about 14 B.C. Babenbergs in 1192, and in 1229 Duke Leopold II. purchased

Their land was afterwards included in the provinces of some lands from the bishop of Freising, and took the title of Pannonia and Noricum, and under Roman rule, Vindobona, lord of Carniola. When the house of Babenberg became extinct the modern Vienna, became a place of some importance. The in 1246, Austria, stretching from Passau almost to Pressburg, part of the country north of the Danube was peopled by the had the frontiers which it retains to-day, and this increase of Marcomanni and the Quadi, and both of these tribes were fre territory had been accompanied by a corresponding increase in quently at war with the Romans, especially during the reign of wealth and general prosperity. The chief reason for this pros. the emperor Marcus Aurelius, who died at Vindobona in A.D. 180 perity was the growth of trade along the Danube, which stimuwhen campaigning against them. Christianity and civilization lated the foundation, or the growth, of towns, and brought obtained entrance into the land, but the increasing weakness of considerable riches to the ruler. Under the later Babenbergs the Roman empire opened the country to the inroads of the Vienna was regarded as one of the most important of German barbarians, and during the period of the great migrations it was cities, and it was computed that the duke was as rich as the ravaged in quick succession by a number of these tribes, prominent archbishop of Cologne, or the margrave of Brandenburg, and among whom were the Huns. The lands on both banks of the was surpassed in this respect by only one German prince, the

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king of Bohemia. The interests of the Austrian margraves and his assistance to William of Holland. Styria appears at this dukes were not confined to the acquisition of wealth either in time to have shared the fortunes of Austria, but it was claimed land or chattels. Vienna became a centre of culture and learning, by Bela IV., king of Hungary, who conquered the and many religious houses were founded and endowed. The land, and made a treaty with Ottakar in 1254 which Ottakar, of

Bohemia, acme of the early prosperity of Austria was reached confirmed him in its possession. The Hungarian Leopold n. under Duke Leopold II., surnamed the Glorious, who rule was soon resented by the Styrians, and Ottakar,

reigned from 1194 to 1230. He gave a code of municipal who had become king of Bohemia in 1253, took advantage of law to Vienna, and rights to other towns, welcomed the Minne- this resentment, and interfered in the affairs of the duchy. A singers to his brilliant court, and left to his subjects an enduring war with Hungary was the result, but on this occasion victory memory of valour and wisdom. Leopold and his predecessors rested with Otakar, and by a treaty made with Bela, in March were enabled, owing to the special position of Austria, to act 1261, he was recognized as duke of Styria. In 1269 Ottakar practically as independent rulers. Cherishing the privilege of inherited the duchy of Carinthia on the death of Duke Ulrich III., 1156, they made treaties with foreign kings, and arranged and, his power having now become very great, he began to marriages with the great families of Europe. With full control of aspire to the German throne. He did something to improve jurisdiction and of commerce, no great bishopric nor imperial the condition of the duchies by restoring order, introducing city impeded the course of their authority, and the emperor German colonists into the eastern districts, and seeking to interfered only to settle boundary disputes.

benefit the inhabitants of the towns. The main lines of Austrian policy under the Babenbergs were In 1273 Rudolph, count of Habsburg, became German king, warfare with the Hungarians and other castern neighbours, and and his attention soon turned to Oitakar, whose power menaced a general attitude of loyalty towards the emperors. The story the occupant of the German throne. Finding some of the Hungarian wars is a monotonous record of forays, of support in Austria, Rudolph questioned the title of

