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men, whch he experienced from them in every corner of the inhabitable globe, if his own heart does not teach him the truth without a further reference.

ADVERTISEMENTS.-We are advertisement readers: the close columns of the Times are never without their interest for us. Other readers, we perceive, throw down the Morning Journals, when they contain no news, as it is called, with disappointment, declaring them to be empty-empty! we look upon the rejected paper, and see it teeming with life. Every advertisement to us assumes a living character, and seems to represent a distinct portion of the country. In the place of every five lines of type we imagine an anxious face. Here are the busy, shuffling, aproned tradesmen recommending their candles and their cocoa : here is Robins or Phillips flourishing his hammer, and shouting the praises of rural retreats and Raphaels: down one column stand the modest governesses all in a row, with their French music and sound principles: in the next is a stud-nay, half-a-dozen chargers, hacks, hunters, ponies, and magnificent cabbers; a long perspective of screws in straw and rogues in grain. Even the WANTS PLACES has charms for us, from the hobbling low-browed cook and housekeeper to a single gentleman, to the groom lad of light weight, with his smooth hair, his stable reverence, and slipshod gaiters. What a wonderfully cheap country we live in! These advertisements prove that there is scarcely a luxury of life that may not be had for an old song. The finest full-flavoured old Port may be bought almost for the carriage and the price of the bottles. Furniture, the description of which is at least beautiful, is to be sold at the cost of our kitchen chairs. No brandy is said to be equal to certain British. Lamps have been discovered to burn all but without oil; and lodgings, in the pleasantest part of the town, may be had in return for a trifling loan to the proprietor. Every house, in an advertisement, seems the most convenient place that ever was built, every horse the soundest, every governess the most accomplished: in short, over a page of advertisements, with the aid of a moderately sanguine temperament, we can imagine ourselves living in the golden age, where all is virtue, happiness, and abundance. Few works of fiction produce so consolatory an effect-yet such papers are said to be empty!

POETICAL COMPOSITION IN THE OPEN AIR.-An author of the name of Mitford has died lately, of whom some biographical particulars have been published, which carry us back to the days of Grub-street. Education and a taste and talent for literature are so usually associated with, at least, habits of decency, that we are struck with a sort of amazement to find them in a person reduced to vagrancy and the lowest and most degrading description of life. The writings of Mr. Mitford necessarily partook of the character of his habits, but they are very remarkable productions under the circumstances. Johnny Newcome in the Navy,' we remember to have read with disgust; a feeling which doubtless would have been considerably modified, had we then been aware of the following extraordinary circumstance.



"Mitford composed his celebrated poem of Johnny Newcome in the Navy,' under circumstances of aggravated destitution, which, perhaps, have never been equalled in the annals of authorship. Mitford was then a beggar, and Johnston, the bookseller who published it, was afraid to trust him with money, knowing that when he had cash in hand he would not work. Each morning he received a shilling, and a certain quantity of paper, which he engaged to fill with rhymes and deliver by night. His method was to put some gin in a blacking bottle, and two-pennyworth of bread and cheese in his pocket, with an onion and some salt. Thus provisioned he repaired to Bayswater-fields, where he sat and wrote. It was a dry summer, and he seldom had to encounter rain. In a gravel pit, near the water works, he made a bed of grass and nettles; the nettles that grew on each side he twisted over so as to form a canopy, and here he lay for fortythree nights-the Poem being finished in that number of days. Before day-light he would rise and wash his rag of a shirt in a stagnant pool, which he put on wet, and yet never caught cold; nor did he ever enjoy better health than when confined to his nettle bed and a shilling per day. When questioned upon this subject of his privations, he exclaimed, Oh God! don't mention it; that is not the worst, by far, I have endured.""


Mitford was the author of a popular modern song, called "The King is a true British sailor," and of a great many other things of a similar kind, the chief part of which are, no doubt, execrable trash.

