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the master-gunner of the Royal Prince man-of-war, whose signal bravery on board that ship in the engagement with the Dutch admiral, Van Tromp, has given him an

imperishable renown. The cushee piece was invented in 1673. CUSTOM. This is a law, not written, but established by long usage and consent. By

lawyers and civilians it is defined lex non scripta, and it stands opposed to lex scripta, or the written law. It is the rule of law when it is derived from ad. 1189,

downwards. Sixty years is binding in civil law, and forty years in ecclesiastical cases. CUSTOM-HOUSE. That of London is of early institution (see Billingsgate), as cus•

toms were collected in a regular manner in the tenth century. A custom-house was erected on a large scale, A.D. 1304 ; and another on a yet larger scale was erected in 1559. This last was burnt down in 1666, and a new one was built by Charles II. Again burnt down in 1718, and again rebuilt. The custom-house once more became a prey to fire, Feb. 12, 1814, when it was totally burnt down, and immense property and valuable records were destroyed. The present edifice was opened May 12, 1817. The Dublin custom-house was commenced in 1781, and was opened in 1791. The eastern wing of its warehouse was destroyed by fire, with property to the amount of

400,0001., Aug. 9, 1832. CUSTOMS. They were collected upon merchandise in England, under Ethelred II.,

in 979. The king's claim to them by grant of parliament was established 3 Edward I., 1274. The customs were farmed to Mr. Thomas Smith for 20,0001. for several years, in the reign of Elizabeth. - Stowe. They were farmed by Charles II. for 390,0001. in the year 1666.—Davenant. In 1580 they amounted to

£14,000 In 1748 they amounted to £2,000,000 50,000

9,973,240 ditto 148,000

11.493.762 In 1830 United Kingdom

. 17.540.323 In 1612 ditto 500,000

18,612,906 In 1720



19,915,296 The customs in Ireland were, in the year 1224, viz., on every sack of wool, 3d.; on every last of hides, 6d. ; and 2d. on every barrel of wine.- Annals of Dublin. Custom-house officers, and officers of excise, were disqualified from voting for the election of members of parliament, by statute 22 George III,, 1782. The customs' business of Ireland was transferred to the London board, January 6, 1830.

See Revenue. CYCLE. That of the sun is the twenty-eight years before the days of the week return

to the same days of the month. That of the moon is nineteen lunar years and seven intercalary months, or nineteen solar years. The cycle of Jupiter is sixty years, or sexagenary. The Paschal cycle, or the time of keeping Easter, was first calculated

for the period of 532 years, by Victorius, AD. 463.— Blair. CYCLOPÆDIA. Cyclopædias were written late in the fifteenth, and some were pub

lished in the sixteenth century; but the principal, and most comprehensive work of this kind was that of Alstedius, in 1620, of which many copies, much prized, are extant. The earliest attempt in England to arrange the whole compass of human knowledge in an alphabetical form was the Dictionary of Ephraim Chambers (which may be said to be the foundation of all others since), printed in two large folio volumes

in 1728.–See Encyclopædia. CYMBAL. The oldest musical instrument of which we have certain record. It was

made of brass, like a kettle-drum, and some think in the same form, but smaller. Xenophon makes mention of the cymbal as a musical instrument, whose invention is attributed to Cybele, by whom, we are told, it was used in her feasts, called the mysteries of Cybele, about 1580 B.C. The festivals of Cybele were introduced by

Scamander, with the dances of Corybantes, at Mount Ida, 1546 B.c. CYNICS. The sect of philosophers founded by Antisthenes, 396 B.C.—Diog. Laert.

