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the Baptist College at Bristol, and one imperfect in the library of St Paul's cathedral.
2. The Printed Bible.—It is singular that while France, | of the octavo only one perfect copy (the title-page missing in Spain, Italy, Bohemia and Holland possessed the Bible in the vernacular before the accession of Henry VIII., and in Germany the Scriptures were printed in 1466 and seventeen times reprinted before Luther began his great work, yet no English printer attempted to put the familiar English Bible into type. No part of the English Bible was printed before 1525, no complete Bible before 1535, and none in England before 1538.
Versions of the Scriptures so far noticed were all secondary renderings of the Vulgate, translations of a translation. It was only with the advent of the "new learning" in England that a direct rendering from the originals became possible. Erasmus in 1516 published the New Testament in Greek, with a new Latin version of his own; the Hebrew text of the Old Testament had been published as early as 1488.
The first to take advantage of these altered conditions was William Tyndale (q.v.), “ to whom," as Dr Westcott says, "it has been allowed more than to any other man to give William Tyndale. its characteristic shape to the English Bible." Of Tyndale's early life but little is known. Be it enough for our purpose to say that he thoroughly saturated his mind with the "new learning," first at Oxford, where in 1515 he was admitted to the degree of M.A., and then in Cambridge, where the fame of Erasmus still lingered. Before the beginning of 1522 we find Tyndale as chaplain and tutor in the family of Sir John Walsh of Old Sodbury in Gloucestershire. He was there constantly involved in theological controversies with the surrounding clergy, and it was owing to their hostility that he had to leave Gloucestershire. He then resolved to open their eyes to the serious corruptions and decline of the church by translating the New Testament into the vernacular. In order to carry out this purpose he repaired in July or August 1523 to London, and to the famous protector of scholars and scholarship, Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall. His reception was, however, cold, the bishop advising him to seek a livelihood in the town. During a year of anxious waiting, it became clear to him "not only that there was no rowme in my lorde of londons palace to translate the new testament, but also that there was no place to do it in all englonde."? In May 1524 he consequently betook himself to Hamburg, his resolution to carry out his great work never for a moment flagging, and it was probably during his stay in this free city and in Wittenberg, where he may have been stimulated by Luther, that his translation of the New Testament was actually made. At all events there is no doubt that in 1525 he was in Cologne, engaged in printing at the press of Peter Quentel a quarto edition of the New Testament. This edition was provided with prefaces and marginal glosses. He had advanced as far as the tenth sheet, bearing the signature K, when his work was discovered by Johann Cochlaeus (q.v.), a famous controversialist and implacable enemy of the Reformation, who not only caused the Senate of Cologne to prohibit the continuation of the printing, but also communicated with Henry VIII. and Wolsey, warning them to stop the importation of the work at the English seaports. Tyndale and his assistant, William Roye, managed, however, to escape higher up the Rhine to Worms, and they succeeded in carrying with them some or all of the sheets which had been printed. Instead of completing Quentel's work, Peter Schoeffer, the Worms printer, was employed to print another impression of 3000 in a small octavo size, without prefaces to the books or annotations in the margin, and only having an address "To the Reder" at the end in addition to the New Testament itself. Two impressions, the quarto having possibly been completed by Schoeffer, arrived in England early in the summer of 1526, and were eagerly welcomed and bought. Such strong measures of suppression were, however, at once adopted against these perilous volumes, that of the quarto only a single fragment remains (Matt. i.-xxii. 12), now preserved in the British Museum (Grenville, 12179),
B. F. Westcott. History of the English Bible (3rd ed.), revised by W. Aldis Wright (London, 1905), p. 25.
Pref. to Genesis, p. 396 (Parker Soc.).
Photo lithographed by Edw. Arber (London, 1871).
But Tyndale continued his labours undaunted. In 1529 the manuscript translation of Deuteronomy is mentioned as having perished with his other books and papers in a shipwreck which he suffered on the coast of Holland, on his way to Hamburg In 1530, however, the whole of the Pentateuch was printed in Marburg by Hans Luft; it is provided with prefaces and marginal annotations of a strongly controversial character. The only perfect copy is preserved in the Grenville library of the British Museum. It was reissued in 1534 with a new preface and certain corrections and emendations in Genesis, and again in London in 1551.
In 1531 the Book of Jonah appeared with an important and highly interesting prologue, the only copy known of which is in the British Museum.
