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Eden, on the east side of it, below the confluence of the lesser rivers, which emptied themselves into it, about 27° N. lat., now swallowed up by the Persian Gulf, an event which may have happened at the Universal Deluge, 2348 B.C. The country of Eden extended into Armenia.--Calmet. The Almighty constructed Eden with a view to beauty, as well as usefulness : not only every plant that was good for food,

but such also as were pleasant to the eye, were planted there.-Genesis ii. 8, 9. EDGEHILL, BATTLE OF, also called Edgehill Fight, between the Royalists and the

Parliament army, the first engagement of importance in the civil war; Charles I. was personally present in this battle. Prince Rupert commanded the royalists, and the earl of Essex the parliamentarians. The earl of Lindsay, one of Charles's generals, who headed the foot forces, was mortally wounded, and taken prisoner. The king's army lost 5,000 dead on the field of battle, with vast numbers of wounded and prisoners ; but, owing to the great loss on the other side also, the action produced no decisive consequence to either party, and neither could fairly claim the

victory, though the parliament army did, Oct. 23, 1642. EDICT or NANTES. This was the celebrated edict by which Henry IV. of France

granted toleration to his Protestant subjects, in 1598. It was revoked by Louis XIV., Oct. 24, 1685. This bad and unjust policy lost to France 800,000 Protestants, and gave to England (part of these) 50,000 industrious artisans. Some thousands, who brought with them the art of manufacturing silks, settled in Spitalfields, where their descendants yet remain : others planted themselves in Soho and St. Giles's, and pursued the art of making crystal glasses, and various fine works in which they excelled ; among these, jewellery, then little understood in England.- Anderson's

Orig. of English Commerce. EDICTS. Public ordinances and decrees, usually sent forth by sovereigns, as in the

preceding case: they originated with the Romans. The PERPETUAL Edict: Salvius Julianus, of Milan, a civilian at Rome (the author of several treatises on public right), was employed by the emperor Adrian to draw up this edict or body

of laws for the Prætors, A.D. 132. EDILES. These were Roman magistrates, like our mayors, and there were two ediles

at a time. They had the superintendance and care of public and private works and buildings, baths, aqueducts, bridges, roads, &c.; they also took cognizance of weights and measures, and regulated the markets for provisions ; they examined comedies before they were acted, and treated the people with games and shows at their own expense. The duties of ediles have suggested similar offices in our own polity, and

served in many instances as models for our magistracy.- Pardon. EDINBURGH. The metropolis of Scotland, and one of the first and finest cities of

the empire. It derives its name-in ancient records Dun Edin, signifying "the hill of Edin"- from its castle, founded or rebuilt by Edwin, king of Northumbria, who, having greatly extended his dominions, erected it for the protection of bis dewly-acquired territories from the incursions of the Scots and Picts, A.D. 626. But it is said the castle was first built by Camelon, king of the Picts, 330 B.C. It makes a conspicuous appearance, standing at the west end of the town, on a rock 300 feet high, and, before the use of great guns, was a fortification of considerable strength. The early accounts of this city are not authentic.

Christianity introduced, the reign of Annual fair granted by James II. A D. 1447
Donald I.

201 City strengthened by a wall
Edinburgh taken by the Anglo-Saxons 452 Charter of James III.
Retaken by the Picts

685 Edinburgh made the metropolis of ScotCity fortified, and castle rebuilt

1074 land by king James III. Besieged by Donald Bane

1093 Royal College of Surgeons incorporated Abbey founded by David I.




by charter. Edinburgh constituted a burgh * * Charter of James IV.. Castle surrendered to Henry II.

1174 [The Palace of Holyrood is built in A parliament is held here under Alex.

the reign of James IV.] ander II. in

. 1215 High school founded City taken by the English

. 1296 A British force, landing from a fleet of Grant of the town of Leith

200 ships, takes Edinburgh and Leith, James II, first king crowned here

and burns both towns

1344 Execution here of the earl of Athol Leith is again burnt, but Edinburgh is and his grandson

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. 1570

.. 1799


• 1805





EDINBURGH, continued.

Marriage of queen Mary and lord Darn- Great commotion and tumult against
ley at Holyrood-house

A.D. 1565
popery in the city

A.D. 1779
David Rizzio murdered .
. 1566 Society of Antiquarians .

