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*ENGLAND, continued.

959. Edgar, styled the Peaceable, brother of , 1327. Edward III., his son; married Philippa, Edwy; died July 1st, 974.

of lainault; died June 21, 1377. 974. Edward the Martyr, his son, stabbed 1377. Richard II., son of Edward the Black at Corfe castle at the instance of his

Prince and grandson of Edward III ; mother-in-law, Elfrida, Mar. 18th,979.

married Anne of Austria ; 2ndly, 979. Ethelred II.; succeeded his half-brother

Isabella of France ; dethroned Edward ; retired.

Sept. 28th, 1399; murdered at Pom1013. Sweine, proclaimed king; died Feb. 3rd, fret Castle, 10th February following. 1014; succeeded by his son.

HOUSE OF LANCASTER. 1014. Canute the Great : while absent in 1399. Henry IV. cousin of Richard II.; marDenmark the exiled king returned.

ried Joan of Navarre; died Mar. 20th, 1016. Ethelred restored ; died April 24th,

1413; succeeded by • 1016; succeeded by his son.

1413. Henry V., his son ; married Catharine 1016. Edmund Ironside ; divided the king

of France; died Aug. 31st, 1422. dom with Canute; murdered at Ox 1422. Henry VI., his son ; married Margaret ford, Nov. 30th, 1016; reigned seven of Anjou ; deposed Mar, 4th, 1461; months.

murdered by Richard, duke of Glou. 1016. Canute again; married Emma, widow

cester, in the Tower, June 20th, 1471. of Ethelred; died in 1036.

1036. Harold I., his natural son ; a cruel
prince; died April 14th, 1039.

1461. Edward IV.; married Lady Elizabeth 1039. Ilardicanute, son of Canute and Emma;

Grey ; died April 9th, 1483. died of repletion at a marriage feast. 1483. Edward V., his son ; deposed June 22nd, 1041. Edward the Confessor, son of Ethelred

1483, and murdered in the Tower by and Emma; died Jan. 6th, 1066,

Gloucester; reigned two months and naming William of Normandy his

13 days.

1483. Richard III., brother of Edward IV. ; successor. 1066. Harold II., son of Earl Godwin; reigned

slain at Bosworth, Aug. 22nd, 1485. nine months; killed in battle.

HOUSE OF TUDOR. (Willinm of Normandy invaded Eng. 1485. Henry VII. ; Inarried Elizabeth of land in Sept. 1066, with a powerful

York; died Apr. 22, 1509. fleet and army, and gave battle to 1509. Henry VIIL, his son. See preceding Harold, at Hastings, on the 14th

annals; died Jan. 28th, 1547. October following, over whom he 1547. Edward VI., son of Henry VIII.; died obtained a complete victory, and

July 6th, 1553. Harold being slain, he was pro. 1553. Mary, daughter of Henry,* married claimed king by his triumphant Philip of Spain; died Nov. 17th, 1558. army on the spot.]

1558. Elizabeth, daughter of Henry by Anna AFTER THE CONQUEST.

Boleyn; died Mar. 24th, 1603. 1066. William the Conqueror; died at Rouen,

Sept. 9th, 1087.

1603. James I. of England, and VI of Scot1087. William II., Rufus; killed by an arrow,

land, son of Mary, queen of Soots; Aug. 2nd, 1100.

married Anne, princess of Denmark; 1100. Henry I., Beauclerk, his brother; died

died, March 27th, 1625. of a surfeit, Dec. 1st, 1135.

1625. Charles I., his son ; married Henrietta 1135. Stephen, earl of Blois, nephew of

of France; beheaded at Whitehall, Henry: the empress Maude, daugh

Jan. 30th, 1649. ter of Henry, contended with him 1649. Commonwealth. Oliver Cromwell made for the crown ; died Oct. 25th, 1154.

protector, Dec. 12th, 1653; died 1154. Henry II., Plantagenet, grandson of

Sept. 3rd, 1658. Richard Cromwell, Henry and son of Maude; married

his son, made protector Sept. 4th, Eleanor of France; died July 6th,

1658 ; resigned Apr. 22nd, 1659. 1189.

1660. Charles II., son of Charles I.; married 1189. Richard L., Caur de Lion, his son ;

the infanta Catharine of Portugal; died of a wound, April 6th, 1199.

died Feb. 6th, 1685. 1199. John, the brother of Richard ; mar- 1685. James II., his brother; married ist, ried Isabella d'Angoulême; died

Anne Hyde ; 2ndly, the princess of Oct. 18th, 1216.

