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FIRST edition, published in three volumes, 1768-1771.,
SECOND

ten

1777-1784. THIRD

eighteen

1788–1797. FOURTH

twenty

1801-1810. FIFTH

twenty

1815–1817. SIXTH

twenty

1823–1824. SEVENTH

twenty-one

1830-1842. EIGHTH

twenty-two

1853-1860. NINTH

1875–1889. TENTH

twenty-five

ninth edition and eleven

supplementary volumes, 1902-1903. ELEVENTH

published in twenty-nine volumes, 1910-1911.

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THE

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A

DICTIONARY

OF

ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL

INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME III

AUSTRIA LOWER to BISECTRIX

NEW YORK
THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA COMPANY

1910

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INITIALS USED IN VOLUME III. TO IDENTIFY INDIVIDUAL
CONTRIBUTORS, WITH THE HEADINGS OF THE

ARTICLES IN THIS VOLUME SO SIGNED.

A. C. P.

A.C.S.

A. F. P.

A. GO.*

A. G. G.

A. H.

A. H. N.

A. H.-S.

ANNA C. Paues, Ph.D.

Lecturer in Germanic Philology at Newnham College, Cambridge. Formerly Bible, English.

Fellow of Newnham College. Author of A Fourteenth Century Biblical Version;&c.
ALGERNON CHARLES SWINBURNE.

Beaumont and Fletcher.
See biographical article: SWINBURNE, ALGERNON C.
ALBERT FREDERICK POLLARD, M.A., F.R.Hist.Soc.

Professor of English History in the University of London. Fellow of All Souls' Balnaves;
College, Oxford. Assistant Editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, 1893- Barnes, Robert;
1901. Lothian prizeman (Oxford), 1892; Arnold prizeman, 1898.

Author of Bilney.
England under the Protector Somerset; Henry VIII.; Life of Thomas Cranmer; &c.
REV. ALEXANDER GORDON, M.A.

Beza.
Lecturer on Church History in the University of Manchester.
SIR ALFRED GEORGE GREENHILL, M.A., F.R.S.
Formerly Professor of Mathematics in the Ordnance College, Woolwich. Author

Ballistics.
of Differential and Integral Calculus with Applications; Hydrostatics; Notes on

Dynamics; &c.
ARTHUR HASSALL, M. A.

Austria-Hungary: History (in
Student and Tutor of Christ Church, Oxford. Author of A Handbook of European
History; The Balance of Power; &c. Editor of the 3rd edition of T. H. Dyer's

part).
History of Modern Europe.
ALBERT HENRY Newman, LL.D., D.D.

Professor of Church History, Baylor University, Texas. Professor at McMaster
University, Toronto, 1881-1901. Author of The Baptist Churches in the United

Baptists: American.
States; Manual of Church History; A Century of Baptist Achievement.
SIR A. HOUTUM-SCHINDLER, C.I.E.

„ Azerbāijān; Bakhtiari; General in the Persian Army. Author of Eastern Persian Irak.

Bander Abbāsi; Barfurush. REV. ARCHIBALD HENRY SAYCE, D.LITT., LL.D.

Babylon; Babylonia and See the biographical article: SAYCE, A. H.

Assyria; Belshazzar;

Berossus.
ANDREW JACKSON LAMOUREUX.
Librarian, College of Agriculture, Cornell University. Editor of the Rio News

Bahia: State;
(Rio de Janeiro), 1879-1901.

Bahia: Cily.
ANDREW LANG.

See the biographical article: LANG, ANDREW.
ALFRED NEWTON, F.R.S.

Birds of Paradise.
See the biographical article: Newton, ALFRED.
ALFRED PETER HILLIER, M.D., M.P.

President, South African Medical Congress, 1893. Author of South African Studies; Basutoland: History (in pari);
&c. Served in Kaffir War, 1878-1879. Partner with Dr L. S. Jameson in medical

Bechuanaland (in part). practice in South Africa till 1896. Member of Reform Committee, Johannesburg, and

Political Prisoner at Pretoria, 1895-1896. M.P. for Hitchin division of Herts, 1910.
ARCHIBALD SHARP.

Bicycle.
Consulting Engineer and Chartered Patent Agent.
ALFRED ST HILL GIBBONS.

Major, East Yorkshire Regiment. Explorer in South Central Africa. Author of Barotse, Barotseland.

Africa from South to North through Maroiscland.
ARTHUR WILLEY, F.R.S., D.Sc.

Balanoglossus.
Director of Colombo Museum, Ceylon.

Austria-Hungary: History (in
ARTHUR WILLIAM HOLLAND.

part); Formerly Scholar of St John's College, Oxford. Bacon Scholar of Gray's Inn, 1900. Bavaria: History (in part).

1 A complete list, showing all individual contributors, appears in the final volume.

A. H. S.

A. J. L.

A. L.

{ Ballads.

A. N.

A.P.E.

A. Sp.

A. St H. G.

A. W.*

A. W. H.*

V

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