. 1780 Lord Darnley (the husband of Mary) is Royal Society instituted

• 1783 blown up in a private house by gun. South Bridge commenced

1785 powder: he is supposed to have been Royal College of Surgeons incorporated first murdered Feb. 10, 1567 by charter

1788 Mary's marriage with James Hepburn, First stone of the present university earl of Bothwell May 15, 1567 laid

Nov. 16, 1789 Era of the civil war on account of Mary's Robertson, the historian, died at Edinforced resignation


June ll, 1793 Death of John Knox 1572 Bridewell, Calton-hill, erected

. 1796 University founded by James VI.-See Holyrood affords an asylum to Louis

Edinburgh University Apr. 24, 1582 XVIII. and his brother, afterwards Earl of Bothwell's attempt on Holyrood- Charles X., from 1795 to house

Dec. 27, 1591 [Charles X., subsequent to the revolu-
Riot in the city, in which the mob

tion of 1830, resided here.]
attacks the king
1596 New Bank commenced

June 3, 1801
James VI. leaves Edinburgh, as king Edinburgh Review published

1802 of England.

Apr. 5, 1603 New system of police established
He visits Edinburgh
May 16, 1617 Alarming riots here

Dec. 31, 1811
Heriot's Hospital founded

. 1624

Nelson's monument completed . 1815 Charles L. visits Edinburgh 1633 Gas company incorporated .

1818 Edinburgh erected into a bishopric by Water company incorporated .

. 1819 Charles I., while bere .

1633 Professor Playfair dies July 20, 1819 Parliament house finished . 1640 Society of Arts instituted

1821 Charles again visits the city 1641 Union Canal completed

1822 The castle is surrendered to Cromwell George IV.'s visit

Aug. 14, 1822 by Dundas 1650 He holds his levee

Aug. 17, 1822 Coffee-houses first opened


And leaves for England Aug. 29, 1822
Merchants' Company incorporated

Foundation of the great national monu.
College of Physicians incorporated . . 1681 ment of Scotland laid
Earl of Argyll beheaded June 30, 1685 Royal Institution erected

1823 African and East India Company incor- Destructive fires June and Nov. 1824 porated

1695 Scottish Academy founded
Bank of Scotland founded
1695 Lord Melville's monument erected

• 1828 Union of the kingdoms .

1707 The Edinburgh and Dalkeith Railway
Royal Bank founded
1727 opened

July, 1831
Board of trustees of trade and manu- Statue of George IV. erected

1832 factures appointed 1727 Association of the Fine Arts

1833 Royal Infirmary incorporated 1736 Edinburgh, Leith, and Granton RailAffair of Captain Porteous: he is hanged way commenced

18.36 by the populace in the Grassmarket. Art-union of Scotland

1837 (See Porteous)

1736 Monument to Sir Walter Scott com-
Medical Suciety instituted
1737 menced (since finished)

The young Pretender's army occupies Society of Arts, founded in 1821, and
the city

incorporated in

1842 He takes possession of Holyrood . 1745 Railway between Edinburgh and GlasModern improvements commenced . 1753 gow opened

Feb. 21, 1842 Magistrates assigned gold chains. 1754 Victoria visits Edinburgh

. Aug. 31, 1842 Royal Exchange completed

1761 | Her public entry

Sept. 3, 1842
Foundation stone of the North Bridge Her Majesty holds her court at Dalkeith
Oct. 21, 1763 Palace,

Sept. 5, 1812
Theatre Royal erected

• 1769

And leaves for England . Sept. 15, 1842 Great fire in the Lawn-market 1771 New College instituted

1843 Register-office, Princes-street, com- North British Railway commenced . menced


See Scotland. EDINBURGH, BISHOPRIC OF. This see was created by Charles I., when that monarch

was in Scotland, in 1633 ; and William Forbes, one of the ministers of Edinburgh, was made first bishop. The king allotted the parishes of the shires of Edinburgh, Linlithgow, Haddington, and a part of Berwick and of Stirlingshire, to compose the see. The sixth and last prelate was Alexander Ross, who was ejected on the abolition of episcopacy, at the period of the Revolution, in 1688. The bishopric of Edin

burgh is now one of the six existing bishoprics of Scotland. EDINBURGH UNIVERSITY. A college was commenced by the town-council of