Modena; abdicated by flight,Dec. 12th, 1216. Henry III., son of John; married Elea

1688 ; died in exile, Aug. 6th, 1701. nor of Provence; died Nov. 16, 1272.


William III., prince of Orange, and 1272. Edward L, son of Henry; surnamed Mary, his queen, daughter of James ; Longshanks ; married Eleanor of Cas

began their reign, Feb. 13th, 1689; tile; 2ndly, Margaret of France; died

Mary died, Dec. 28th, 1694 ; and WilJuly 7th, 1307.

liam, of & fall from his horse, 1307. Edward II., son of Edward I.; married

Feb. 21st, 1702.
Isabella of

France ;

dethroned, 1702. Anne, second daughter of James; Jan. 13th, 1327 ; murdered at Berke

married George, prince of Denmark ; ley Castle, Sept. 21, following.

died without issue, Aug. 1st, 1714 * By Catharine of Arragon.

ENGLAND, continued.

1760. George III., grandson of George II. ; 1714, George I., elector of Hanover and duke married Charlotte of Mecklenburghof Brunswick-Lunenburgh; son of

Strelitz ; died Jan. 29th, 18-0. Sophia, who was daughter of Eliza- 1820. George IV., his son; married Caroline beth, the daughter of James I. ; ma'. of Brunswick ; died June 26th, 1830. ried the princess Sophia ; died June 1830. William IV., brother of George IV., 11th, 1727.

married to Adelaide of Saxe-Meinin1727. George II., his son; married to Wilhel- gen ; died June 20th, 1837.

mina-Caroline of Brandenburgh-An. 1837. Victoria, the reigning queen. See the spach ; died Oct. 25th, 1760.

preceding annals. England and Wales were united A.D. 1283, and Scotland was united to both in 1707, and the three were then styled Great Britain. Ireland was incorporated with these countries by the Act of Legislative Union, January 1, 1801, and the whole called

the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ENGLAND, NEW. First settled by persons driven from England by religious perse

cution. The first attempt to form a settlement was made in 1607. Named New

England by captain Smith in 1614 ; settlement of the Plymouth company in 1620. ENGLISH LANGUAGE. See article Languages. From the High Dutch or Teutonic

sprung (among others) the English language, now one of the most copious and beautiful of Europe. Law pleadings were made in English by order of Edward III. instead of the French language, which had been continued from the time of the Conqueror, A.D. 1362. The English tongue and English apparel were ordered to be used in Ireland, 28 Henry VIII. 1536. The English was ordered to be used in

all law-suits, and the Latin disused, May 1731. ENGRAVING. The engraving of gems is a branch of art of the highest antiquity.

The earliest writers make mention of engraved seals and seal rings, and there still exist many antique engravings equal to later productions of similar artists. Engrav. ing from plates and wood is chiefly of modern invention, having its origin about the middle of the fifteenth century. Engraving on glass was perfected to an art by Boudier of Paris, 1799. The copyright to engravings has been protected by several

statutes, among the principal are the acts 16 and 18 George III. 1775 and 1777. ENGRAVING ON COPPER. Prints from engraved copper-plates made their appear.

ance about A.D. 1450, and were first produced in Germany. Masso, surnamed Finiguerra, was the first Italian artist in this way, 1460. The earliest date known of a copper-plate engraving is 1461. Rolling presses for working the plates were invented in 1545, and many improvements of it followed. Of the art of etching on copper by means of aquafortis, Francis Mazzouli, or Parmagiano, is the reputed

inventor, about A.D. 1532.-De Piles. ENGRAVING, LITHOGRAPHIC. This is a new branch of the art, and Alois Sennefelder

may be regarded as the inventor of it. It was first announced on the Continent in 1798, and became more known as polyautography in 1808. It was introduced into

general use in England by Mr. Ackermann of London in 1817. ENGRAVING, MEZZotinto. The art was discovered by Siegen, and was improved

by prince Rupert in 1648; Sir Christopher Wren further improved it in 1662. Aquatinta, by which a soft and beautiful effect is produced, was invented by the celebrated French artist, St. Non, about 1662 ; he communicated his invention to Le Prince. Barrabe of Paris was distinguished for his improvements in this kind of engraving, 1763. Chiaro-oscuro engraving originated with the Germans, and was