Rudolph assistance given at times to the Babenbergs by the forces of the Bohemian king to the three duchies, and sought ·

burg the Empire, and ending in the gradual eastward advance of to recover the imperial lands which had been in the Austria. The traditional loyalty to the emperors, which was possession of the emperor Frederick II. Ottakar was summoned cemented by several marriages between the imperial house and i wice before the diet, the imperial court declared against him, the Babenbergs, was, however, departed from by the margrave and in July 1275 he was placed under the ban. War was the Leopold II., and by Duke Frederick II. During the investiture result, and in November 1276 Outakar submitted to Rudolph, struggle Leopold deserted the emperor Henry IV., who deprived and renounced the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia. him of Austria and conferred it upon Vratislav II., duke of the For some time the three duchies were administered by Rudolph Bohemians. Unable to maintain his position, Vratislav was soon in his capacity as head of the Empire, of which they formed part. driven out, and in 1083 Leopold again obtained possession of Not content with this tie, however, which was personal to the mark, and was soon reconciled with Henry. Very similar himself alone, the king planned to make them hereditary posses

was the result of the conflict between the emperor sions of his family, and to transfer the headquarters of the Frederick Frederick II. and Duke Frederick II. Ignoring the Habsburgs from the Rhine to the Danube. Some opposition II., the privilege of 1156, the emperor claimed certain rights was offered to this scheme; but the perseverance of the king Quarrel

in Austria, and summoned the duke to his Italian diets. overcame all difficulties, and one of the most important events in

Frederick, who was called the Quarrelsome, had irri- European history took place on the 27th of December tated both his neighbours and his subjects, and complaints of his 1282, when Rudolph invested his sons, Rudolph and

burgs exactions and confiscations reached the ears of the emperor. Albert, with the duchies of Austria and Styria. He estab. After the duke had three times refused to appear before the retained Carinthia in his own hands until 1286, when, lished la princes, Frederick placed him under the ban, declared the duchies in return for valuable services, he bestowed it upon 1282. of Austria and Styria to be vacant, and, aided by the king of Meinhard IV., count of Tirol. The younger Rudolph Bohemia, the duke of Bavaria and other princes, invaded the look no part in the government of Austria and Styria, which was country in 1236. He met with very slight opposition, declared undertaken by Albert, until his election as German king in 1298. the duchies to be immediately dependent upon the Empire, Albert appears to have been rather an arbitrary ruler. In 1288 made Vienna an imperial city, and imposed other changes upon he suppressed a rising of the people of Vienna, and he made the End of the the constitution of Austria. After his departure, fullest use of the ducal power in asserting his real or supposed

however, the duke returned, and in 1239 was in rights. At this time the principle of primogeniture was unknown

possession of his former power, while the changes made in the house of Habsburg, and for many years the duchies were berg

by the emperor were ignored. Continuing his career of ruled in common by two, or even three, members of the family. violence and oppression, Duke Frederick was killed in battle by Aster Albert became German king, his two elder sons, Rudolph the Hungarians in June 1246, when the family of Babenberg and Frederick, were successively associated with him in the became extinct.

government, and after his death in 1308, his four younger sons The duchies of Austria and Styria were now claimed by the shared at one time or another in the administration of Austria emperor Frederick II. as vacant fiefs of the Empire, and their and Styria. In 1314 Albert's son, Frederick, was chosen German

government was entrusted to Otto II., duke of Bavaria. king in opposition to Louis IV., duke of Upper Bavaria, asterDispute as

Frederick, however, who was in Italy, harassed and wards the emperor Louis IV., and Austria was weakened by the afflicted, could do little to assert the imperial authority, efforts of the Habsburgs to sustain Frederick in his contest with and his enemy, Pope Innocent IV., bestowed the two Louis, and also by the struggle carried on between another

duchies upon Hermann VI., margrave of Baden, brother, Leopold, and the Swiss. A serics of deaths among the whose wife, Gertrude, was a niece of the last of the Babenbergs. Habsburgs during the first half of the 14th century left Duke Hermann was invested by the German king, William, count of Albert II. and his four sons as the only representatives of the Holland, but he was unable to establish his position, and law family. Albert ruled the duchics alone from 1344 to 1356, and and order were quickly disappearing from the duchies. The after this date his sons began to take part in the government. deaths of Hermann and of the emperor in 1250, however, paved | The most noteworthy of these was Duke Rudolph IV.,

