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Puonaparte and Pius VII., whereby the then French consul was made, in effect, the head of the Gallican church, as all ecclesiastics were to have their appointments from him, was signed at Paris, July 15, 1801. Another concordat between Buonaparte

and the same pontiff was signed at Fontainbleau, Jan. 25, 1813. CONCUBINES. They are mentioned as having been allowed to the priests, A.D. 1132.

Cujas observes, that although concubinage was beneath marriage, both as to dignity and civil effects, yet concubine was a reputable title, very different from that of mistress among us. This kind of union, which is formed by giving the left hand instead of the right, and called half.marriage, is still in use in some parts of

Germany.-See Concubines, and Harlots. CONDUITS. Those of the Romans were of stone. Two remarkable conduits existed

early in Cheapside, London. That called the Great Conduit was the first cistern of lead erected in the city, and was built A.D. 1285. At the procession of Anna Boleyn

it ran with white and claret wine all the afternoon, June 1, 1533.-Slowe. CONFEDERATION AT PARIS. Upwards of 600,000 citizens formed this memorable

confederation, held on the anniversary of the taking of the Bastile, at which cere. mony the king, the national assembly, the army, and the people, solemnly swore to

maintain the new constitution, July 14, 1790.-See Champ de Mars, Bastile. CONFEDERATION OF THE RHINE, or League of the Germanic States, formed under

the auspices of Napoleon Buonaparte. By this celebrated league, the minor German princes collectively engaged to raise 258,000 troops to serve in case of war, and

they established a diet at Frankfort, July 12, 1806.-See Germanic Confederation. CONFERENCE. The celebrated religious conference held at Hampton Court palace,

between the prelates of the church of England and the dissenting ministers, in order to effect a general union, at the instance of the king, 2 James I. 1604. This con. ference led to a new translation of the Bible, which was executed in 1607-11, and is that now in general use in England and the United States ; and during the meeting some alterations in the church liturgy were agreed upon, but this not satisfying the dissenters, nothing more was done. A conference of the bishops and presbyterian

ministers with the same view was held, in 1661. CONFESSION. Auricular confession in the Romish church was first instituted about

A.D. 1204, and was regularly enjoined in 1215. It is made to a priest, in order to obtain absolution for the sins or faults acknowledged by the penitent, who performs a penance enjoined by the priest; and if this be done with a contrite heart, the sins thus absolved are supposed to be absolved in beaven. At the reformation, the practice was at first left wholly indifferent, by the council; but this was the prelude to

its entire abolition in the church of England.-Burnet. CONFIRMATION. One of the oldest rites of the Christian church; it was used by

Peter and Paul; and was general, according to some church authorities, in A.D. 190. It is the public profession of the Christian religion by an adult person, who was baptised in infancy. It is still retained in the church of England; but to make it

the more solemn, it has been advanced into a sacrament by the church of Rome. CONFLANS, TREATY OF. Between Louis XI. of France, and the dukes of Bourbon,

Brittany, and Burgundy; by one of the provisions of this treaty, Normandy was ceded to the duke de Berri, 1465. This treaty was confirmed by that of Peronne,

with other stipulations, in 1468. CONGELATION. Ice was produced in summer by means of chemical mixtures, by

Mr. Walker, in 1783. The congelation of quicksilver was effected without snow or ice, in 1787. A mixture of four ounces of nitrate of ammonia, four ounces of subcarbonate of soda, and four ounces of water, in a tin pail, have been found to produce

ice in three hours.-See Cold; Ice ; &c. CONGE D'ELIRE. The licence of the king, as head of the church, to chapters, and

other bodies, to elect dignitaries, particularly bishops. After the interdict of the pope upon England had been removed in 1214, king John had an arrangement with the clergy for the election of bishops. Bishops were elected by the king's Conge

d'Elire, 26 Henry VIII., 1535. CONGRESS. An assembly of princes or ministers, or meeting for the settlement of the

affairs of nations, or of a people. Several congresses were held during the late continentai wars; but the following were the most remarkable congresses of Europe :