first practised by Mair, one of whose prints bears date 1491.-See Zincography, fc. ENGRAVING ON STEEL. The mode of engraving on soft steel, which, after it has

been hardened, will multiply copper-plates and fine impressions indefinitely, was

introduced into England by Messrs. Perkins and Heath, of Philadelphia, in 1819. ENGRAVING ON WOOD, took its rise from the brief mahlers, or manufacturers of

playing-cards, about A.D. 1400; and from this sprung the invention of printing, first attempted by means of wooden types not movable. See Printing. The art is referred by some to a Florentine, and by others to Reuss, a German; it was greatly improved by Durer and Lucas Van Leyden in 1497; and was brought to perfection in England' by Berwick, his brother, and pupils, Nesbett, Anderson, &c., 1789, et seq. The earliest wood engraving which has reached our times is one representing St. Christopher carrying the infant Jesus over the sea ; it bears date a.d. 1423.


ENLISTMENT. By statute no persons enlisting as soldiers or sailors are to be sworn

in before a magistrate in less than twenty-four hours, and then they are at liberty to

withdraw upon their returning the enlistment or bounty money, and 21s. costs. ENNISKILLEN. T'he people of this town occupy a remarkable place in the history

of the civil wars of Ireland. They made an obstinate defence against the army of Elizabeth, 1595. Their memorable defence against James II., 1689. 1500 Enniskilleners met General M.Carty with a force of 6000 men, of whom 3000 were slain, and nearly all the rest were made prisoners, they losing but 20 men, July 20, 1689.

The dragoon regiment called the “Inniskillingers," is always recruited here. ENTOMOLOGY. This branch of natural history cannot be regarded as ranking as a

science until the arrangement of Linnæus, A.D. 1739. The London Entomological Society was instituted in 1806 ; it is directed chiefly to the study of insects found in Great Britain ; and inquires into the best methods of destroying noxious insects,

and making known such as are useful. ENVOYS. They enjoy the protection, but not the ceremonies of ambassadors. Envoys

Extraordinary are of modern date.- Wicquefort. The court of France denied to

them the ceremony of being conducted to court in the royal carriages, A.D. 1639. EPHESUS. Famous for the temple of Diana, which magnificent structure was one of

the seven wonders of the world; it was 425 feet long and 200 broad, and cost 220 years of labour. Ctesiphon was the chief architect, and 127 kings contributed to its grandeur. The temple was burnt by Erostratus, solely to perpetuate his memory, 356 B.C.-Pliny. It rose from its ruins, and was richer and more splendid

than before ; but it was again burnt A.D. 260.Univ. Hist. EPHORI. Powerful magistrates of Sparta, first created by Theopompus to control the

royal power, 760 B.C. They were five in number, and acting as censors in the state, they could check and restrain the authority of the kings, and even imprisou thean,

if they were guilty of irregularities. EPIC POETRY. Homer's Iliad and Odyssey the first epic poems. See Homer. EPICUREAN PHILOSOPHY. Epicurus of Gargettus, near Athens, was the

founder of it, about 300 B.C. and taught that the greatest good consists in a happiness, springing not from sensual gratification or vicious pleasures, but from virtue, and consisting in the peace and harmony of the soul with itself. His disciples had all things in commou ; and the pleasantness of his system, and its ease and luxury, made

him many followers. EPIGRAMS. They derive their origin from the inscriptions placed by the ancients on

their tombs. Marcus Valerius Martialis, the celebrated Latin epigrammatist, who flourished about A.D: 83, is allowed to have excelled all others, ancient or modern, in the tasteful and pointed epigram. The following Latin epigram on the miracle of our Saviour in turning water into wine at Cana (John iii.) is a beautiful example :

“ Videt et erubuit lympha pudica Deum.” And Dr. Johnson has declared that the subjoined English epigram, by Dr. Doddridge, on the words Dum vivimus vivamus, is the finest specimen in our language :

" Live while we live !" the epicure will say,
" And taste the pleasures of the present day."
“ Live while we live !" the hoary preacher cries,
“And give to God each moment as it flies."
Lord! in my view let both united be,

We live in pleasure when we live to thee.Doddridge.
EPIPHANY. The feast of the Epiphany celebrates the arrival of the wise men of the