Meanwhile the demand for New Testaments, for reading or for the flames, steadily increased, and the printers found it to their advantage to issue the Worms edition of the New Testament in not less than three surreptitious reprints before 1534 This is testified by George Joye in his Apology, who himself brought out a fourth edition of Tyndale's New Testament in August 1534, freed from many of the errors which, through the carelessness of the Flemish printers, had crept into the text, but with such alterations and new renderings as to arouse the indignation of Tyndale. The only remaining copy, a 16mo, is in the Grenville library. To counteract and supersede all these unauthorized editions, Tyndale himself brought out his own revision of the New Testament with translations added of all the Epistles of the Old Testament after the use of Salisbury. It was published in November 1534 at Antwerp by Martin Emperowr. Prologues were added to all books except the Acts and the Apocalypse, and new marginal glosses were introduced. Three copies of this edition are in the British Museum, and it was reprinted in 1841 in Bagster's Hexapla. In the following year Tyndale once more set forth a revised edition, “fynesshed in the yere of oure Lorde God A.M.D. and XXXV.," and printed at Antwerp by Godfried van der Haghen. In this headings were added to the chapters in the Gospels and the Acts, and the marginal notes of the edition of 1534 were omitted. It is chiefly noted for the peculiarities of its orthography. Of this edition one copy is in the University library, Cambridge, a second in Exeter College, Oxford, and a fragment in the British Museum. It is supposed to have been revised by Tyndale while in prison in the castle of Vilvorde, being the last of his labours in connexion with the English Bible. His execution took place on the 6th of October 1536, and about the same time a small folio reprint of his revised edition of 1534 was brought out in England, the first volume of Scripture printed in this country, probably by T. Berthelet. A perfect copy is found in the Bodleian library. In later years, between 1536 and 1550, numerous editions of Tyndale's New Testament were printed, twenty-one of which have been enumerated and fully described by Francis Fry.'
"The history of our English Bible begins with the work of Tyndale and not with that of Wycliffe," says Dr Westcott in his History of the English Bible, p. 316, and it is true that one of the most striking features of the work of Tyndale is its independence. Attempts have been made to show that especially in the Old Testament he based a great deal of his work on the Wyclifte translations, but in face of this we have his own explicit
4 Reprinted by G. Offor (London, 1836); reproduced in facsimile by Francis Fry (Bristol, 1862).
Reprinted with an introduction by J. T. Mombert (New York, 1884).
Reproduced in facsimile by Francis Fry (1863).
'Cf. H. Bradshaw, Bibliographer (1882-1881), i. 3 ff. (reprinted 1886).
See F. Jenkinson, Early English Printed Books in the Unis. Libr. Cambridge, iii. (1730).
See Biographical Description of the Editions of the New Testament, Tyndale's Version, in English (1878).
statement, "I had no man to counterfet, nether was holpe with | Christopher Froschouer of Zürich, who printed the edition of englysshe of eny that had interpreted the same (i.e. the New Testament), or soche lyke thige i the scripture beforetyme."1 He translated straight from the Hebrew and Greek originals, although the Vulgate and more especially Erasmus's Latin version were on occasion consulted. For his prefaces and marginal notes he used Luther's Bible freely, even to paraphrasing or verbally translating long passages from it.
Apart from certain blemishes and awkward and even incorrect renderings, Tyndale's translation may be described as a truly noble work, faithful and scholarly, though couched in simple and popular language. Surely no higher praise can be accorded to it than that it should have been taken as a basis by the translators of the Authorized Version, and thus have lived on through the centuries up to the present day.
The following specimens may prove of interest:
The thryde Chapter.
(Matthew iii. 1-4.) In those dayes Ihon the baptyser cam and preached in the wyldernes of Iury, saynge, Repent, the kyngedom of heven ys at hond. Thys ys he of whom it ys spoken be the prophet Isay, whych sayth: the voice of a cryer in wyldernes, prepaire ye the lordes waye, and make hys pathes strayght. Thys Thon had hys garment of camelles heere, and a gyrdyll of a skynne about hys loynes. Hys meate was locustes* and wyldhe ony. Locustes are more then oware greshoppers, souche men vse to eate in divres parties of the est " (marginal note). (Matthew vi. 9-13.) O oure father which art in heven, halewed be thy name. Let thy kingdom come. Thy wyll be fulfilled, as well in erth, as hit ys in heven. Geve vs this daye oure dayly breade. And forgeve vs oure treaspases, even as we forgeve them whych treaspas vs. Lede vs nott in to temptacion, but delyvre vs from yvell. Amen. (Grenville 12179.)
Meanwhile a complete English Bible was being prepared by Miles Coverdale (q.v.), an Augustinian friar who was afterwards for a few years (1551-1553) bishop of Exeter. As the Miles Coverdale. printing was finished on the 4th of October 1535 it is evident that Coverdale must have been engaged on the preparation of the work for the press at almost as early a date as Tyndale. Foxe states (op. cit. v. 120) that Coverdale was with Tyndale at Hamburg in 1529, and it is probable that most of his time before 1535 was spent abroad, and that his translation, like that of Tyndale, was done out of England.