He lived in the ninety-fourth Olympiad.—Pardon. These philosophers valued them. selves for contemning all worldly things, and even all sciences, except morality; they were very free in reprehending vice, and did all their actions publicly, and practised the greatest obscenities without blushing.- Idem. Diogenes was one of this

sect. They generally slept on the ground.—Diog. Laert. CYPRESS. Cupressus sempervirens. A tree whose wood is of an agreeable smell,

that scarcely ever decays, or takes the worm ; originally found in the Isle of Cyprus

It was used by the ancients as a token of sorrow. Some are of opinion that the wood gophir, of which Noah's ark was made, was cypress; and the Athenians buried their heroes in coffins made of this wood, of which many of the Egyptian mummychests were also fabricated. The cypress was brought to England about A.D. 1441. The Deciduous cypress, or Cupressus disticha, came from North America before

the year 1640. CYPRUS. An island, whose inhabitants anciently were much given to love and plea

sure.- Pliny. It was divided among several petty kings till the time of Cyrus, who subdued them ; it ranked among the proconsular provinces in the reign of Augustus. Conquered by the Saracens, A.D. 648; but recovered by the Romans, in 957. Cyprus was reduced by Richard I. of England, in 1191. Taken by the Tarks from the

Venetians, in 1570.Priestley. CYRENAIC SECT. Aristippus the Elder, of Cyrene, was the founder of the Cyre

naici, 392 B.c. They maintained the doctrine that the supreme good of man in this life is pleasure, and particularly pleasure of a sensual kind; and said that virtue ought to be commended because it gave pleasure, and only so far as it conduced thereto.

The sect flourished for several ages.-Laer. Ar. Cicero. CYRENE. Founded by Battus, 630 B.C. Aristæus, who was the chief of the colonists

here, gave the city his mother's name. It was also called Pentapolis, on account of its five towns, namely, Cyrene, Ptolemais, Berenice, Apollonia, and Arsinoe. Cyrene was left by Ptolemy Apion to the Romans, 97 B.C. It is now a desert.

Priestley. CYZICUM, BATTLE OF. The Lacedemonian fleet under Mindarus, assisted by Phar.

nabazus, the Persian, is encountered by the Athenians, and is defeated with great

slaughter. In this battle Mindarus is slain, 410 B.C.-— Plutarch. 408 s.c.—Lenglet. CZAR. From Cæsar, a title of honour assumed by the sovereigns of Russia. Ivan

Basilowitz, after having achieved great triumphs over the Tartars, and made many conquests, pursued them to the centre of their own country, and returning in triumph, took the title of Tzar, or Czar, (signifying Great King).- Aspin's Chron. The courts of Europe consented to address the Russian Czar by the title of Emperor in 1722.-Idem.

D. DAHLIA. This beautiful flower was imported from China, of which it is a native,

early in the present century, and amateurs in flowers have annually laid out hundreds of pounds in England, and thousands of francs in France, in the purchase of it. The Swedish botanist, professor Dahl, first cultivated and made it known. It soon attracted notice in England, where, from the beauty of its forin and variety of colour, it became at once an especial favourite. In 1815, about two months after the battle of Waterloo, it was introduced into France, and the celebrated florist, André Thouin, suggested various practical improvements in its management. The botanist Georgi, had, shortly before this, introduced it at St. Petersburgh ; and hence it is, that to

this day the dahlia is known throughout Germany under the name of Georgina. DAMASCUS. This city was in being in the time of Abraham.-Gen. xiv. It is, con

sequently, one of the most ancient in the world. From the Assyrians, Damascus passed to the Persians, and from them to the Greeks under Alexander; and afterwards to the Romans, about 70 B.C. It was taken by the Saracens, A.D. 633 ; by the Turks in 1006; and was destroyed by Tamerlane, in 1400. It was in a journey to this place that the apostle Paul was miraculously converted to the Christian faith, and here he began to preach the gospel, about A.D. 50. Damascus is now the capital of a Turkish pachalic. The disappearance of a Greek priest, named Father Tommaso, from here, Feb. 1, 1840, led to the torture of a number of Jews, suspected of his murder, and in the end, to a cruel persecution of that people, which caused remonstrances

from many states of Europe. DAMASK LINENS AND SILKS. They were first manufactured at Damascus, and

hence the name, their large fine figures representing flowers, and being raised above the ground-work. They were beautifully imitated by the Dutch and Flemish weavers ; and the manufacture was brought to England by artisans who fled from the persecution of the cruel duke of Alva, between the years 1571 and 1573.-Anderson. DAMASK ROSE. The Rosa Damascena has not been more highly celebrated by the

poets of modern times, than by those of antiquity.-Butler. Most of the ancients loved this fragrant and charming rose.--Darwin. It is the pride of plants, and queen of flowers.--Sappho. And sweetest daughter of the spring.--Anacreon. The damask rose was transplanted from the gardens of Damascus, and was brought to these countries from the south of Europe and Marseilles, by Dr. Linacre, physician to Henry VIII., about A.D. 1540. Several varieties of the rose were subsequently

planted in England. - See article Rose. DAMIENS' ATTEMPT ON THE LIFE OF LOUIS XV. Louis, who was styled the