Mitford had been originally a lieutenant in the navy, and lost his half-pay in consequence of some disgraceful forgery of letters connected with the early investigation into the conduct of the late queen. The circumstances of the case we have a vague recollection of, and we believe his conduct to have been exceedingly disgraceful and unprincipled. He, of course, lost his place in society as well as his pay in the navy, and seems to have afterwards supported himself by his facility in writing verse, if that can be said to be support, which was not to be envied by the beggar or the work-house pauper. Mitford claimed to be a relative of the Redesdale family, and was, we believe, distantly related to it.

TRAGEDY ON AND COMEDY OFF THE STAGE. In the Literary Gazette there have lately been some pleasant papers, termed "Unrehearsed Stage Effects," in which the writer notices odd accidents which fall out during the various theatrical representations at the different theatres. A counterpart to this scheme would be effects of the same kind in the reverse or audience part of the house. We have often noticed little incidents, scenes, and sometimes even overheard conversations that were significant enough to be remembered, and even recorded in print. On the first night of Lord Leveson Gower's drama, Anne of Cleves there sate in the next box to us an aged pair, who, if we might judge, had not often before entered the doors of a theatre. The male was grey, short in stature, clothed in decent black, and might possibly be a clergyman. We observed no mundane mark upon him, save that he hissed furiously on one occasion only, and that was the most popular point of the play-the PEERAGE CASE, in which the King, Henry III., on a sudden creates a duke on the nonce, to serve an especial purpose. In all other respects this amiable pair might have lived in paradise for any signs they showed of acquaintance with matters of the most familiar kind. Their simplicity was usually charming; though sometimes, like the tameness of the beasts in Cooper's 'Juan Fernandez,' it was almost shocking, for their aged locks brought back to us most forcibly our own flaxen times of innocence, and formed a strong contrast to our present hardened experience. The interest of this pair in the drama was excessive, but their criticism was altogether of the Partridge school. When Aune of Cleves threw down the pen and refused to write at the dictation of her imperious husband, "That is right," cried the old lady, loudly, "that is just as I would have done myself," and she loudly applauded. "Hush, hush, my dear," was the gentle reply of her white-stocked mate, who, perhaps, thought the case of domestic application. When Charles Kemble, as St. Megrin, is entrapped into the Hotel de Guise, and proposes to make his escape by the window, there occurs a great deal of parley, as is invariably the case on the stage when people are supposed to be in a hurry to get off; by the same rule they never talk or sing so loud as when they ought to be silent-the well-known Zitti Zitti is a case in point. However, when this delay occurred in Kemble's escape, the old lady grew terribly impatient: St. Megrin's assassins were already knocking at the door. "Why does he not run away!" she exclaimed, in the utmost distress. Still he loitered and raved of love, and the good dame waxed positively wrath. Her husband saw it was necessary to interfere, and he observed with an air of shrewd simplicity, "Be quiet, my dear! don't you see he must be killed." In the melee in the court, those who have seen the tragedy will remember that the Page (so prettily played by Miss Taylor) is killed by the assassins of St. Megrin out of sight, and the audience only hear his cries. The old lady exclaimed, "Oh, dear! oh, dear! I am sure they have killed the little boy," and alas! it was true. She was bursting into tears, while Miss Taylor had shouted her last, doffed her pantaloons, and gone home to supper. But with all their humanity, our couple were discontented that so few should die. They had paid, according to their fancy, for more deaths than they had had: the green carpet seemed laid for nought. After Miss Kemble, as Anne of Cleves, which she played delightfully, had stretched her form along the stage, and the curtain began to be agitated, as if about to descend, the lady complained that there was but one death. "But you forget," said her spouse, "that two were killed behind the scenes, and that makes three." "Yes," rejoined the lady, "but three are hardly enough for a tragedy." Thus, as is often the case, did a most kind-hearted lady regret an insufficiency in the supply of woe.

The Lion's Mouth.


WE refer our readers to the article that commences our record of Political Events-upon the interesting and important subject of the Russian Loan.

[OUR Correspondents will perceive the scanty space which the nature of the times allow us to afford to poetry and tal however good. We wish, therefore, they would rather attempt some line of literature better calculated to give us the pleasure of accepting their contributions—the abuses and manners of the times surely afford ample materials.