In 1877 Henry Stevens, in his catalogue of the Caxton Exhibition, pointed out a statement by a certain Simeon Ruytinck in his life of Emanuel van Meteren, appended to the latter's Nederlandische Historie (1614), that Jacob van Meteren, the father of Emanuel, had manifested great zeal in producing at Antwerp a translation of the Bible into English, and had employed for that purpose a certain learned scholar named Miles Conerdale (sic). In 1884 further evidence was adduced by W. J. C. Moens, who reprinted an affidavit signed by Emanuel van Meteren, 28 May 1609, to the effect that "he was brought to England
anno 1550 by his father, a furtherer of reformed religion, and he that caused the first Bible at his costes to be Englisshed by Mr Myles Coverdal in Andwarp, the w'h his father, with Mr Edward Whytchurch, printed both in Paris and London" (Registers of the Dutch Reformed Church, Austin Friars, 1884, p. xiv.). Apart from the reference to Whytchurch and the place of printing, this statement agrees with that of Simeon Ruytinck, and it is possible that van Meteren showed his zeal in the matter by undertaking the cost of printing the work as well as that of remunerating the translator. Mr W. Aldis Wright, however, judging from the facts that the name of Whytchurch was introduced, that the places of printing were given as London and Paris, not Antwerp, and lastly that Emanuel van Meteren being born in 1535 could only have derived his knowledge from hearsay, is inclined to think that the Bible in which J. van Meteren was interested "was Matthew's of 1537 or the Great Bible of 1539, and not Coverdale's of 1535."*
It is highly probable that the printer of Coverdale's Bible was 1 Epistle to the Reader in the New Testament of 1526, reprinted by G. Offor; cf. Parker Soc. (1848), p. 390.
2 Westcott, op. cil. p. 57 note,
1550, and that the sheets were sent for binding and distribution to James Nicolson, the Southwark printer. This first of all printed English Bibles is a small folio in German black letter, bearing the title: "Biblia, The Bible; that is, the Holy Scripture of the Olde and New Testament, faithfully and truly translated out of Douche (German) and Latyn into Englishe, M.D.XXXV." The volume is provided with woodcuts and initials, the title-page and preliminary matter in the only two remaining copies (British Museum and Holkam Hall) being in the same type as the body of the book. A second issue of the same date, 1535, has the title-page and the preliminary matter in English type, and omits the words "out of Douche and Latyn "; a third issue bears the date 1536. A second edition in folio, newly oversene and corrected," was printed by Nicolson, with English type, in 1537; and also in the same year, a third edition in quarto. On the title-page of the latter were added the significant words," set forth with the Kynge's moost gracious licence."
Coverdale, however, was no independent translator. Indeed, he disavows any such claim by stating expressly, in his dedication to the king, "I have with a cleare conscience purely & faythfully translated this out of fyue sundry interpreters, hauyng onely the manyfest trueth of the scripture before myne eyes," and in the Prologue he refers to his indebtedness to "The Douche (German) interpreters: whom (because of theyr synguler gyftes and speciall diligence in The Bible) I haue ben the more glad to folowe for the most parte, accordynge as I was requyred." These "fyue interpreters" Dr Westcott (ibid. p. 163) identifies as Luther, the Zürich Bible, the Latin version of Pagninus, the Vulgate, and, in all likelihood, the English translation of Tyndale. Though not endowed with the strength and originality of mind that characterized Tyndale's work, Coverdale showed great discrimination in the handling and use of his authorities, and moreover a certain delicacy and happy ease in his rendering of the Biblical text, to which we owe not a few of the beautiful expressions of our present Bible.
The following extracts from the edition of 1535 may serve as examples of his rendering:
The first psalme.
(i. 1-2.) Blessed is þe man, þe goeth not in the councell of pe ungodly: be abydeth not in the waye off synners, & sytteth not in be seate of the scornefull. But delyteth in the lawe of be Lorde, & exercyseth himself in his lawe both daye and night. The gospell of S. Mathew.
the wildernes of Jury, saynge: Amende youre sclues, the kyng(iii. 1-4.) In those dayes Ihon the Baptyst came and preached in dome of heuen is at honde This is he, of whom it is spoken by the prophet Esay, which sayeth: The voyce of a cryer in je wyldernes, prepare the Lordes waye, and make his pathes straight. This Ihon had his garment of camels heer, and a lethren gerdell aboute his loynes. Hys meate was locustes and wylde hony.