Oct. 20, 1820

Dec. 9, 1797

CONGRESS, continued.
Congress of Soissons
June 14, 1728 Congress of Carlsbad

Aug. 1, 1819
Congress of Antwerp

April 8, 1793 Congress of Troppau
Congress of Radstadt

Congress of Laybach,

May 6, 1821
Congress of Chatillon .
Feb. 5, 1814 Congress of Verona

Aug. 25, 1422
Congress of Vienna

Nov. 3, 1814

See Alliances, Conventions, c. The first general congress of the United States of America, preparatory to their declaration of independence, was held Sept. 5, 1774, when strong resolutions were passed, also a petition to the king, and an address to the people of England. The first federal American congress, under the constitution, was held at New York, George

Washington, president, in March, 1789. CONGREVE ROCKETS. Invented by general sir William Congreve, in 1803.

They were used with great effect in the attack upon Boulogne, in Oct. 1806, when they set a part of the town on fire, which burned for two days; they were employed in various operations in the late war with much success, discharged by a corps called

rocket-men. CONIC SECTIONS. Their most remarkable properties were probably known to the

Greeks four or five centuries before the Christian era. The study of them was cultivated in the time of Plato, 390 B.C. The earliest treatise was written by Aristæus, about 380 B.C. Apollonius's eight books were written about 240 s.c. The para

bola was applied to projectiles by Galileo; the ellipse to the orbit of planets, by Kepler. CONJURATION AND WITCHCRAFT. They were declared to be felony by various

statutes, and the most absurd and wicked laws were in force against them in these countries in former times.-See article Witchcraft. Conjuration was felony by statute 1 James 1., 1603. This law was repealed 9 George II., 1736 ; but pretensions

to such skill was then made punishable as a misdemeanour.-Statutes. CONNOR, BISHOPRIC OF ; in Ireland. This see was united to that of Down, A.D.

1442. The first prelate was Ængus Macnisius, who died A.D. 507. The united see of Down and Connor is to have that of Dromore united to it, on the death of the

present bishop of the latter, by act 3 and 4 William IV., 1833. CONQUEST, Tæe. The memorable era in British history, when William duke of

Normandy overcame Harold II., at the battle of Hastings, and obtained the crown which had been most unfairly bequeathed to him by Edward the Confessor (for Edgar was the rightful heir) Oct. 14, 1066. William has been erroneously styled the Conqueror, for he succeeded to the crown of England by compact. He killed Harold, who was himself an usurper, and defeated his army, but a large portion of the kingdom afterwards held out against him, and he, unlike a conqueror, took an oath to observe the laws and customs of the realm, in order to induce the submission of the people. Formerly our judges were accustomed to reprehend any gentleman at the bar who casually gave him the title of William the Conqueror, instead of

William I.-Selden. CONSCIENCE, COURTS OF, OR OF REQUESTS. First constituted by a statute

of Henry VII. in 1493, and re-organised by statute 9 Henry VIII. 1517. These courts have been improved and amended by various acts ; their jurisdiction in London reaches to 51., and to 40s. in other towns. The practice is by summons, and if

the party do not appear, the commissioners have power to apprehend and commit. CONSCRIPT FATHERS. Patres conscripti was the designation given to the Roman

senators, and used in speaking of them, in the eras of the republic and the Cæsars :

because their names were written in the registers of the senato. CONSECRATION. That of churches was instituted in the second century, the

temple of worship being dedicated with pious solemnity to God and a patron saint. The consecration of churches, places of burial, &c., is admitted in the reformed reli

gion. The consecration of bishops was ordained in the latter church in 1549.–Stowe. CONSERVATORS OF THE PUBLIC LIBERTIES. Officers chosen in England to

inspect the treasury, and correct abuses in administration, 28 Henry III. 1244.Rapin. The conservators of the peace were officers appointed to see the king's peace kept. A political party under the name of Conservatives, whose leading principle is the conservation of our great and ancient national institutions, has sprung up in England since the discouragement of Orange lodges and societies, which latter have been suppressed by various late enactments.