Duke the way for a settlement. Weary of struggle and disorder, and a son-in-law of the cmperor Charles IV., who showed

Rudolph despairing of any help from the central authority, the estates his interest in learning by founding the universi:y of of Austria met at Trübensce in 1251, and chose Oitakar, son of Vicnna in 1365. Rudolph's chief aim was to make Wenceslaus I., king of Bohemia, as their duke. This step was Austria into an independent state, and he forged a series of favoured by the pope, and Ottakar, cagerly accepting the offer, privileges the purport of which was to free the duchy from all strengthened his position by marrying Margaret, a sister of its duties towards the Empire. A sharp contest with the emperor Duke Frederick II., and in return for his investiture promised I followed this proceeding, and the Austrian duke, annoyed that

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Austria was not raised to the dignity of an electorate by the | were equally unfortunate under the rule of Frederick and Golden Bull of 1356, did not shrink from a contest with Charles. Albert; and the death of Ladislaus led to still further complica. In 1361, however, he abandoned his pretensions, but claimed tions. Austria, which had been solemnly created an the title of archduke (9.0.) and in 1364 declared that the posses- archduchy by the emperor Frederick in 1453, was created sions of the Habsburgs were indivisible. Meanwhile the acquisi-claimed by the three remaining Habsburg princes, and tion of neighbouring territories had been steadily pressed on. lower Austria was secured by Frederick, while Albert duchy. In 1335 the duchy of Carinthia, and a part of Carniola, were obtained upper Austria. Both princes were unpopular, and in inherited by Dukes Albert II. and Otto, and in 1363 Rudolph IV. 1462 Frederick was attacked by the inhabitants of Vienna, and obtained the county of Tirol. In 1364 Carniola was made into was forced to surrender lower Austria to Albert, whose spendan hereditary duchy; in 1374 part of Istria came under the thrist habits soon made his rule disliked. A further struggle rule of the Habsburgs; in 1382 Trieste submitted voluntarily between the brothers was prevented by Albert's death in 1463, to Austria, and at various times during the century, other when the estates did homage to Frederick. The emperor was smaller districts were added to the lands of the Habsburgs. soon again at issue with the Austrian nobles, and was Rudolph IV. died childless in 1365. and in 1379 his two attacked by Matthias Corvinus, king of Hungary,

Hungarlag remaining brothers, Leopold III. and Albert III., made a who drove him from Vienna in 1485. Although ham- of Austria.

conquest division of their lands, by which Albert retained Austria proper pered by the inroads of the Turks, Matthias pressed and Carniola, and Leopold got Styria, Carinthia and Tirol. on, and by 1487 was firmly in possession of Austria, Styria and Leopold was killed in 1386 at the battle of Sempach, and Albert Carinthia, which seemed quite lost to the Habsburgs. became guardian for his four ncphews, who subsequently ruled The decline in the fortunes of the family, however, was their lands in common. The senior line which ruled in Austria to be arrested by Frederick's son, Maximilian, afterwards the was represented after the death of Duke Albert III. in 1395 by emperor Maximilian I., who was the second founder his son, Duke Albert IV., and then by his grandson, Duke of the greatness of the house of Habsburg. Like his

emperor Albert V., who became German king as Albert II. in 1438. ancestor, Rudolph, he had to conquer the lands over Albert married Elizabeth, daughter of Sigismund, king of which his descendants were destined to rule, and by Hungary and Bohemia, and on the death of his father-in-law arranging a treaty of succession to the kingdoms of Hungary assumed these two crowns. He died in 1439, and just after his and Bohemia, he pointed the way to power and empire in

death a son was born to him, who was called Ladislaus eastern Europe. Soon after his election as king of the Romans Miaority