We must also beg our corresponding friends fully to understand that we cannot in any case return either articles or answers before the first of the month. On this point we are peremptory.]

CO-OPERATION AND THE OWENITES.-We feel great regret that we cannot find space for the article called "Corbyn Hall," and the Letter to ourselves by the same author. We are greatly obliged by the writer's expressions of esteem, and sorry that we cannot concur with him in his political views. The system of Co-operation is undoubtedly a grand discovery-we firmly believe that hereafter it will be the basis of a new political science; but we must say that we do not think the superstructure of the Owenites is as yet that science—we like the ground-work of their philosophy, but not the rest of the building. Our respected Correspondent must pity and forgive us. His papers are left with many thanks at the Publishers'.

The translator of " Raupach's Drama" complains of our criticism. It is not often that an author and a critic take precisely the same view of a work. We must adhere to our opinion of the original, although we are again willing to compliment the skill of the translator-it is true, at the expense of his judgment.

It would be useless to recur to the subject of Burke and Williams. Our Correspondent," A Reader," must therefore allow us to lay his communication


THE CHOLERA. From the numerous letters and papers we have received relative to the Cholera, we select and publish the following, as containing, we think, some original and ingenious remarks.


“Gentlemen :-From a retrospect of the facts which have come within the range of my information, I am inclined to think that the disease of the Cholera arises from the blood being overloaded with carbonic matter, through some peculiar disposition of the atmosphere, and the great accumulation of this matter those filthy and crowded habitations of the poor where this awful malady more particularly rages. This hypothetical inference is partly founded on the fact, that a portion of carbon is extracted from the venous blood by the air in every act of respiration which restores its arterial activity: consequently, if there be not a good ventilation in these crowded abodes, the air must soon become loaded with carbon thus extracted, and unfit for a healthy respiration.

"We also know that the carbonic-acid gas, or what is termed the choke-damp, which is liberated in coal pits, is an aërial body, loaded with an extra quantity of carbonic matter, and that it causes immediate death, when breathed instead of pure atmospheric air. It is also well known, that if a proper quantity of carbon is not extracted by the act of respiration, that the blood turns black and the person dies. Hence we are led to the conclusion, by the blood of those who are fatally attacked with the Cholera turning black, that a sufficient quantity of carbon has not been extracted by the act of respiration; for it is chiefly those who live in close and crowded places, where carbonic gas abounds, that become the victims of this malady.

"If the respiration of strong doses of aerial carbon, as in the choke-damp, cause internal convulsions and instant death, it may be inferred that weaker doses may produce final results of a similar nature, though in a more gradual and less violent manner.

"According to this view, the imperfectly-ventilated habitations of the poor, in the North and Eastern parts of Europe, must be more likely to generate this disease than the better-ventilated habitations in this country; nevertheless, the great quantity of carbon that must be liberated in the neighbourhood of our extensive colleries, may be equal to this difference, as a greater quantity of this ingredient is generated in such

places than in any other part of the country; and it may be a special means in promoting the Cholera in these places.

"If this be correct, we may see the reason why this disease has not been extended to the surrounding parts of the country, as they are more free from this aerial carbonic matter than the neighbourhood of coal-mines, where this disease has raged.


By admitting that the Cholera arises from the blood not being sufficiently relieved from its carbon, we may conclude, when this disease prevails, that the atmosphere does not, from some cause or other, take up its usual quantity from the blood; consequently there must be a strong tendency to generate the Cholera in those places where carbon is abundantly liberated, agreeably to the circumstances already mentioned.

"If this view of the subject be correct, there is no great probability that the Cholera will extend over this country; yet I would advise the humane and wealthy to supply the crowded habitations of the poor with plenty of coal this winter to keep up good fires, which will ventilate their close and crowded habitations, and then we shall have little to fear from this malady.

"Yours' respectfully,

"Liverpool, Jan. 18, 1832."

"Y. M. D.