It should be added that Coverdale's Bible was the first in which the non-canonical books were left out of the body of the Old Testament and placed by themselves at the end of it under the title Apocripha.
The large sale of the New Testaments of Tyndale, and the success of Coverdale's Bible, showed the London booksellers that a new and profitable branch of business was Matthew's opened out to them, and they soon began to avail Bible. themselves of its advantages. Richard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch were the first in the field, bringing out a fine and full-sized folio in 1537, "truely and purely translated into English by Thomas Matthew." Thomas Matthew, is, however, in all probability, an alias for John Rogers, a friend and fellow-worker of Tyndale, and the volume is in reality no new translation at all, but a compilation from the renderings of Tyndale and Coverdale. Thus the Pentateuch and the New Testament were reprinted from Tyndale's translations of 1530 and 1535 respectively, with very slight variations: 'See Dr Ginsburg's information to Mr Tedder, D.N.B. xii. 365. Cf. H. Stevens, Catalogue of the Caxton Exhibition (1877), p. 88. Remains, Parker Soc., pp. 11 f.
19th of December 1534 that His Majesty would vouchsafe to decree, that the Scriptures should be translated into the vulgar tongue... and delivered to the people according to their learning" (ibid. 770). The subject was again before Convocation in 1536, but the detailed history is lost to us-all that is known being that Cromwell had placed Coverdale at the head of the enterprise, and that the result was an entirely new revision, based on Matthew's Bible.' Coverdale consulted in his revision the Latin version of the Old Testament with the Hebrew text by Sebastian Münster, the Vulgate and Erasmus's editions of the Greek text for the New Testament.
the books from Joshua to the end of Chronicles are traditionally, | royal memory on the subject by petitioning the king on the and lately also by external evidence,' assigned to Tyndale and were probably left by him in the hands of Rogers. From Ezra to Malachi the translation is taken from Coverdale, as is also that of the Apocryphal books. John Roger's own work appears in a marginal commentary distributed through the Old and New Testaments and chiefly taken from Olivetan's French Bible of 1535. The volume was printed in black letter in double columns, and three copies are preserved in the British Museum. In 1538 a second edition in folio appeared; it was reprinted twice in 1549, and again in 1551. It is significant that this Bible, like Coverdale's second edition, was "set forth with the kinges most gracyous lycence," probably with the concurrence of Cranmer, since he, in a letter to Cromwell, begged him to "exhibit the book unto the king's highness, and to obtain of his grace ... a licence that the same may be sold and read of every person, without danger of any act, proclamation or ordinance, heretofore granted to the contrary." And thus it came to pass, as Dr Westcott strikingly puts it, that "by Cranmer's petition, by Crumwell's influence, and by Henry's authority, without any formal ecclesiastical decision, the book was given to the English people, which is the foundation of the text of our present Bible. From Matthew's Bible-itself a combination of the labours of Tyndale and Coverdale-all later revisions have been successively formed " (op. cit. p. 71).
Meanwhile the successful sale of Matthew's Bible, the private venture of the two printers Grafton and Whitchurch, was threatened by a rival edition published in 1539 in folio and quarto by "John Byddell for Thomas Barthlet" with Richard Taverner as editor. This was, in fact, what would now be called "piracy," being Grafton's Matthew Bible revised by Taverner, a learned member of the Inner Temple and famous Greek scholar. He made many alterations in the Matthew Bible, characterized by critical acumen and a happy choice of strong and idiomatic expressions. He is, perhaps, the first purist among the Biblical translators, endeavouring, whenever possible, to substitute a word of native origin for the foreign expression of his predecessors. His revision seems, however, to have had little or no influence on subsequent translators, and was only once, in 1549, reprinted in its entirety. Quarto and octavo editions of the New Testament alone were published in the same year, 1539, as the original edition, and in the following year, 1540, the New Testament in duodecimo. The Old Testament was reprinted as part of a Bible in 1551, but no other editions are known than those named.