Posthumus, and succeeded to the duchy of Austria and in 1486, Maximilian attacked the Hungarians, and in 1490 he to the kingdoms of Hungary and Bohemia. William had driven them from Austria, and recovered his hereditary lands.

and Leopold, the two eldest sons of Duke Leopold III., In the same year he made an arrangement with his kinsman, and, with their younger brothers Ernest and Frederick, the Sigismund of Tirol, by which he brought this county under his joint rulers of Styria, Carinthia and Tirol, died early in the rule, and when the emperor Frederick died in 1493, Maximilian 15th century, and in 1406 Ernest and Frederick made a division united the whole of the Austrian lands under his sway, Continuof their lands. Ernest became duke of Styria and Carinthia, ing his acquisitions of territory, he inherited the possessions of and Frederick, count of Tirol. Ernest was succeeded in 1424 the counts of Görz in 1500, added some districts to Tirol by by his sons, Frederick and Albert, and Frederick in 1439 by his intervening in a succession war in Bavaria, and acquired Gradisca son, Sigismund, and these three princes were reigning when in 1512 as the result of a struggle with Venice. He did much for King Albert II. died in 1439. Frederick, who succeeded Albert the better government of the Austrian duchies. Bodies were as German king, and was soon crowned emperor as Frederick III., established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the acted as guardian for Sigismund of Tirol, who was a minor, and Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which Regency

also became regent of Austria in consequence of the were established in 1912, and in 1518 representatives of the infancy of Ladislaus. His rule was a period of struggle various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which

and disorder, owing partly to the feebleness of his own marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands. frederick character, partly to the wish of his brother, Albert, 10 In these ways Maximilian proved himself a capable and energetic

share his dignities. The Tirolese soon grew weary of ruler, although his plans for making Austria into a kingdom, or his government, and, in 1446, Sigismund was declared of age. an electorate, were abortive. The estates of Austria were equally discontented and headed an At the close of the middle ages the area of Austria had in. open revolt, the object of which was to remove Ladislaus from creased to nearly 50,000 sq. m., but its internal condition does Frederick's charge and deprive the latter of the regency. The not appear to have improved in proportion to this Popular

leading spirit in this movement was Ulrich Eiczing increase in size. The rulers of Austria lacked the the close revolt (Eitzing or von Eiczinger, d. before 1463), a low-born prestige which attached to the electoral office, and, of the

adventurer, ennobled by Albert II., in whose service although five of them had held the position of German middle

he had accumulated vast wealth and power. In 1451 king, the four who preceded Maximilian had added sed Coast he organized an armed league, and in December, with little or nothing to the power and dignity of this position. The Ulrich of the aid of the populace, made himself master of Vienna, ecclesiastical organization of Austria was imperfect, so long as CAR

whither he had summoned the estates. In March 1452 there was no archbishopric within its borders, and its clergy he was joined by Count Ulrich of Cilli, while the Hungarians and owed allegiance to foreign prelates. The work of unification the powerful party of the great house of Rosenberg in Bohemia which was so successfully accomplished by Maximilian was attached themselves to the league. Frederick, who had hurried aided by two events, the progress of the Turks in south-eastern back from Italy, was besieged in August in the Vienna Neustadt, Europe, and the loss of most of the Habsburg possessions on the and was forced to deliver Ladislaus to Count Ulrich, whose Rhine. The first tended to draw the separate states together influence had meanwhile eclipsed that of Eiczing. Ladislaus for purposes of defence, and the second turned the attention of now ruled nominally himself, under the tutelage of Count Ulrich. the Habsburgs to the possibilities of expansion in eastern The country was, however, distracted by quarrels between the Europe.