Well-beloved, was stabbed with a knife in the right side by Damiens, a native of Arras, Jan. 5, 1757. For this crime the wretched culprit suffered a dreadful death ; he was first made to endure the most excruciating tortures, nearly similar to those which had been inflicted on the regicide Ravillac, and was then broken on the

wheel, March 28, following.–See Ravillac's Murder of Henry IV. DAMON AND PYTHIAS. Pythagorean philosophers. When Damon was condemned

to death by the tyrant Dionysius of Syracuse, he obtained leave to go and settle some domestic affairs, on a promise of returning at the appointed time of execution, and Pythias became surety for the performance of his engagement. When the fatal hour approached, Damon had not appeared, and Pythias surrendered himself, and was led away to execution ; but at this critical moment Damon returned to redeem his pledge. Dionysius was so struck with the fidelity of these friends, that he remitted

the sentence, and entreated them to permit him to share their friendship, 387 B.C. DANCING. The dance to the measure of time was invented by the Curetes, 1534 B.C.

Eusebius. The Greeks were the first who united the dance to their tragedies and comedies. Pantomimic dances were first introduced on the Roman stage, 22 B.C.Usher. Dancing by cinque paces was introduced into England from Italy A.D. 1541. In modern times, the French were the first who introduced ballets analogues in their musical dramas. The country dance (contre-danse) is of French origin, but

its date is not precisely known.-Spelman. DAN TO BEERSHEBA. The phrase " From Dan to Beersheba," is now frequently

used, and in modern literature is first met with, perhaps, in Sterne, 1768. Dan was usually accounted the utmost northern border of the land of Israel, as Beersheba was the southern, whence the expression denotes the whole length of the Holy Land, from north to south, and, proverbially, the extremity of any other district. We read of Erastus having been (about A.D. 60) bishop of Paneus, which is another name for Dan. "I pity the man who can travel from Dan to Beersheba and cry • 'Tis all barren'-and so it is ; and so is all the world to him who will not cultivate

the fruits it offers."'--Sentimental Journey. DANE-GELD, OR DANEGELT. This was a tribute formerly paid to the Danes,

arising out of their exactions, and to stop their ravages in this kingdom. It was first raised by Ethelred II, in 991, and was again collected in 1003; and continued to be levied after the expulsion of the Danes, to pay fleets for scouring the seas of them. The tax was suppressed by Edward the Confessor in 1051 : but it was revived by William the Conqueror, and formed part of the revenue of the crown, until abolished by king Stephen. The Danegelt was thus raised: every hide of land, i. e. as much as one plough could plough, or, as Bede says, maintain a family,

was taxed one shilling.–Stowe. DANES, Invasions of THE. The invasions of this people were a scourge to Eng.

land for upwards of two hundred years. During their attacks upon Britain and Ireland, they made a descent on France, where, in 895, under Rollo, they received presents under the walls of Paris. They returned and ravaged the French territories as far as Ostend in 896. They attacked Italy in 903. Neustria was granted by the king of France to Rollo and his Normans (North-men), hence Normandy, in 905. The invasions of England and Ireland were as follows :

They invade Scotland and Ireland . A.D. 796 First hostile appearance of the Danes They enter Dublin with a fleet of 60 sail, upon the coast.

A.D. 783 and possess themselves of Dublin, FinThey land near Purbeck, Dorset 787 gal, and other places .

798 Descend in Northumberland ; are

They take the Isle of Sheppey pelled, and perish by shipwreck. 794 Defeated in Cornwall, by Egbert








. 1010

. 1011


. 1069



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They defeat Ethelwolf at Charmouth A.D. 836 They land in Essex, and in the west, and
They land in Kent from 350 vessels, and

are paid a sum of money (16,0008.) to take Canterbury and London

851 quit the kingdom Their signal defeat by Ethelwolf


A general massacre of the Danes, by [This defeat closes the first period of their

order of Ethelred Il..