It will have been observed that the translations of Holy Scripture which had been printed during these years (1525-1539) were all made by private men and printed without any The Great public authority. Some of them had indeed been set forth by the king's licence, but the object of this is shown by the above-quoted letter of Archbishop Cranmer to Cromwell, touching Matthew's Bible. It is" that the same may be sold and read of every person until such time that we, the bishops, shall set forth a better translation, which I think will not be till a day after doomsday." This letter was (Matthew iii. 1-4.) In those dayes came Iohn the Baptyst, preachwritten on the 4th of August 1537, and the impatient words at ing in the wyldernes of lewry, saying, Repent of the life that is past, the end refer to an authorized version which had been projected for the kyngdome of heauen is at hande, For thys is he, of whom the several years before, and which was, in fact, at that very time prophet Esay spake, which sayeth, the voyce of a cryer in the wylder in preparation, though not procceding quickly enough to satisfy Thys Iohn had hys garment of camels heer And a gyrdell of a skynne nes, prepare ye the waye of the lorde: make hys pathes strayght. Cranmer. In the year 1530, Henry VIII. had issued a commis-aboute hys loynes. His meate was locustes and wylde hony. sion of inquiry respecting the expediency and necessity of having (Matthew vi. 9-13.) Oure father which art in heauen, halowed "in the English tongue both the New Testament and the Old " be thy name. Let thy kingdome come. Thy will be fulfilled, as well in erth, as it is in heuen. Geue vs this daye oure dayly bred. And (Wilkins' Concilia, iii. 737). This commission reported against forgeue vs oure dettes, as we forgeue oure detters. And leade vs the expediency of setting forth a vernacular translation until not into temptation: but delyuer vs from euyll. For thyne is the there was a more settled state of religious opinion, but states kyngdom and the power, and the glorye for euer. Amen. that the king" intended to provide that the Holy Scripture shall be, by great, learned and Catholic persons, translated into the English tongue if it shall then seem to His Grace convenient to be" (ib. 740). The Convocation of Canterbury refreshed the
Concerning the printing of this authorized Bible more details are known. Cromwell had planned the work on a large scale, too large evidently for the resources of the English presses, for it was determined that the printing should be entrusted to Francis Regnault, a famous Paris printer. At the request of Henry VIII., a licence was granted to Regnault for this purpose by Francis I., while Coverdale and Grafton were sent over in 1538 to superintend the work as it passed through the press. The work was pressed forward with all speed, for, as Coverdale writes to Cromwell, they were "dayly threatened " and ever feared "to be spoken withall." Indeed, when the printing was far advanced, on the 17th of December 1538, its further progress was interdicted by the Inquisitor-general for France, and orders were given to seize the whole of the impression. Coverdale and Grafton left Paris quickly, but soon returned, rescued a great number of the finished sheets, "four great dryvats" full of them having been sold to a haberdasher instead of being burnt-and conveyed types, printing-presses and workmen to England. Thus the volume which had been begun in Paris in 1538 was completed in London, the colophon stating that it was "Fynisshed in Apryll, Anno M,CCCCC.XXXIX. * It is a splendid folio Bible of the largest volume, and was distinguished from its predecessors by the name of The Great Bile. The title-page represents Henry VIII. giving the " Word of God" to Cromwell and Cranmer, who, in their order, distribute it to laymen and clerics, and describes the volume as "truly translated after the veryte of the Hebreue and Greke texts by pe dylygent studye of dyverse excellent learned men, expert in the forsayde tongues. Prynted by Rychard Grafton and Edward Whitchurch." "Certain godly annotations," which Coverdale promised in the Prologue, did not, however, appear in the first issue, nor in any of the following. This was the first of seven editions of this noble Bible which issued from the press during the years 1539-1541,-the second of them, that of 1540, cailed Cranmer's Bible from the fact that it contained a long Preface by Archbishop Cranmer, having the important addition "This is the Byble apoynted to the vse of the churches" on the titlepage. Seventy years afterwards it assumed the form ever since known as the Authorized Version, but its Psalter is still embedded, without any alteration, in the Book of Common Prayer.
For the sake of comparison the following extracts from St Matthew are given, according to the edition of 1539.
1 Westcott, op. cit. p. 172 note.
Meanwhile the closing years of Henry VIII's reign were characterized by restrictive measures as to the reading and use of the Bible. Tyndale Version was prohibited by an act of
Burnet's Ref., ed. Pococke, 1865.
Westcott, op. cit. pp. 180 f.
Remains (Parker Soc.), p. 493; cf. J. A. Kingdon, Incidents in the Lives of Thomas Poyntz and Richard Grafton (1895).
parliament, 1543; at the same time it was enacted that all notes | and marginal commentaries in other copies should be obliterated, and that "no woman (unless she be a noble or gentle woman), no artificers, apprentices, journeymen, servingmen, under the degree of yeomen husbandmen or labourers "should read or use any part of the Bible under pain of fines and imprisonment.' In 1546 Coverdale's Bible was included in the proscription, the Great Bible being the only translation not interdicted. During Edward VI.'s reign there was a brief respite, but with the accession of Mary the persecutions of the English Bible and its friends were renewed. Cranmer suffered martyrdom at the stake, as John Rogers had done before him. Other prominent reformers, amongst them Coverdale, sought refuge in Geneva, the town of Calvin and Beza, where they employed their enforced leisure in planning and carrying out a new revision of the Bible. The first fruits of these labours was a New Testament issued in June 1557, with an introduction by Calvin, probably the work of William Whittingham. The volume, in a convenient quarto size, printed in clear Roman type, and provided with marginal annotations, gained immediate popularity in England, where a Bible suited for household demands had long been needed. It was the first Bible which had the text divided into "verses and sections according to the best editions in other languages."