(A. W. H.*) party of the high aristocracy, which recognized the count of At the time of the death of the emperor Maximilian in 1519 Cilli as its chief, and that of the lesser nobles, citizens and the Habsburg dominions in eastern Germany included the populace, who followed Eiczing. In September 1453 the latter, duchies of Upper and Lower Austria, Styria, Carinthia,

Austria by a successíul émeute, succeeded in ousting Count Ulrich, and Carniola and the county of Tirol. Maximilian was under remained in power till February 1455, when the count once succeeded as archduke of Austria as well as emperor by Charles V. more entered Vienna in triumph. Ulrich of Cilli was killed his grandson Charles of Spain, known in history as the and Ferdibefore Belgrade in November 1456; a year later Ladislaus emperor Charles V. To his brother Ferdinand Charles himself died (November 1457). Meanwhile Styria and Carinthia I resigned all his Austrian lands, including his claims on Bohemia

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and Hungary. Austria and Spain were thus divided, and, in was resolved to establish there the rule of the Jesuits. His spite of the efforts of the archduke Charles in the Spanish | attempt to do so led to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War Succession War, were never again united, for at the battle of (see BOHEMIA; TIRTY YEARS' War). Till 1630 The

The Thirty Mohács

Mohács, on the 28th of August 1526, Suleiman the fortunes of Austria brightened under the active rule

Magnificent defeated and killed Louis, king of Bohemia of Ferdinand, who was assisted by Maximilian of War. results, and of Hungary, whose sister Anne had married Bavaria and the Catholic League, and by Wallenstein.

Ferdinand. By this victory the Turks conquered and The Palatinate was conquered, the Danish king was overthrown, retained, till the peace of Karlowitz in 1699, the greater part of and it seemed that Austria would establish its predominance Hungary. During most of his life Ferdinand was engaged in over the whole of Germany, and that the Baltic would become combating the Turks and in attempting to secure Hungary. In an Austrian lake. The fortunes of Austria never seemed brighter John Zápolya, who was supported by Suleiman, Ferdinand than in 1628 when Wallenstein began the siege of Stralsund. found an active rival. The Turks besieged Vicnna in 1530 and His failure, followed by the arrival of Gustavus Adolphus in made several invasions of Hungary and Austria. At length Germany in 1630, proved the death blow of Austrian hopes. Ferdinand agreed to pay Suleiman an annual tribute for the In 1632 Gustavus Adolphus was killed, in 1634 Wallenstein was small portion-about 12,228 sq. m.-of Hungary which he held. assassinated, and in 1635 France entered into the war. The During Charles V.'s struggles with the German Protestants, Thirty Ycars' War now ceased to be a religious struggle The Ferdinand preserved a neutral attitude, which contributed to betwecn Catholicism and Protestantism; it resolved Swedish gain Germany a short period of internal peace. Though Ferdi- itself into a return to the old political strife between aod Freach nand himself did not take a leading part in German religious or France and the Habsburgs. Till 1648 the Bourbon Vater foreign politics, the period was one of intense interest to Austria. and Habsburg powers continued the war, and at the Throughout the years from 1519 to 1648 there are, said Stubbs, peace of Westphalia Austria suffered severe losses. Ferdinand two distinct ideas in progress which “may be regarded as giving III. (1637-1657) was forced to yield Alsace to France, to grant a unity to the whole period. ... The Reformation is one, the territorial supremacy, including the right of making the peace claims of the House of Austria is the other.” Austria did not alliances, to the states of the Empire, and to acknow- of West. benefit from the reign of Charles V. The emperor was too much ledge the concurrent jurisdiction of the imperial phalia

absorbed in the affairs of the rest of his vast dominions, chamber and the Aulic council. The disintegration Charles V.