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CONSISTORY COURT. Anciently the Consistory was joined with the Hundred

court, and its original, as divided therefrom, is found in a law of William I. quoted by lord Coke, 1079. The chief and most ancient Consistory court of the kingdom

belongs to the see of Canterbury, and is called the Court of Arches, which see. CONSPIRACIES AND INSURRECTIONS IN GREAT BRITAIN. Among the re

corded conspiracies, real or supposed, the following are the most remarkable. They are extracted from Camden, Temple, Hume, and other authorities of note :Of the Norman Barons, against William Of Sindercomb and others, to assassinthe Conqueror A.D. 1074 ate Oliver Cromwell

A.D. 1656 Against William II. 1088, and 1093 Insurrection of the Puritans

1637 Against Henry II. by his queen and Insurrection of the fifth monarchy-men children 1173 against Charles II.

1660 Insurrection of Foulk de Brent against Of Blood and his associates, who seized king Henry III.

1224 the duke of Ormond, wounded him, Against the same king, for cancelling

and would have hanged him; and who Magna Charta

1258 afterwards stole the crown Of Edward II.'s queen, when the king The pretended conspiracy of the French, fell a sacrifice

1327 Spanish, and English Jesuits to assasOf the duke of Exeter against the life of

sinate Ch. II. revealed by the infamous Henry IV. discovered by the dropping

Titus Oates, Dr. Tongue, and others
of a paper accidentally
1400 The Meal-tub plot (rohich see)

1679 Of the earl of Cambridge and others The Rye-house plot to assassinate the against Henry V.

1415 king on his way to Newmarket. (See Of Richard, duke of Gloucester, against

Rye house plot)

1683 his nephews, Edward and York, whom Of lord Preston, the bishop of Ely, and he caused to be murdered 1483 others, to restore James II.

1691 of the earl of Suffolk and others, against Of Granville, a French chevalier, to Henry VII.

1506 murder king William in Flanders 1692 Insurrection of the London apprentices, of the earl of Aylesbury, called the As7 Henry VIII. 1515 sassination plot (which see)

1696 Of Doctor Story and others against queen

Of Simon Fraser, lord Lovat, against Elizabeth

1571 Queen Anne. See Rebellions . 1703 Of Anthony Babington and others, agst. Of the marquess Guiscard

1710 Elizabeth. (See Babington.) .

1586 Of James Sheppard, an enthusiast, to Of Lopez, a Jow, and others

assassinate George I.

1718 Of Patrick York, an Irish fencing-mas- Of counsellor Layer and others, to bring ter, hired by the Spaniards to kill the

in the Pretender

1722 queen

1594 Of Colonel Despard and others, to overOf Walpole, a Jesuit and squire 1598 turn the government

1802 Tyrone's insurrection in Ireland

1598 Of Robert Emmett in Dublin, when Against James I. by the marchioness

lord Kilwarden was killed, July 23, 1803 Verneuil, his mistress, and other persons 1604 Of Moreau, Pichegru, and Georges, The Gunpowder plot (which see)

1605 against Buonaparte

Feb, 13, 1804 Tyrone's conspiracy to surprise the Of Thistlewood, to assassinate the king's castle of Dublin 1607 ministers. (See Cato-street.)

1820 CONSTABLES

OF HUNDREDS AND FRANCHISES. Instituted in the reign of Edward I. 1285. These officers are now called high constables throughout the realm. There are three kinds of constables, high, petty, and special: the high constable's jurisdiction extends to the whole hundred; the petty constable's to the parish or liberty for which he is chosen ; and the special constable is appointed for particular

occasions and emergencies. CONSTABULARY FORCE. That of London has been regulated at various periods.

-See article Police. Mr. Peel's act, organising a new and more efficient force, 10 George IV. 1829. The Constabulary of Ireland act passed in 1823, when this species of force was embodied throughout that country. Several subsequent acts were consolidated by the statute 6 William IV. 1836. The London Police Improvement act passed 3 Victoria, 1839. The Counties and District Constabulary act for

England, passed 3 Victoria, Aug. 1839. CONSTANCE, COUNCIL OF. The celebrated council of divines (!) which condemned

the pious martyrs John Huss and Jerome of Prague, to be burnt alive, a sentence executed upon the first on July 6, 1415, and on the other, on May 30, following. Huss had complied with a summons from the council of Constance to defend his opinions before the clergy of all nations in that city, and though the emperor Sigismund had given him a safe-conduct, he was cast into prison. Jerome of Prague hastened to Constance to defend him, but was himself loaded with chains, and in