We shall be happy to receive a further communication from the author of "Dislike of America," if he will condense his information into one paper. We fear it will be impossible to find room for a continued series.

We regret that, torn by political factions as we are at home, we cannot promise insertion to the article" Spain and her Factions," although the subject is well treated. A communication for the author is left at the Publishers.'

The new Coronation Anthem is somewhat too late in the day.

We shall endeavour to find room for the amusing" Chapter on Dragons,” but cannot say when.

The author of "First impressions of London" should have looked at our monthly notice to correspondents. He would have found that our rule is to reply to or return all papers on the first of the month, and not till then. It is impossible to combine regularity with any other system. A communication is left for him at the Publishers'.

The paper on the "Drama of Calderon" remains for consideration.

We fear that we can say but little to encourage the aspirations of a Mechanic, however much we may sympathize with his misfortunes. Trades of all kinds are in a very sad condition, but none, we believe, is at so low an ebb as that of Poetry.

One or two of the "Four Love Sonnets" shall be inserted if possible in the next number-they possess great beauty.

We must be ungrateful enough to decline the offers of a Correspondent who compliments us by affirming that we, "under our banner of truth, are leading on morality, peace, piety, and order, to overthrow satirical spleen, confusion, and calumny."

Histrix must pardon us if we, with many thanks for his zeal and friendship, decline at present to take up the cudgels with the enemies he refers to.

Our limits this month will not allow us to insert several communications intended for the Lion's Mouth; among others, the letter of "J. R." on a Coroner's inquest :-we hope to hear from him again.

Communications are left at the Publishers' for the authors of an article on Sir Edward Sugden; "Destiny," A translation from Schiller; "Tradition of Devonshire;""Reform in a Village;" "Account of Mary Bow;" "a Sketch from Froissart;" "A Tale of the Sea;" "X. Y. Z.;" "the Janissary;" " W. W.;" "Chronicles of a Curacy;" "the Corobberie;" "D. C.;" "the Editor's Fall;"" the Friar, the Maiden, &c.;" "G. E. J.;"" the Geusjager."

We are obliged to decline the poetry of "E. M.;" "Stanzas ;" "Poetry by W." "Edward and Angelina;" " the verses of Halbert H. ;"" Cupid and Nelson;" “H. M. B.;” “Specimen of Virgil;” « W. B. K.;” “Cassandra;” “ Enigma;""C. P. N.;"" F. J. M."


Press of matter obliges us to decline "the Lüst Garten."



MARCH 1, 1832.

On the State of the Rural Population

The Birth Song

The Dirge of Death
On the Influence and Education of Women
Conversations with an Ambitious Student in Ill Health, No. VIII.



concluded 232 Political Conveniences; or, the Results of the Reform Bill. A Dialogue 241 Italian Humorous Poetry. No. II. The Coffin Maker, a Tale





What will our Spinsters do?
A few Plain and Practical Remarks on Cholera, by a Physician
The Law of Arrest. A Tale from Facts
Letter from the Saint Simonian Envoys in England, to the Supreme
Father Enfantin at Paris



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Sir Ralph Esher, by Leigh Hunt
Spring, by the Author of " Corn-Law Rhymes"
Songs found in a Grecian Urn

Monthly Commentary:

Suicide of Mr. Fletcher-The Delicacy of Affection-Copyright in
Music-Ultimus Romanorum: the Last of the Jockies-Cholera,
or No Cholera-The Banker Premier-Labours of the Court of Re-
view-Governesses-The Ugliness of Cambridgeshire

The Lion's Mouth










294 299


THE symptom of the greatest difficulty and danger in the national disorder, is that absolute (though it has been a gradual) alteration in the condition and habits of the rural population, by which, in an age of boasted enlightenment, the moral condition of the peasant retrogrades, instead of advancing, and which, at the very time that we profess to re-establish and strengthen the social system, is silently progressing towards its disorganization. In our inquiry into this matter, our endeavours will be directed, first, to describe the actual situation of the peasantry in connexion with that of the classes above

March 1832.-VOL. XXXIV. NO. CXXXV.


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