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TREATY OF PEACE AND FRIENDSHIP, 1713 (UTRECHT).
ARTICLE XII.—“The most Christian king shall take care to have delivered to the queen of Great Britain, on the same day that the ratifications of this treaty shall be exchanged, solemn and authentic letters, or instruments, by virtue whereof it shall appear, that the island of St. Christopher's is to be possessed alone hereafter by British subjects, likewise all Nova Scotia or Acadie, with its ancient boundaries, as also the city of Port Royal, now called Annapolis Royal, and all other things in those parts which depend on the said lands and islands, together with the dominion, propriety, and possession of the said islands, lands, and places, and all right whatsoever, by treaties, or by any other way obtained, which the most Christian king, the crown of France, or any of the subjects thereof, have hitherto had to the said islands, lands, and places, and the inhabitants of the same, are yielded and made over to the queen of Great Britain, and to her crown, forever, as the most Christian king doth, at present, yield and make over all the particulars above said ; and that in such ample manner and form, that the subjects of the most Christian king shall hereafter be excluded from all kind of fishing in the said seas, bays, and other places, on the coasts of Nova Scotia, that is to say, on those which lie towards the east, within thirty leagues, beginning from the island commonly called Sable, inclusively, and thence stretching along towards the south-west."
ARTICLE XIII.—“The island called Newfoundland, with the adjacent islands, shall from this time forward belong of right wholly to Britain; and to that end, the town and fortress of Placentia, and whatever other places in the said island are in the possession of the French, shall be yielded and given up, within seven months from the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, or sooner, if possible, by the most Christian king, to those who have a commission from the queen of Great Britain for that purpose. Nor shall the most Christian king, his heirs and successors, or any of their subjects, at any time hereafter, lay claim to any right to the said island and islands, or to any part of it, or them. Moreover, it shall not be lawful for the subjects of France to fortify any place in the said island of Newfoundland, or to erect any buildings there, besides stages made of boards, and huts necessary and usual for drying of fish; or to resort to the said island, beyond the time necessary for fishing, and the drying of fish. But it shall be allowed to the subjects of France to catch fish, and to dry them on land, in that part only, and in no other besides that, of the said island of Newfoundland, which stretches from the place called Cape Bonavista to the northern part of the said island, and from thence running down by the western side, reaches as far as the place called Point Riche. But the island called Cape Breton, as also all others, both in the mouth of the river of St. Lawrence, and in the gulph of the same name, shall hereafter belong of right to the French, and the most Christian king shall have all manner of liberty to fortify any place or places there."
FRANCE AND SPAIN.
1. THE FAMILY COMPACT, 1761.
This was a treaty of offensive and defensive alliance between France and Spain, signed August 15, 1761, to which the adhesion of the other Bourbon Princes was to be procured.
2. CESSION OF LOUISIANA.
By a secret treaty between France and Spain, concluded November 3, 1762, Louisiana and New Orleans were ceded to Spain, the cession being in the nature of a recompense for the loss of Florida, which Spain had ceded to Great Britain by the preliminary treaty of Paris signed the same day.
GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE.
TREATY OF Paris, FEBRUARY 10, 1763.
ARTICLE V.-" The subjects of France shall have the liberty of fishing and drying, on a part of the coasts of the Island of Newfoundland, such as is specified by Article 13 of the Treaty of Utrecht; which article is renewed and confirmed by the present Treaty except what relates to the Island of Cape Breton, as well as to the other Islands and coasts in the mouth and in the Gulph of St. Lawrence. And His Britannic Majesty consents to leave to the subjects of the Most Christian King the liberty of fishing in the Gulph St. Lawrence, on condition that the subjects of France do not exercise the said fishery, but at the distance of three leagues from all the coasts belonging to Great Britain, as well those of the continent, as those of the islands situated in the said Gulph St. Lawrence. And as to what relates to the fishery on the coast of the Islands of Cape Breton out of the said Gulph, the subjects of the Most Christian King shall not be permitted to exercise the said fishery, but at the distance of fifteen leagues from the coast of the Island of Cape Breton; and the fishery on the coasts of Nova Scotia or Acadia, and everywhere else out of the said Gulph, shall remain on the footing of former treaties.”
ARTICLE VI.—“The King of Great Britain cedes the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, in full right; to His Most Christian Majesty, to serve as a shelter to the French fishermen; and his said Most Christian Majesty, engages not to fortify the said islands; to erect no buildings upon them, but merely for the convenience of the fishery; and to keep upon them a guard of fifty men only for the police.”
ARTICLE VII.—“ In order to re-establish peace on solid and durable foundations, and to remove forever all subject of dispute with regard to the limits of the British and French territories on the continent of America ; it is agreed, that for the future, the confines between the dominions of His Britannic Majesty, and those of His Most Christian Majesty, in that part of the world, shall be fixed irrevocably by a line drawn along the middle of the river Mississippi, from its source to the river Iberville, and from thence, by a line drawn along the middle of this river, and the lakes Maurepas and Pontchartrain, to the sea; and for this purpose, the Most Christian King cedes in full right, and guarantees to His Britannic Majesty, the river and port of the Mobile, and every thing which he possesses, or ought to possess, on the left side of the river Mississippi, except the town of New Orleans, and the island in which it is situated, which shall remain to France; provided that the navigation of the river Mississippi shall be equally free, as well to the subjects of Great Britain as to those of France, in its whole breadth and length, from its source to the sea, and expressly that part which is between the said island of New Orleans and the right bank of that river, as well as the passage both in and out of its mouth. It is further stipulated, that the vessels belonging to the subjects of either nation shall not be stopped, visited, or subjected to the payment of any duty whatsoever. The stipulations, inserted in the IVth article, in favour of the inhabitants of Canada, shall also take place with regard to the inhabitants of the countries ceded by this article."
GREAT BRITAIN AND FRANCE.
TREATY OF Paris, SEPTEMBER 3, 1783.
ARTICLE IV.-“ His Majesty the King of Great Britain is maintained in his right to the Island of Newfoundland, and to the adjacent islands, as the whole were assured to him by the Thirteenth Article of the Treaty of Utrecht; excepting the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon, which are ceded in full right, by the present Treaty, to His Most Christian Majesty."
ARTICLE V._“ His Majesty the Most Christian King, in order to prevent the quarrels which have hitherto arisen between the two Nations of England and France, consents to renounce the right of fishing, which belongs to him in virtue of the aforesaid Article of the Treaty of Utrecht, from Cape Bonavista to Cape St. John, situated on the eastern coast of Newfoundland, in fifty degrees North latitude, and His Majesty the King of Great Britain consents on his part, that the fishery assigned to the subjects of His Most Christian Majesty, beginning at the said Cape St. John, passing to the north, and descending by the western coast of the Island of Newfoundland, shall extend to the place called Cape Raye, situated in forty-seven degrees, fifty minutes latitude. The French fishermen shall enjoy the fishery which is assigned to them by the present Article, as they had the right to enjoy that which was assigned to them by the Treaty of Utrecht."
ARTICLE VI.-“With regard to the fishery in the Gulph of St. Lawrence, the French shall continue to exercise it conformably to the fifth article of the Treaty of Paris.”
BRITISH DECLARATION, SEPTEMBER 3, 1783.
(EXTRACT.) “The King having entirely agreed with His Most Christian Majesty upon the Articles of the Definitive Treaty, will seek every means which shall not only ensure the execution thereof, with his accustomed good faith and punctuality, but will besides give, on his part, all possible efficacy to the principles