notably those of the Empire, rent in two by religious of the Holy Roman Empire was now practically accomplished, Austria. differences and the secular ambitions for which those and though the possession of the imperial dignity continued to

were the excuse, to give any cffective attention to its give the rulers of Austria prestige, the Habsburgs henceforward needs. The peace of Augsburg, 1555, which recognized a dualism devoted themselves to their Austrian interests rather than 10 within the Empire in religion as in politics, marked the failure of those of the Empire. his plan of union (see Charles V.; GERMANY; MAURICE OF In 1657 Leopold I., who had already ruled the Austrian SAXONY); and meanwhile he had been able to accomplish nothing dominions for two years, succeeded his father Ferdinand and to rescue Hungary from the Turkish yoke. It was left for his was crowned emperor in the following year. His long Leopold I. brother Ferdinand, a ruler of consummate wisdom (1556-1564) reign of 48 years was of great importance for Austria, to establish the modern Habsburg-Austrian empire with its as determining both the internal character and the external policy exclusive territorial interests, its administrative experiments, of the monarchy. The long struggle with France to which the its intricacies of religion and of race."

ambitions of Louis XIV. gave rise, and which culminated in the Before his death Ferdinand divided the inheritance of the War of Spanish Succession, belongs less to the history of Austria German Habsburgs between his three sons. Austria proper was proper than 10 that of Germany and of Europe. Of more The policy

left to his eldest son Maximilian, Tirol to the archduke importance to Austria itself was the war with Sweden (1657-60)

Ferdinand; and Styria with Carinthia and Carniola which resulted in the peace of Oliva, by which the independence pandaod to the archduke Charles. Under the emperor Maxi- of Poland was secured and the frontier of Hungary safeguarded,

milian II. (1564-1576), who was also king of Bohemia and the campaigns against the Turks (1662-64 and 1683-99),

and Hungary, a liberal policy prescrved peace, but by which the Ortoman power was driven from Hungary, and he was unable to free his government from its humiliating the Austrian attitude towards Turkey and the Slav peoples of position of a tributary to the Turk, and he could do nothing the Balkans determined for a century to come. The first war, to found religious liberty within his dominions on a permanent due 10 Ottoman aggression in Transylvania, ended

Wars with basis. The whole of Austria and nearly the whole of Siyria with Montecuculi's victory over the grand vizier al

Turkey. were mainly Lutheran; in Bohemia, Silesia and Moravia, Si Gothard on the Raab on the ist of August 1664. various forms of Christian belief struggled for mastery; and The general political situation prevented Leopold from taking Catholicism was almost confined to the mountains of Tirol. full advantage of this, and the peace of Vasvár (August 10)

The accession of Rudolph II.' (1576–1612), a fanatical leít thc Turks in possession of Nagyvarad (Grosswardein) and reigo of

Spanish Catholic, changed the situation entirely the fortress of Ersekujvár (Neuhäusel), Transylvania being Rudolph Under him the Jesuits were cncouraged to press on recognized as an independent principality. The next Turkish

the counter-Relormation. In the carly part of his war was the direct outcome of Leopold's policy in Hungary, reign there was hardly any government at all. In Bohemia a where the persecution of the Protestants and the suppression state of semi-independence existed, while Hungary preferred of the constilution in 1658, led to a widespread conspiracy. the Turk to the emperor. In both kingdoms Rudolph had This was mercilessly suppressed; and though after a period failed to assert his sovereign power except in fitful attempts to of arbitrary government (1672–1679), the palatinate and the extirpate heresy. With anarchy prevalent within the Austrian constitution, with certain concessions to the Protestants, were dominions some action became necessary. Accordingly in 1606 restored, the discontent continued. In 1683, invited by Hun

the archdukes made a compact agreeing to acknowledge garian malcontents and spurred on by Louis XIV., the Turks family the archduke Matthias as head of the family. This burst into Hungary, overran the country and appeared before compact,

arrangement proved far from successful. Matthias, the walls of Vienna. The victory of the 12th of September,

who was emperor from 1612 to 1619, proved unable gained over the Turks by John Sobieski (sec John III. SOBIESKI, to restore order, and when he died Bohemia was practically KING OF POLAND) not only saved the Austrian capital, but was independent. His successor Ferdinand II. (1619-1637) was the first of a series of successes which drove the Turks perman. strong of will; and resolved to win back Germany to the Catholic ently beyond the Danube, and established the power of Austria faith. As archduke of Styria he had crushed out Protestantism in the East. The victories of Charles of Lorraine at Párkány in that duchy, and having been elected king of Bohemia in 1618 (1683) and Esztergom (Gran) (1685) were followed by the

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1606.