William Whitting ham.
The Genevan Bible.
Whittingham's enterprise was, however, soon superseded by an issue of the whole Bible, which appeared in 1560, the so-called Genevan Bible, popularly also known as the Breeches Bible, from its rendering of Gen. iii. 7, They sewed fig leaves together and made themselves breeches." This edition was mainly due to the combined efforts of William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby and Thomas Sampson, and the expenses towards printing and publication were borne by members of the congregation at Geneva. It represented in the Old Testament a thorough and independent revision of the text of the Great Bible with the help of the Hebrew original, the Latin versions of Leo Judä (1543), Pagninus (1528), Sebastian Münster (1534-1535), and the French versions of Olivetan. The New Testament consisted of Tyndale's latest text revised to a great extent in accordance with Beza's translation and commentary. The changes introduced by the Genevan translators were, as a rule, a great improvement, and the version received a ready welcome and immediate popularity, not only on account of its intrinsic merits, but because of its handy size, usually that of a small quarto, and of its being printed, like Whittingham's New Testament, in a readable Roman type instead of black letter. Like this earlier publication, it had the division of the chapters into verses, and a marginal commentary which proved a great attraction to the Puritans. The popularity of the Genevan Bible was so great that between 1560 and 1644 at least 140 editions of it were published, and this in spite of its not being allowed for use in the churches.
In 1576 the New Testament of the Genevan Bible was again revised by Lawrence Tomson and provided with a new commentary mainly translated from Beza. It soon became popular and even replaced the Genevan New Testament in later editions of this Bible.
The Bishops' Bible.
Some time after the accession of Queen Elizabeth an attempt 'was made to improve the authorized Great Bible, and in this way to challenge the ever growing popularity of the Calvinistic Genevan Bible. The initiative was taken by Archbishop Parker, about 1563-1565, who, according to Strype (Parker i. 414) "took upon him the labour to contrive and set the whole work a going . . . by sorting out the whole Bible into parcels.. and distributing these 1 Cf. Burnet's Ref. i. 584.
Printed in Bagster's Hexapla, 1841, reprinted separately in 1842. * See "Address to the Reader." The division into verses of the New Testament was first found in R. Stephanus' Greek-Latin New Testament (4th ed., 1551), whereas these divisions already existed in the Hebrew Old Testament.
See T. H. Darlow and H. F. Moule, Historical Catal. of the Printed Editions of Holy Scripture in the Libr. of the Brit. and Foreign Bible Soc. (London, 1903).
parcels to able bishops and other learned men, to peruse and collate each the book or books allotted them . . . .. and they to add some short marginal notes for the illustration or correction of the text."
The rules upon which they proceeded were these:
1. "To follow the common English translation used in the churches, and not to recede from it, but where it varieth manifestly in the text as Pagnine in his translation useth, and for the verity from the Hebrew or Greek original. 2. To use sections and divisions of the Hebrew to follow the said Pagnine and Münster specially, and generally others learned in the tongues. 3. To make no bitter notes upon any text, or yet to set down any determination in places of controversy. 4. To note such chapters and places as contain matters of genealogies, or other such places not edifying, with some strike or note, that the reader may eschew them in his public reading. 5. That all such words as sound in the old translation to any offence of lightness or obscenity be expressed with more convenient terms and phrases."
The work was pushed forward with energy, and on the 5th of October 1568 the volume was ready for publication. It was a magnificent folio, generally known as the Bishops' Bible, since not less than eight of these dignitaries took part in the revision. But the detached and piecemeal way in which the revision had been carried out naturally caused certain inequalities in the execution of the work. The different parts of the Bible vary considerably in merit, the alterations in the New Testament, for instance, showing freshness and vigour, whereas most of the changes introduced in the Old Testament have been condemned as "arbitrary and at variance with the exact sense of the Hebrew text " (Westcott, op. cit. p. 237). Several editions of the Bishops' Bible were afterwards published, but it is doubtful whether the ecclesiastical authorities in spite of repeated enactments (Cardwell, Synodalia, pp. 115, 123, 210, 292) ever succeeded in entirely enforcing its public use in the churches. After 1569 the Great Bible ceased, however, to be reprinted. But in the homes the Genevan version still maintained its supremacy. One thing is certain, that the book of Psalms of the new revision had fairly soon to give way before the wellknown and smooth rendering of the Great Bible. In the second edition of the Bishops' Bible, 1572, the two texts were actually printed side by side; in all later editions except one (1585) the older Psalter alone remained.