Nov. 1002 ravages.)

Swein revenges the death of his country. SECOND SERIES OF INVASIONS.

men, and receives 36,0001. (which he They return to England, make a descent

afterwards demands as an annual trion Northumberland, and take York 867

bute) to depart .

1003 They defeat the Saxons at Merton 871

They make fresh inroads, and defeat the They take Wareham and Exeter


Saxons in Suffolk They take Chippenbam; but 120 of their They again sack Canterbury, and put the ships are wrecked


inhabitants to death . Defeated by the earl of Devon


Their conquest of England completed 1017
Alfred enters into a treaty with them 882

Their fleet totally destroyed by Alfred at They settle in Scotland.

1020 Appledore

894 Vanquished at Clontarf in Ireland, in a They invade and waste Anglesey 900 bloody battle (see Clontari)

1014 They submit to the Saxons 921 They are driven out of England.

1041 They defeat the people of Leinster, whose They land again at Sandwich, carrying king is killed 956 off much plunder to Flanders

1047 Their new invasion of Dorsetshire

982 They burn York, and put 3000 Normans They ravage Essex

991 to the sword Their fleet defeated after a breach of Once more invade England, but are treaty, purchased by money 992 bribed by William to depart

1074 DANGEROUS ASSOCIATIONS' BILL. The statute for the suppression of dan

gerous associations in Ireland, particularly with reference to the then Catholic Association, passed March 5, 1829. This law was enacted at the same time that the

Catholic Relief Bill was passed.-See Catholic Association. DANTZIC. A commercial city in A.D. 997.Busching. It was built, according to

other authorities, by Waldemar I. in 1169. Seized by the king of Prussia, and annexed to his dominions in 1793. It surrendered to the French after a siege of four months, May 5, 1807 ; and, by the treaty of Tilsit, it was restored to its former independence, under the protection of Prussia and Saxony. Dantzic was besieged by the allies in 1812; and, after a gallant resistance, surrendered to them Jan. 1, 1814. By the treaty of Paris it again reverted to the king of Prussia. Awful inundation here, owing to the Vistula breaking through its dykes, by which 10,000 head of cattle and 4,000 houses were destroyed, and a vast number of lives lost,

April 9, 1829. DARDANELLES, PASSAGE OF THE. The Dardanelles are two castles, one called

Sestos, seated in Romania, the other called Abydos, in Natolia, commanding the entrance of the strait of Gallipoli. They were built by the emperor Mahomet IV. in 1659, and were named Dardanelles from the contiguous town Dardanus. The gallant exploit of forcing the passage of the Dardanelles was achieved by the British squadron under admiral sir John Duckworth, February 19, 1807; but the admiral was obliged to repass them, which he did with great loss and immense damage to the fleet, March 2, following, the castles of Sestos and Abydos hurling down rocks of

stone, each of many tons weight, upon the decks of the British ships. DARIC. This gold coin was issued by Darius the Mede, and hence its name, about

338 B.C. It weighed two grains more than the English guinea.-Dr. Bernard. DARTFORD. At this town commenced the memorable insurrection of Wat Tyler,

A.D. 1381. Here was a celebrated convent of nuns of the order of St. Augustin, endowed by Edward III. 1355, which was converted by Henry VIII. at the time of the Reformation into a royal palace. The first paper-mill in England was erected at Dartford by sir John Speilman, a German, in 1590.-Stowe. And about same period was erected here the first mill for slitting iron bars. The powder-mills here were blown up four times between 1730 and 1738. Various explosions have since occurred, in some cases with loss of life to many persons. A great explosion took

place Oct. 12, 1790; again Jan. 1, 1795 ; and others more recently. DARTMOUTH. Burnt by the French in the reigns of Richard I. and Henry IV.