Edinburgh, for which queen Mary had given the site of ancient religious houses,

. 1826




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• 2126 • 2122

and Robert Reid, bishop of Orkney, the funds, 1581. The University was founded by James VI., afterwards James I. of England, in 1582. The first principal was appointed in 1585. The foundation stone of the new buildings was laid by Francis, lord Napier, grand master of the masons of Scotland, Nov. 16th. 1789. In 1845, the library contained upwards of 80,000 volumes, besides numerous curious and rare MSS. and documents. This university has long been celebrated throughout the world, particularly for its medical school, which is entitled to the first rank. Some of the most learned men, the most profound writers, and ablest physicians, have

been produced by this university. EGALITE'. Equality. The surname assumed hy Philip Bourbon Capet, the infamous

duke of Orleans, to ingratiate himself with the republicans, on the abolition of monarchy in France, Sept. 11, 1792. He voted for the death of Louis XVI. his

relative; but this did not save him from a like doom. He was guillotined Nov. 6, 1793. EGYPT. The dynasty of its Pharaohs or kings commenced with Mizraim, the son of

Ham, second son of Noah, 2188 3.c. The kingdom lasted 1663 years ; it was conquered by Cambyses, 525 B.C. In A.D. 639, this country was wrested from the eastern emperor Heraclius, by Omar, calif of the Saracens. The famous Saladin established the dominion of the Mamelukes, in 1171. Selim I. emperor of the Turks, took Egypt, in 1517, and it was governed by Beys till 1799, when a great part of the country was conquered by the French, under Buonaparte. In 1801, the invaders were disposssessed by the British, and the government was restored to the Turks.-See Turkey, for modern events.

Mizraim builds Memphis (Blair) B.C. 2188 [These fictions were probably intended
Egypt made four kingdoms, viz.: Upper

to mark the profound policy of this Egypt, Lower Egypt, This, and Mem

king, who was eminent for his wisdom, phis (Abbé Lenglet, Blair).

by which his dominion flourished.-Bl.] Athotes invents hieroglyphics

Pseusennes enters Palestine, ravages JuBusiris builds Thebes (Usher)

2111 dea, and carries off the sacred vessels Osymandyas, the first warlike king,

of the Temple :

A.D. 971 passes into Asia, conquers Bactria, and

The dynasty of kings called Tanites becauses his exploits to be represented in

gins with Petubastes (Blair) sculpture and painting (Usher, Lenglet) 2100 dynasty of Saites (Blair)

781 The Phænicians invade Lower Egypt and Sebacon invades Egypt, subdues the king, hold it 260 years (Usher)

2080 Bocchoris, whom he orders to be roasted The lake of Mæris constructed 1938 alive (Usher)

737 The patriarch Abraham visits Egypt to Psammittichus the Powerful reigns 600 avoid the famine in Canaan

1921 He invests Azoth, which holds out for 19 Syphoas introduces the use of the com

years, the longest siege in the annals mon letters (Usher) 1891 of antiquity (Usher)

647 Meninon invents the Egyptian letters Necho begins the famous canal between (Blair, Lenglet)

1822 the Arabic gulf and the Mediterranean Amenophis I. is acknowledged the king

sea (Blair)

610 of all Egypt (Lenglet)

1821 This canal abandoned, after costing the Joseph the Israelite is sold into Egypt as

lives of 120,000 men (Herodotus)

609 a slave (Lenglet)

Nebuchadnezzer of Babylon deposes He interprets the king's dreams 1715 Apries (Usher).

581 His father and brethren settle here 1706 Apries taken prisoner and strangled in Sesostris reigns; he extends his dominion

his palace (Diod. Siculus).

by conquest over Arabia, Persia, India, The philosopher Pythagoras comes from
and Asia Minor (Lenglet) *

Samos into Egypt, and is instructed in
Settlement of the Ethiopians (Blair) 1615 the mysteries of Egyptian theology(Us. 535
Rampses, who imposed on his subjects The line of the Pharaohs ends in the mur-
the building of walls and pyramids,

der of Psammenitus by Cambyses (Bl.) 526 and other labours, dies (Lenglet)

Dreadful excesses of Cambyses; he puts Amenophis I. is overwhelmed in the Red the children of the grandees, male and

Sea, with all his army (Lenglet, Blair) 1492 female, to death, and makes the counReign of Egyptus, from whom the coun

try a waste (Herodotus)

594 try, hitherto called Mizraim, is now He sends an army of 50,000 men across called Egypt (Blair).