The

Mohács (1688). In 1688 the elector took Belgrade; in 1691 | Magyars, Ruthenes, Rumanians, Germans, Italians, Flemings Louis William I. of Baden won the battle of Slankamen, and and other races, and with territories separated by many miles, on the uth of September 1697 Prince Eugene gained the crowning the Habsburg dominions required from their ruler patience, victory of Zenta. This was followed, on the 26th of January tolerance, administrative skill and a full knowledge of the 1609, by the peace of Karlowitz, by which Slavonia, Transylvania currents of European diplomacy. Charles VI. possessed none and all Hungary, except the banat of Temesvár, were ceded to of these qualities; and when he died in 1740, the weakness the Austrian crown. Leopold had wisely decided to initiate a of the scattered Habsburg empire rendered it an object of the conciliatory policy in Hungary. At the diet of Pressburg cupidity of the continental powers. Yet, though the War of (1667-1688) the Hungarian crown had been made hereditary Spanish Succession had proved a heavy drain on the resources in the house of Habsburg, and the crown prince Joseph had of the hereditary dominions of the Austrian crown, Charles VI. been crowned hereditary king of Hungary (9.0.). In 1697 had done much to compensate for this by the successes of his Transylvania was united to the Hungarian monarchy. A arms in eastern Europe. In 1716, in alliance with Venice, he further fact of great prospective importance was the im- declared war on the Turks; Eugene's victory at Peterwardein migration, after an abortive rising against the Turks, of some involved the conquest of the banat of Temesvár, and was followed 30,000 Slav and Albanian families into Slavonia and southern in 1717 by the capture of Belgrade. By the treaty signed at Hungary, where they were granted by the emperor Leopold Passarowitz on the 21st of July 1718, the banal, which rounded a certain autonomy and the recognition of the Orthodox off Hungary and Belgrade, with the northern districts of Servia, religion.

were annexed to the Habsburg monarchy. By the conquest of Hungary and Transylvania Leopold Important as these gains were, the treaty none the less once completed the edifice of the Austrian monarchy, of which the more illustrated the perpetual sacrifice of the true interests of foundations had been laid by Ferdinand I. in 1526. He had the hereditary dominions of the house of Habsburg to its also done much for its internal consolidation. By the death of European entanglements. Had the war continued, Austria the archduke Sigismund in 1665 be not only gained Tirol, but would undoubtedly have extended her conquests down the a considerable sum of money, which he used to buy back the Danube But Charles was anxious about Italy, then in danger Silesian principalities of Oppeln and Ratibor, pledged by from Spain, which under Alberoni's guidance had occupied Ferdinand III. to the Poles. In the administration of his Sardinia and Sicily. On the end of August 1718, accordingly, dominions, too, Leopold succeeded in strengthening the authority Charles joined the Triple Alliance, henceforth the Quadruple of the central government. The old estates, indeed, survived; Alliance. The coercion of Spain resulted in a peace by which but the emperor kept the effective power in his own hands, and Charles obtained Sicily in exchange for Sardinia. The shifting to his reign are traceable the first beginnings of that system of of the balance of power that followed belongs to the history of centralized bureaucracy which was established under Maria Europe (9.0.); for Austria the only important outcome was that Tberesa and survived, for better or for worse, till the revolution in 1731 Charles found himself isolated. Being without a son, he of 1848. It was under Leopold, also, that the Austrian standing was now anxious to secure the throne for his daughter army was established in spite of much opposition; the regiments Maria Theresa, in accordance with the Pragmatic

