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which shall prevent even the least foundation of dispute for the future.
"To this end, and in order that the fishermen of the two nations may not give cause for daily quarrels, His Britannic Majesty will take the most positive measures for preventing his subjects from interrupting, in any manner, by their competition, the fishery of the French, during the temporary exercise of it which is granted to them, upon the coasts of the Island of Newfoundland; and he will, for this purpose, cause the fixed settlements which shall be formed there, to be removed. His Britannic Majesty will give orders, that the French fishermen be not incommoded, in cutting the wood necessary for the repair of their scaffolds, huts, and fishing vessels.
"The thirteenth article of the Treaty with Utrecht, and the method of carrying on the fishery which has at all times been acknowledged, shall be the plan upon which the fishery shall be carried on there: it shall not be deviated from by either party; the French fishermen building only their scaffolds, confining themselves to the repair of their fishing-vessels, and not wintering there; the subjects of His Britannic Majesty, on their part, not molesting, in any manner, the French fishermen, during their fishing, nor injuring their scaffolds during their absence.
"The King of Great Britain, in ceding the Islands of St. Pierre and Miquelon to France, regards them as ceded for the purpose of serving as a real shelter to the French fishermen, and in full confidence that these possessions will not become an object of jealousy between the two nations; and that the fishery between the said Islands, and that of Newfoundland, shall be limited to the middle of the channel."
GREAT BRITAIN AND SPAIN.
TREATY OF PEACE, SEPTEMBER 3, 1783.
ARTICLE V. "His Britannic Majesty cedes and guarantees, in full right, to His Catholic Majesty, East Florida, as also West Florida. His Catholic Majesty agrees that the British inhabitants, or others who may have been subjects of the King of Great
Britain in the said countries, may retire in and liberty, where they shall think proper, and may sell their estates, and remove their effects, as well as their persons, without being restrained in their emigration, under any pretence whatsoever, except on account of debts, or criminal prosecutions; the term limited for this emigration being fixed to the space of eighteen months, to be computed from the day of the exchange of the ratifications of the present treaty; but if from the value of the possessions of the English proprietors they should not be able to dispose of them within the said term, then His Catholic Majesty shall grant them a prolongation proportioned to that end. It is further stipulated, that His Britannic Majesty shall have the power of removing from East Florida all the effects which may belong to him whether artillery, or other matters."
TREATY OF ARMED NEUTRALTY BETWEEN THE EMPRESS OF RUSSIA AND THE KING OF DENMARK; ACCEDED TO BY THE KING OF SWEDEN, AND THE STATES-GENERAL OF THE UNITED PROVINCES.
ARTICLE I." Their respective majesties are fully and sincerely determined to keep upon the most friendly terms with the present belligerent powers, and preserve the most exact neutrality: they solemnly declare their firm intention to be, that their respective subjects shall strictly observe the Laws forbidding all contraband trade with the powers now being, or that may hereafter be, concerned in the present disputes."
ARTICLE II." To prevent all equivocation or misunderstanding of the word Contraband, their imperial and royal majesties declare, that the meaning of the said word is solely restrained to such goods and commodities, as are mentioned under that denomination, in the treaties subsisting between their said majesties and either of the belligerent powers. Her imperial majesty abiding principally by the X. and XI. articles of the treaty of commerce with Great Britain; the conditions therein mentioned, which are founded on the Rights of Nations, being understood to extend to the kings of France and Spain; as there is at present no specific treaty of commerce between
the two latter and the former. His Danish majesty, on his part, regulates his conduct in this particular, by the first article of his treaty with England, and by the 26th and 27th of that subsisting between his said majesty and the king of France, extending the provisions made in the latter to the Catholic king; there being no treaty ad hoc, between Denmark and Spain."
ARTICLE III. "And whereas, by this means, the word contraband, conformable to the treaties now extant, and the stipulations made between the contracting powers, and those that are now at war, is fully explained; especially by the treaty between Russia and England, of the 20th of June, 1766; between the latter and Denmark, of the 11th of July, 1670; and between their Danish and most Christian majesties, of August 23d, 1642; the will and opinion of the high contracting powers are, that all other trade whatsoever shall be deemed, and remain free and unrestrained.
"By the declaration delivered to the belligerent powers, their contracting majesties have already challenged the privileges founded on Natural Right, whence spring the Freedom of Trade and Navigation, as well as the Right of Neutral Powers: and being fully determined not to depend in future merely on an arbitrary interpretation, devised to answer some private advantages or concerns, they mutually covenanted as followeth :
"Ist. That it will be lawful for any ship, whatever, to sail freely from one port to another, or along the coasts of the powers now at war.