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. 1728


• 1492


the desert to destroy the temple of JuReign of Thuoris (the Proteus of the

piter Ammon, but they all perish in Greeks) who had the faculty of assum

the burning sands (Justin)

524 ing whatever form he pleased, as of a Egypt revolts from the Persians; again lion, a dragon, a tree, water, fire 1189 subdued by Xerxes (Blair)

487 * The epoch of the reign of Sesostris is very uncertain ; Blair makes it to fall 133 years later. As to the achievements of this monarch, they are supposed to have been the labours of several kings, attributed by the Egyptian priests to Sesostris alone, whose very existence, indeed, is doubted.

• 1485
















EGYPT, continued.
A revolt under Inarus (Blair)

463 He murders his son by his new queen ; Successful revolt under Amyrtæus, who

also his son by her mother, sending the is proclaimed king (Lenglet)

414 head and limbs of the latter as a preEgypt again reduced by Persia, and its

sent to the parent on a feast day temples pillaged (Usher)

Yet, defeating the Egyptian army, ho Alexander the Great enters Egypt, wrests recovers his throne; and dies

117 it from the Persians, and builds Alex- Pestilence from the putrefaction of vast andria (Blair)

332 swarms of locusts; 800,000 persons Philadelphus completes the Pharos of

perish in Egypt Alexandria (Blair)

283 Revolt in Upper Egypt; the famous city The Septuagint version of the Old Testa

of Thebes destroyed after a siege of ment made about this time

three years (Diod. Siculus) The famous library of Alexandria also Auletes dying, leaves his kingdom to his dates about this period (Blair)

eldest son, Ptolemy, and the famous Ambassadors first sent to Rome

Cleopatra (Blair)

51 Ptolemy Euergetes overruns Syria, and During a civil war between Ptolemy and returns laden with rich spoils, and

Cleopatra, Alexandria is besieged by 2500 statues and vessels of gold and

Cæsar, and the famous library nearly silver, which Cambyses bad taken destroyed by fire (Blair)

47 from the Egyptian temples (Blair)

Cæsar defeats the king, who, in crossing Reign of Philometer and Physcon

151 the Nile, is drowned ; and the younger At the death of Philometer, his brother Ptolemy and Cleopatra reign

46 Physcon marries his queen, and on Cleopatra poisons her brother (only 14 the day of his nuptials murders the

years of age) and reigns alone infant son of Philometer in its mo- She appears before Mark Antony, to ther's arms


answer for this crime. Fascinated by He repudiates his wife, ind marries her her beauty, he follows her into Egypt 40

daughter by his brother (Blair) 130 Antony defeated by Octavius Cæsar at His subjects, wearied with his cruelties

the battle of Actium (Blair) and crimes, demolish his statues, set Octavius enters Egypt; Antony and fire to his palace, and he flies from

Cleopatra kill themselves; and the their fury (Blair)

129 kingdom becomes a Roman province . EGYPTIAN ERA. The old Egyptian year was identical with the era of Nabonasser,

beginning February 26, 747 B.C., and consisted of 365 days only. It was reformed, 30 B.C., at which period the commencement of the year had arrived, by continually receding, to the 29th August, which was determined to be in future the first day of

the year. To reduce to the Christian era, subtract 746 years, 125 days. ELBA, Isle of, taken possession of by the British, July 6, 1796 ; but it was aban

doned the next year. Elba was conferred upon Napoleon (with the title of emperor continued) as the place of his retreat upon relinquishing the throne of France, April 5, 1814. He secretly embarked from this island with about 1200 men in hired feluccas, on the night of Feb. 25, 1815, and landed in Provence, March ), to recover the Imperial crown.-See Buonaparte, and France. After having been quitted by

Buonaparte, Elba was taken possession of by the Grand Duke of Florence, July 1815. ELEATIC SECT. Founded by Xenophanes, the philosopher of Colophon; he had

been banished to Sicily on account of his wild theory of God and nature, and his sect originated there. This theorist supposed that the stars were extinguished every morning and rekindled at night ; that eclipses were ocrusioned by a partial extinction of the sun ; that there were several suns and moons for the convenience of the

different climates of the earth, &c., about 535 B.C.-Strabo. ELECTIONS, BRIBERY AT. Various statutes have been enacted against it from time

to time. The principal acts relating to elections commenced with the 7th of Henry IV., 1409. Elections were made void by bribery, in 1696, et seq. Messrs. Sykes and Rumbold were fined and imprisoned for bribery at an election, 1776. An elector of Durham was convicted in a penalty of 5001. in July, 1803. Mr. Swan, M. P. for Penryn, was fined and imprisoned, and sir Manasseh Lopez sentenced to a fine of 10,0001., and to two years' imprisonment, for bribery at Grampound, in October 1819. The members for Liverpool and Dublin were unseated, in 1831. Among other elections which have lately been made void, were those of Cambridge and