In a third attempt the invaders were defeated by the inhabitants, assisted ny the valour of the women. The French commander, M. Castel, three lords, and thirty-two knights were made prisoners, 1404. In the war of the parliament, Dartmouth was taken (1643) after a siege of four weeks, by prince Maurice, who garrisoned the

place for the king; but it was retaken by general Fairfax by storm in 1646. DAUPHIN. The title given to the eldest sons of the kings of France, from the

province of Dauphiné, which was ceded by its last prince Humbert II. to Philip of Valois, on the condition that the heirs to the French throne should bear the arms and name of the province, A.D. 1343.—Priestley. The present duke of Orleans,

eldest son of Louis Philip, is not called the dauphin. DAVIS' STRAIT. Discovered by the renowned English navigator, John Davis, whose

name it bears, on his voyage to find a North-west passage, in 1585. Davis made two more voyages for the same purpose, and afterwards performed five voyages to the East Indies. In the last he was killed by Japanese pirates, in the Indian seas,

on the coast of Malacca, December 27, 1605. DAY. Day began at sunrise among most of the northern nations, and at sunset

among the Athenians and Jews. Among the Romans day commenced at midnight, as it now does among us. The Italians in most places, at the present time, reckon the day from sun-rise to sun-set, making their clocks strike twenty-four hours round, instead of dividing the day, as is done in all other countries, into equal portions of twelve hours. This mode is but partially used in the larger towas of Italy, most public clocks in Florence, Rome, and Milan, being set to the hour designated on French or English clocks. The Chinese divide the day into twelve parts of two hours each. Our civil day is distinguished from the astronomical day, which begins at noon, and is the mode of reckoning used in the Nautical Almanack. At Rome, day and night were first divided in time by means of water-clocks, the

invention of Scipio Nasica, 158 B.C.-Vossius de Scien. Math. DEACON. An order of the Christian priesthood, which took its rise from the insti.

tution of seven deacons by the Apostles, which number was retained a long period in many churches, about a.d. 51. See Acts, chap. vi. The original deacons were Philip, Stephen, Prochorus, Nicanor, Timon, Parmenos, and Nicolas. The quali

fications of a deacon are mentioned by St. Paul, 1st Timothy iii. 8–13. DEAF AND DUMB. The first systematic attempt to instruct the deaf and dumb was

made by Pedro de Ponce, a Benedictine monk of Spain, about A.D. 1570. Bonet, who was also a monk, published a system at Madrid in 1620. Dr. Wallis published a work in England on the subject, in 1650. The first regular academy for the deaf and dumb in these countries was opened in Edinburgh in 1773. In our own times the Abbé de l'Epée, and Abbé Sicard of Paris ; the rev. Mr. Townsend, and Mr. Baker, of London; Mr. Braidwood, of Edinburgh ; and surgeon Orpen, of Dublin, have laboured with much success in promoting the instruction of the deaf and dumb. An asylum for teaching the deaf and dumb poor was opened in London through the humane exertions of Mr. Townsend, in 1792. The asylum at Claremont,

Dublin, was opened in 1816.-See Dumb. DEAN, FOREST OF. Anciently it was shaded with woods quite through, and was of

immense extent; and in the last century, though much curtailed, it was twenty miles in length and ten in breadth. It was famous for its oaks, of which most of our former ships of war were made. The memorable riots in this district, when more than 3,000 persons assembled in the forest, and demolished upwards of fifty miles of

wall and fence, throwing open 10,000 acres of plantation, June 8, 1831. DEATH, PUNISHMENT OF. Death by drowning in a quagmire was a punishment

among the Britons before 450 B.C.-Stowe. The most eulogised heroes of antiquity inflicted death by crucifixion, and even women suffered on the cross, the victims sometimes living in the most excruciating torture many days. A most horrifying instance of death by torture occurs in the fate of Mithridates, the assassin of Xerxes. See a note to the article Persia ; see also Ravillac; Boiling to Death ; Burning to Death, &c. Maurice, the son of a nobleman, was hanged, drawn, and quartered for piracy, the first execution in that manner in England, 25 Henry III. 1241. The punishment of death was abolished in a great number of cases by Mr. Peel's acts, 4th to 10th George IV. 1824-9. Act abolishing the punishment of death in certain other cases, 2 and 3 William IV. 1832. Act of same session to continue the punishment of death in cases of forgery, excepting the forging of wills and powers-of-attorney to transfer stock, August 16, 1832. Act abolishing the punishment of death in all cases of forgery, 1 Victoria, July 17, 1837.

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