From the time of Tyndale onwards the translation of the Scriptures into English had been more or less an outcome of the great reformatory movements within the church. It was not until Queen Elizabeth's reign that members The Reims of the Romanist party found it expedient to translate the Version. Bible into the vernacular" for the more speedy abolishing of a number of false and impious translations put forth by sundry sectes, and for the better preseruation or reclaime of many good soules endangered thereby" (Preface to the Rhemish Version).
According to the title-page the New Testament was "translated faithfully into English ovt of the authentical Latin, according to the best corrected copies of the same, diligently conferred vvith the Grecke and other editions in diuers languages. . . . In the English College of Rhemes, 1582." The Old Testament had been "long since" completed, but "for lacke of good meanes" (Preface to the New Testament), its appearance was delayed till 1609-1610, when it was published at Douai. The complete work, known as the Rhemes and Douay Version, was reprinted in Rouen in 1635, and after a considerable time revised by Dr Challoner (1749-1750). The translation is really anonymous, but there seems to be little doubt that it was carried out by some of the Romanist refugees connected with the Seminary at Douai and the English college at Reims, the chief amongst them being Gregory Martin, William Allen, Richard Bristow and J. Reynolds. Like the Wycliffite Versions it is merely a secondary rendering from the Latin Vulgate, and it suffered from many of the defects which characterized these versions, extreme literalness, often stilted, ambiguous renderings, at times unintelligible except by a reference to the Latin original, as in Luke xxii. 18, "I will not drink of the generation of the vine," or Phil. ii. 7, But he exinanited himself."
As further examples of this rendering we print the same passages from St Matthew:
(Matthew iii. 1-4.) And in those dayes cometh Iohn the Baptist preaching in the desert of Ievvrie, saying. Doe penance: for the Kingdom of heauen is at hand. For this is he that vvas spoken of by Esay the Prophet, saying, A voyce of one crying in the desert, prepare ye the way of our Lord, make straight his pathes. And the sayd Iohn had his garment of camels heare, & a girdle of a skinne about his loynes: and his meate was locustes & vvilde honie.
(Matthew vi. 9-13.) Ovr Father which art in heauen, sanctified be thy name. Let thy Kingdom come. Thy wil be done, as in heauen, in earth also. Giue vs to day our supersubstantial bread. And forgiue vs our dettes, as we also forgiue our detters. And leade vs not into tentation. But deliuer vs from evil. Amen.
The strongly Latinized vocabulary of this version was not without its influence on the next great venture in English translations of the Bible, the Authorized Version.1
The English Bible, which is now recognized as the Authorized Version wherever the English language is spoken, is a revision of the Bishops' Bible, begun in 1604, and published Authorized in 1611. It arose incidentally out of a Conference between the High Church and the Low Church parties 1611. convened by James I. at Hampton Court Palace in January 1604, for the purpose of determining " things pretended to be amiss in the church," and was originally proposed by Dr Reynolds, president of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, the leader and spokesman of the Low Church party, and subsequently on the committee which revised the translation of the Prophets.
No real opposition was offered to the proposal, and the king cleverly sketched out on the moment a plan to be adopted. He "wished that some special pains should be taken in that behalf for one uniform translation-professing that he could never yet see a Bible well translated in English-and this to be done by the best learned in both the Universities; after them to be reviewed by the bishops and the chief learned of the Church; from them to be presented to the privy council; and lastly to be ratified by his royal authority; and so this whole church to be bound unto it and none other." He also particularly desired that no notes should be added by way of comment in the margin, since some of those in the Genevan Bible appeared to him " very partial, untrue, seditious and savouring too much of dangerous and traiterous conceits."
The appointment of the revisers was a work of much responsibility and labour, and five months elapsed before they were selected and their respective portions assigned to them; but the list of those who began the work, and who, with some few changes in consequence of deaths, brought it to a happy conclusion, shows how large an amount of scholarship was enlisted. It includes Dr Andrewes, afterwards bishop of Winchester, who was familiar with Hebrew, Chaldee, Syriac, Greek, Latin and at least ten other languages, while his knowledge of patristic literature was unrivalled; Dr Overall, regius professor of theology and afterwards bishop of Norwich; Bedwell, the greatest Arabic scholar of Europe; Sir Henry Savile, the most learned layman of his time; and, to say nothing of others well known to later generations, nine who were then or afterwards professors of Hebrew or of Greek at Oxford or Cambridge. It is observable also that they were chosen without reference to party, at least as many of the Puritan clergy as of the opposite party being placed on the committees.