"2nd. That all merchandize and effects belonging to the subjects of the said belligerent powers, and shipped on neutral bottoms, shall be entirely free; except contraband goods.
"3d. In order to ascertain what constitutes the blockade of any place or port, it is to be understood to be in such predicament, when the assailing power has taken such a station, as to expose to imminent danger, any ship or ships that would attempt to sail in or out of the said ports.
"4th. No neutral ship shall be stopped, without a material and well-grounded cause: and in such cases, justice shall be done to them, without loss of time; and besides indemnifying, each and every time, the party aggrieved or thus stopped with
out sufficient cause, full satisfaction shall be given to the high contracting powers, for the insult offered to their flag."
ARTICLE IV. "In order to protect officially the general trade of their respective subjects, on the fundamental principles aforesaid, her imperial and his royal majesty have thought proper, for effecting such purpose, each respectively to fit out a proportionate rate of ships of war and frigates. The squadron of each of the contracting powers shall be employed in escorting convoys, according to the particular circumstances of the navigators and traders of each nation.
ARTICLE V. "Should any of the merchantmen belonging to the subjects of the contracting powers, sail in a latitude where there shall be no ships of war of their own nation, and thus be deprived of the protection; in such case, the commander of the squadron belonging to the other friendly power shall, at the request of said merchantmen, grant them sincerely, and bona fide, all necessary assistance. The ships of war and frigates, of either of the contracting powers, shall thus protect and assist the merchantmen of the other: provided nevertheless, that, under the sanction of such required assistance and protection, no contraband shall be carried on, nor any prohibited trade, contrary to the Laws of Neutrality."
ARTICLE VI. "The present convention cannot be supposed to have any relative effect; that is, to extend to the differences that may have arisen since its being concluded, unless the controversy should spring from continual vexations, which might tend to aggrieve and oppress all the European nations."
ARTICLE VII.—"If, notwithstanding the cautions and friendly care of the contracting powers, and their steady adherence to an exact Neutrality, the Russian and Danish merchantmen should happen to be insulted, plundered, or captured by any of the armed ships or privateers, belonging to any of the belligerent powers: in such case, the ambassador or envoy of the aggrieved party, to the offending court, shall claim such ship or ships, insisting on a proper satisfaction, . . . . . and never neglect to obtain a reparation for the insult offered to the flag of his court. The minister of the other contracting power shall at the same time, in the most efficacious and vigorous manner, defend such requisitions, which shall be supported by both parties with unanimity. But in case of any refusal, or even delay in redress
ing the grievances complained of; then their majesties will retaliate against the power that shall thus refuse to do them justice, and immediately agree together on the most proper means of making well-founded reprisals."
ARTICLE VIII. "In case either of the contracting powers, or both at the same time, should be in any manner aggrieved or attacked, in consequence of the present convention, or for any reason relating thereto; it is agreed, that both powers will join, act in concert for their mutual defence, and unite their forces, in order to procure to themselves an adequate and perfect satisfaction, both in regard to the insult put upon their respective flags, and the losses suffered by their subjects."
ARTICLE IX.-"This convention shall remain in force for and during the continuance of the present war; and the obligation enforced thereby, will serve as the ground-work of all treaties that may be set on foot hereafter: according to future occurrences, and on the breaking out of any fresh maritime wars which might unluckily disturb the tranquillity of Europe. Meanwhile, all that is hereby agreed upon, shall be deemed as binding and permanent, in regard both to mercantile and naval affairs; and shall have the force of Law, in determining the rights of Neutral Nations."
ARTICLE X.-" The chief aim and principal object of the present convention being to secure the Freedom of Trade and Navigation, the high contracting powers have antecedently agreed, and do engage to give to all other neutral powers free leave to accede to the present treaty, and, after a thorough knowledge of the principles on which it rests, share equally in the obligations and advantages thereof."
ARTICLE XI. "In order that the powers, now at war, may not be ignorant of the strength and nature of the engagements entered into by the two courts aforesaid, the high contracting parties shall give notice, in the most friendly manner, to the belligerent powers, of the measures by them taken; by which, far from meaning any manner of hostility, or causing any loss or injury to other powers, their only intention is to protect the trade and navigation of their respective subjects."
ARTICLE XII.-"This convention shall be ratified by the contracting powers, and the ratifications interchanged between the parties in due form, within the space of six weeks, from