Pragmatic raised in 1672 were never disbanded. For the intellectual life Sanction of the 19th of April 1713, in which he had Sanction. of the country Leopold did much. In spite of his intolerant pronounced the indivisibility of the monarchy, and attitude towards religious dissent, he proved himself an en- had settled the succession on his daughter, in default of a male Lightened patron of learning. He helped in the establishment heir. It now became his object to secure the adhesion of the of the universities of Innsbruck and Olmütz; and under his powers to this instrument. In 1731 Great Britain and Holland auspices, after the defeat of the Turks in 1683, Vienna began to agreed to respect it, in return for the cession of Parma, Piacenza develop from a mere frontier fortress into one of the most and Guastalla to Don Carlos; but the hostility of the Bourbon brilliant capitals of Europe. (See LEOPOLD I.)

powers continued, resulting in 1733 in the War of Polish SuccesLeopold died in 1705 during the war of Spanish Succession sion, the outcome of which was the acquisition of Lorraine by (1702-13), which he left as an evil inheritance to his sons Joseph I. France, and of Naples, Sicily and the Tuscan ports by Don War of (d. 1711) and Charles VI. The result of the war was Carlos, while the power of the Habsburg monarcby in northern Spanish a further aggrandizement of the house of Austria; Italy was strengthened by the acquisition of Parma, Piacenza

but not to the extent that had been hoped. Apart and Guastalla. At the same time Spain and Sardinia adhered

from the fact that British and Austrian troops had been to the Pragmatic Sanction. Francis, the dispossessed duke of unable to deprive Philip V. of his throne, it was from the point Lorraine, was to be compensated with Tuscany. On the 12th of view of Europe at large by no means desirable that Charles VI. of February 1736 he was married to the archduchess Maria should succeed in reviving the empire of Charles V. By the Theresa, and on the 11th of May following he signed the formal treaty of Utrecht, accordingly, Spain was to th House of act ceding Lorraine to France. Bourbon, while that of Austria received the Spanish Netherlands, The last years of Charles VI. were embittered by the disastrous Sardinia and Naples.

outcome of the war with Turkey (1738-1739), on which he had Tbe treaty of Karlowitz, and the settlement of 1713-1714, felt compelled to embark in accordance with the terms

Treaty of marked a new starting-point in the history of Austria, The of a treaty of alliance with Russia signed in 1726.

Belgrade, efforts of Turkey to regain her ascendancy in eastern After a campaign of varying fortunes the Turks beat 17.39. from 1715 Europe at the expense of the Habsburgs had ended the imperial troops at Krotzka on the 23rd of July

in failure, and henceforward Turkish efforts were 1739 and laid siege to Belgrade, where on the ist of September

confined to resisting the steady development of Austria a treaty was signed, which, with the exception of the banat, in the direction of Constantinople. The treaties of Utrecht, surrendered everything that Austria had gained by the treaty Rastadt and Baden had also re-established and strengthened of Passarowitz. On the 20th of October 1740, Charles died, the position of the Austrian monarchy in western Europe. leaving his dominions in no condition to resist the attacks of The days of French invasions of Germany had for the time ceased, the powers, which, in spite of having adhered to the Pragmatic and revenge for the attacks made by Louis XIV. was found in Sanction, now sought to profit from their weakness. Yet for the establishment of Austrian supremacy in Italy and in the their internal development Charles had done much. His religious substitution of Austrian for Spanish domination in the Nether. attitude was moderate and tolerant, and he did his best to prolands.

mote the enlightenment of his subjects. He was zealous, too, The situation, though apparently favourable, was full of for the promotion of trade and industry, and, besides the East difficulty, and only a statesman of uncommon dexterity could India Company which he established at Ostend, he encouraged have guided Austria with success through the ensuing years. the development of Trieste and Fiume as sea-ports and centres Composed of a congeries of nationalities which included Czechs, I of trade with the Levant.

Sacces

to 1740

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