I Chron.-Eccles. Genesis-2 Kings.
Mr Edward Lively, fellow of Trin. Coll
Mr John Richardson, afterwards master of Trin. Coll. Mr Laurence Chatterton, master of Emm. Coll. Mr Francis Dillingham, fellow of Christ's Coll. Mr Thomas Harrison, vice-master of Trin. Coll. Mr Roger Andrewes, afterwards master of Jesus Coll Mr Robert Spalding, fellow of St John's. Mr Andrew Byng, fellow of St Peter's Coll. Dr John Harding, pres. of Magd. Coll. Dr John Reynolds, pres. of Corpus Christi Coll. Dr Thomas Holland, afterwards rector of Ex. Coll. Mr Richard Kilbye, rector of Lincoln Coll. Dr Miles Smith, Brasenose Coll. Dr Richard Brett, fellow of Lincoln Coll. Mr Richard Fairclough, fellow of New Coll Dr John Duport, master of Jesus Coll. Dr William Branthwait, master of Caius Coll. Dr Jeremiah Radcliffe, fellow of Trin. Coll. Dr Samuel Ward, afterwards master of Sid. Coll. Mr Andrew Downes, fellow of St John's Coll. Mr John Bois, fellow of St John's Coll. Mr Robert Ward, fellow of King's Coll. Dr Thomas Ravis, dean of Christ Church. Dr George Abbot, dean of Winchester. Dr Richard Eedes, dean of Worcester. Dr Giles Thompson, dean of Windsor. Mr (Sir Henry) Saville, provost of Eton. Dr John Perin, fellow of St John's Coll. Dr Ravens [fellow of St John's Coll.] Dr John Harmer, fellow of New Coll. (Dr William Barlow, dean of Chester. Dr William Hutchinson, archdeacon of St Albans. Dr John Spencer, pres. of Corp. Chr. Coll., Ox. Dr Roger Fenton, fellow of Pemb. Hall, Camb. Mr Michael Rabbett, Trin. Coll., Camb. Mr Thomas Sanderson, Balliol Coll, Oxford, D.D., 1605. Mr William Dakins, fellow of Trin. Coll., Camb. When this large body of scholars were set down to their task, an elaborate set of rules was drawn up for their guidance, which contained a scheme of revision as well as general directions for the execution of their work. This is one of the very few records that remain of their undertaking."
[Dr Lancelot Andrewes, dean of Westminster.
Dr Hadrian de Saravia, canon of Canterbury.
Mr Francis Burleigh, Pemb. Hall, Camb., D.D., 1607.
Mr William Bedwell, St John's Coll., Camb.
"(1) The ordinary Bible read in the Church, commonly called 'the Bishops' Bible, to be followed, and as little altered as the truth of the original will permit. (2) The names of the prophets and the holy writers, with the other names of the text to be retained as nigh as may be, accordingly as they were vulgarly used. (3) The old lated Congregation, &c. (4) When a word hath divers significations, ecclesiastical words to be kept, viz. the word Church not to be transthat to be kept which hath been most commonly used by the most of the ancient fathers, being agreeable to the propriety of the place and the analogy of the faith. (5) The division of the chapters to be (6) No marginal notes at all to be affixed, but only for the explanation altered either not at all or as little as may be, if necessity so require. of the Hebrew or Greek words which cannot, without some circumlocution, so briefly and fitly be expressed in the text. (7) Such quotations of places to be marginally set down as shall serve for the fit reference of one Scripture to another. (8) Every particular man of each company to take the same chapter or chapters; and having translated or amended them severally by himself where he thinketh good, all to meet together, confer what they have done, and agree for their parts what shall stand. (9) As any one company Eath dispatched any one book in this manner, they shall send it to the rest to be considered of seriously and judiciously, for his majesty is very careful in this point. (10) If any company, upon the review of the book so sent, doubt or differ upon any place, to send them word thereof, note the place, and withal send the reasons; to wh if they consent not, the difference to be compounded at the general meeting, which is to be of the chief persons of each company at the end of the work. (11) When any place of special obscurity is doubted the land for his judgment of such a place. (12) Letters to be sent of, letters to be directed by authority to send to any learned man in from every bishop to the rest of his clergy, admonishing them of his
• Quoted from G. Burnet's Hist. of Reformation, ii. p. 368 (1861).