• 1593

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the end shared the fate of his friend. This scandalous violation of public faith, and the cruelty and treachery which attended the punishment of these unhappy disciples of Wickliffe, our great reformer, prove the melancholy truth, that toleration is not

the virtue of priests in any form of ecclesiastical government.--Hume. CONSTANTINA. The former capital of Numidia. It has become known to Euro

peans but very recently, they being strangers to it until the French occupation of Algiers. Here was fought a great battle between the French and Arabs, Oct. 13, 1837, when the former carried the town by assault, but the French general, Damremont, was killed. Achmet Bey retired with 12,000 men as the victors entered

Constantina. CONSTANTINOPLE. So called from Constantine the Great, who removed the seat

of the Eastern Empire here, A.D. 328. Taken by the western crusaders, who put the emperor Mourzoufle to death, first tearing out his eyes, 1204. Retaken by Michael Palæologus, thus restoring the old Greek line, 1261. Conquered by Mahomet II. who slew Constantine Palæologus, the last Christian emperor, and 60,000 of his people, 1453. The city, taken by assault, had held out for fifty-eight days. The unfortunate emperor, on seeing the Turks enter by the breaches, threw himself into the midst of the enemy, and was cut to pieces; the children of the imperial house were massacred by the soldiers, and the women reserved to gratify the lust of the conqueror. This put an end to the Eastern Empire, which had subsisted for 1125 years, and was the foundation of the present empire of Turkey in Europe. See

Eastern Empire, and Turkey. CONSTANTINOPLE, Era Or. This era has the creation placed 5508 years B.c. It

was used by the Russians until the time of Peter the Great, and is still used in the Greek church. The civil year begins September 1, and the ecclesiastical year towards the end of March ; the day is not exactly determined. To reduce it to our era,

subtract 5508 years from January to August, and 5509 from September to the end. CONSTELLATIONS. Those of Arcturus, Orion, the Pleiades, and Mazzaroth,

are mentioned by Job, about 1520 B.c. Homer and Hesiod notice constellations ; but though some mode of grouping the visible stars had obtained in very early ages,

our first direct knowledge was derived from Claud. Ptolemæus, about A.D. 140. CONSTITUTION OF ENGLAND. See Magna Charla. It comprehends the whole body

of laws by which the British people are governed, and to which it is presumptively held that every individual has assented. Lord Somers. This assemblage of laws is distinguished from the term government, in this respect—that the constitution is the rule by which the sovereign ought to govern at all times ; and government is that by which he does govern at any particular time.—Lord Bolingbroke. The king of England is not seated on a solitary eminence of power ; on the contrary, he sees his equals in the co-existing branches of the legislature, and he recognises his supe

rior in the Law.-Sheridan. CONSTITUTION, AMERICAN SHIP. This vessel, carrying 54 heavy guns, engaged

the British frigate Guerriere, of 46 guns of smaller calibre ; and in thirty minutes the latter was reduced to sinking state, and having lost 100 men in killed and wounded, surrendered to the enemy, who lost but 7 men killed, and 7 wounded ;

August 20, 1812. CONSULS. These officers were appointed at Rome, 509 B.C. They possessed regal

authority for the space of a year: Lucius Junius Brutus, and Lucius Tarquinius Collatinus, the latter the injured husband of Lucretia, were the first consuls. A consular government was established in France November 9, 1799, when Buonaparte, Cambacérès, and Lebrun, were made consuls ; and subsequently Buonaparte was made first consul for life, May 6, 1802. Commercial agents were first distinguished by the name of consuls in Italy, in 1485. A British consul was appointed

in Portugal in 1633. CONTRACTORS with GOVERNMENT disqualified from sitting in parliament, 1782. CONTRIBUTIONS, VOLUNTARY. In the two last wars voluntary contributions to a

vast amount were several times made by the British people in aid of the government. The most remarkable of these acts of patriotism was that in 1798, when, to support the war against France, the contributions amounted to two millions and a half sterling. Several men of wealth, among others sir Robert Peel, of Bury, Lancashire, subscribed each 10,0001.; and 200,0001. were transmitted from India in 1799. CONVENTICLES. These were private assemblies for religious worship, and were

particularly applied to those who differed in form and doctrine from the established church. But the term was first applied in England to the schools of Wickliffe. Conventicles, which were very numerous at the time, were prohibited 12 Charles