Ludlow, in May 1840.-See Bribery. ELECTORS. Those for members of Parliament for counties were obliged to have

forty shillings a year in land, 39 Henry VI., 1460.-Ruff'head's Statutes. Among the recent acts relating to elections are the following : act depriving excise and custom-house officers, and contractors with government, of their votes, 1782. Act to regulate polling, 9 George IV., 1828. Reform in Parliament bill (see Reform Bill),

2 and 3 William IV., 1832. County Elections act, 7 William IV., 1836. ELECTORS OF GERMANY. Originally, all the members of the Germanic body

made choice of their head; but amidst the violence and anarchy which prevailed for several centuries in the empire, seven princes who possessed the greatest power assumed the exclusive privilege of nominating the emperor.—Dr. Robertson. An eighth elector was made, in 1648 ; and a ninth, in favour of the duke of Hanover, in 1692. The number was reduced to eight, in 1777; and was increased to ten at the peace of Luneville, in 1801. The electorship ceased on the dissolution of the German empire, and when the crown of Austria was made bereditary, 1804, 1806.

--See Germany. ELECTRICITY. That of amber was known to Thales, 600 B.C. Electricity was im.

perfectly discovered A.D. 1467. It was found in various substances by Dr. Gilbert, of Colchester, in 1600 ; he first obtained the knowledge of its power, of conductors, and non-conductors, in 1606. Ottoguerick found that two globes of brimstone contained electric matter, 1647. The electric shock was discovered at Leyden, 1745, and hence the operation is termed the “Leyden phial.” Electric matter was first found to contain caloric, or fire, and that it would fire spirits, 1756. The identity of electricity and lightning was proved by Dr. Franklin, about this period. The elec

tricity of the Aurora Borealis was discovered by means of the electric kite, in 1769. ELECTRO-GALVANISM. It owes its origin to the discoveries of Dr. L. Galvani,

an eminent Italian philosopher, in 1789. Volta pursued the inquiries of this good man (for he was alike distinguished by his virtues and genius), and discovered the mode of combining the metals; constructed what is very properly called the Voltaic pile ; and extended the whole science into a system which should rather be called

Voltaism than Galvanism. ELECTRO-MAGNETISM. Analogies between electricity and magnetism were dis

covered by Oersted of Copenhagen, in 1807. This analogy was established in 1819,

and was confirmed by subsequent experiments in England, France, and Germany. ELEPHANT. This animal, in the earliest times, was trained to war. The history of

the Maccabees informs us, that “to every elephant they appointed 1000 men, armed with coats of mail, and 500 horse ; and upon the elephants were strong towers of wood," &c. The elephants in the army of Antiochus were provoked to fight by showing them the "blood of grapes and mulberries.” The first elephant said to have been seen in England, was one of enormous size, presented by the king of

France to our Henry III., in 1238.Baker's Chron. ELEUSINIAN MYSTERIES. A great festival under this name was observed by the

Athenians and other nations : these mysteries were the most celebrated of all the religious ceremonies of Greece, and were instituted by Eumolpus, 1356 B.c. They were so superstitiously observed, that if any one revealed them, it was supposed that he had called divine vengeance upon him, and he was put to death. The mysteries were introduced from Eleusis into Rome, and lasted about 1800 years, and were at

last abolished by Theodosius the Great, A.D. 389. ELGIN MARBLES. These admirable works of ancient art were derived chiefly from

the Parthenon, a temple of Minerva in the Acropolis at Athens, of which temple they formed part of the frieze and pediment, built by Phidias about 500 B.c. Lord Elgin began the collection of these marbles during his mission to the Ottoman Porte, in 1802 ; they were purchased of him by the British government for 36,0001., and

placed in the British Museum, in 1816. ELL. An English measure containing a yard and a quarter; it was so named from

ulna, the arm, and was fixed to this precise length by Henry I., in 1101.-Slowe's Chron. This sovereign fixed, at the same time, the measure of the yard to the

length of his arm.--Idem. ELOPEMENT. A married woman who departs from her husband, loses her dower by

the statute of Westm. 2, c. 14—except that her husband, without coercion of the church, shall become reconciled to her, 13 Edward I., 1284.- Viner's Statutes. Earlier laws punished elopement with great severity, and in cases wherein adultery followed from it, it was punished with death.

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