II., 1661. CONVENTION PARLIAMENT. There were two memorable parliaments which

were especially distinguished by this name; being parliaments which assembled without the king's writ upon extraordinary occasions. The first of these was held in March 1660, voting the restoration of Charles II., and afterwards enacting many salutary statutes. They second was held in 1688, and, by a majority of two voices, declared for a new sovereign, in William III. (and Mary) in preference to a regent

which was proposed. CONVENTIONS. See Alliances, Treaties, &c. The following are the principal

treaties entered into between Great Britain and foreign powers, under the title of
conventions, and by foreign powers with each other. They are more fully described
in their respective places through the volume :-
Of Closterseven

Sept. 10, 1757 Of Paris, with the allies April 25, 1818
Of Armed Neutrality
July 9, 1780 Of Aix-la-Chapelle

Oct. 9, 1818
Of Pilnitz

July 20, 1791 Of Austria with England; the latter Of Paris (French National) instituted

agrees to accept 2,500,0001., as a com

Sept. 17, 1792 position for claims on Austria,amount-
Of Cintra (which sce)
Aug. 30, 1808 ing to 30,000,0001. sterling

1824 Of Berlin

Nov. 5, 1808 Of England with Russia, Feb. 28, 1825 of Peterswalden

July 8, 1813 Of England and United States Nov. 26, 1826 Of Paris

April 23, 1814 Of Spain, for satisfying the claims of Of the Dutch with England, Aug. 13, 1814 British merchants

June 26, 1828 Of Vienna: Saxony placed under the Of the Viceroy of Egypt and Sir Edward control of Prussia

Sept. 28, 1814 Codrington, for restoring the Greek
Of Zurich, signed
May 20, 1815 captives, &c. .

Aug. 6, 1828
Of Capua, with Murat May 20, 1815 Of France with Brazil

Aug. 14, 1828 Of St. Cloud, between Davoust, and Convention between Holland and Bel

Wellington, and Blucher July 5, 1815 gium, signed in London April 19, 1839 CONVENTS. They were first founded, according to some authorities, in a.d. 270.

The first in England was erected at Folkstone, by Eadbald, in 630.—Camden. The first in Scotland was at Coldingham, when Ethelreda took the veil, in 670. They were founded earlier than this last date in Ireland. Convents were suppressed in England in various reigns, particularly in that of Henry VIII., and comparatively few now exist in Great Britain. More than 3000 have been suppressed in Europe within the last few years. The emperor of Russia abolished 187 convents of monks, by an ukase dated July 31, 1832. The king of Prussia followed his example, and secularised all the convents in the duchy of Posen. Don Pedro put down 300 con

vents in Portugal in 1834, and Spain has lately abolished 1800 convents. CONVICTS. The first arrival of transported convicts at Botany Bay, was in 1788.

On the 20th of January in that year, governor Philip, the first governor, with about 800 convicts under sentence of transportation, took possession of this settlement, but he subsequently removed to Sydney, denominated, from lord Sydney, Sydney Cove. Convicts are now sent to Van Diemen's Land, Norfolk Island, &c.; and many thousands of them are transferred to Penitentiaries, and set to labour in the

hulks in several ports of the realm.-See New South Wales and Transportation. CONVOCATION OF THE CLERGY. The first summoned to meet by writ of the

king, was 23 Edward I., 1295. The power of the convocation was limited by a statute of Henry VIII., in whose reign the convocation was re-organised. The clergy relinquished the power of taxing themselves in 1665. The two houses of convocation were deprived of various privileges in 1716. The meetings of the clergy in

convocation are now infrequent, and merely formal. CONVOLVULUS. The Canary Convolvulus (Convolvulus Canariensis) came to Eng

land from the Canary Isles, 1690. The many-flowered Convolvulus, in 1779. COOK'S VOYAGES. The illustrious captain Cook sailed from England in the En.

deavour, on his first voyage, July 30, 1768 ;* and returned home after having

.

* A memorial was presented to the king by the Royal Society in 1768, setting forth the advantages which would be derived to science if an accurate observation of the then approaching transit of

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