East, and the manifestation to the world of the Saviour, by the appearance of a miraculous blazing star, which conducted the Magi to the place where he was to be found ; instituted A.D. 813.- Wheatley. The primitive Christians celebrated the feast of the Nativity for twelve days, observing the first and last with great solem

nity; and this being twelve days after Christmas, it is vulgarly called Twelfth-day. EPIRUS. Koown by the great warlike achievements of Pyrrhus. Its early history is

very obscure, and it is only during the reign of this sovereign, who was the last, that it becomes interesting. The first Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) settled in Epirus after the Trojan war, 1170 B.c. He was killed in the Temple of Delphi, about 1165 B.C





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EPIRUS, continued.
Reign of the great Pyrrhus

Expedition ngainst Sparta

B.C. 272
He enters into a league against Deme- IIe enters Argos, and is killed by a tile,
trius ; the battle of Beran

294 thrown at him from a house-top by a Expedition into Italy; he gains his first

272 battle against the Romans

280 | Philip unites Epirns to Macedon
He gains another great battle
279 Its conquest by the Romans

167 His conquest of Sicily .

278 His last battle with the Romans

274 Annexed to the Ottoman empire. A.D. 1466 He takes Macedon from Antigonus 274 EPISCOPACY. The government, by its bishops, of the Christian church. It may be

said to have been instituted a.d. 33, when Peter sat in the bishop's chair at Rome. Butler. Episcopacy commenced in England in the second century; in Ireland about the same time, and in Scotland in the fourth century; but historians dispute with theologians upon this point. See Bishops. In Scotland, episcopacy was finally abolished at the period of the revolution, 1688-9. The sect called Episco.

palians first appeared about the year 500.-Burnet. EPITAPHS. They were used by the ancient Jews, by the Athenians, the Romans,

and most of the nations of antiquity ; their date is referred in England to the earliest times.- In the epitaphs of the ancients arose the epigram. Boileau. Among the most admired epitaphs in the English language is the following inscription on the monument of Mrs. Mason, lady of the Rev. William Mason, the distinguished poet, who died at Bristol Wells in 1767, and is interred in Bristol cathedral :

“ Take, boly earth, all that my soul holds dear :

Take that best gift, which Heav'n so lately gave :
To Bristol's fount I bore, with trembling care,

Her faded form-she bow'd to taste the wave,
And died ! Does youth, does beauty read the line ?

Does sympathetic fear their breast alarm?
Speak, dead Maria! breathe a strain divine-

E'en from the grave thou shalt have power to charm!
Bid them be chaste, be innocent, like thee;

Bid them in duty's sphere as meekly move,
And if so fair, from vanity as freo,

As firm in friendship, and as fond in love!
Tell them, though 'tis an awful thing to die,

("Twas e'en to theo)-yet the dread path once trod,
Heav'n lifts its everlasting portals high,

And bids the pure in heart behold their God."- Mason. EPITHALAMIUM. Tisias, the lyric poet, was the first writer of a nuptial complimen.

tary song, or epithalamium. He received the name of Stesichorus from the altera.

tions made by him in music and dancing, 536, B C.-Bossuet. EPOCHAS. These are periods in history which are agreed upon and acknowledged

by the respective bistorians and chronologers, and which serve to regulate the date of events. The following are the epochas thus particularly adopted.--See Eras. Creation

B.C. 4004
Building of Rome

753 Deluge


747 Calling of Abraham

The Seleucidæ
Argonautic expedition.

The battle of Actium
Destruction of Troy.

The Christian era
1st Olympiad

776 Diocletian EQUINOX. The precession of the equinoxes was confirmed, and the places and dis

tances of the planets were discovered, by Ptolemy, A.D. 130. When the sun in his progress through the ecliptic comes to the equinoctial circle, the day and night are equal all over the globe: this occurs twice in the year; once in the first point of Aries, which is called the vernal equinox ; next in the first point of Libra, which is

the autumnal equinox.-Blair. EQUITY, COURTS or. To determine causes according to the rule of equity and

conscience, rather than according to strict law, A.D. 1067.- See Chancery. ERAS. Notices of the principal eras will be found in their alphabetical order ; a few

only need be mentioned here. The era of Nabonasser, after which the astronomical observations made at Babylon were reckoned, began February 26, 747. The era of the Seleucidæ (used by the Maccabees) commenced 312 b.c. The Olympiads belong to the Grecians, and date from the year 776 B.C. ; but they subsequently reckoned


• 2348
• 1921
• 1225
. 1184

312 38

1 284


by Indictions, the first beginning A.D. 313: these, among chronologers, are still used. See Indictions. The Romans reckoned from the building of their city, 753 B.C.; and afterwards from the 16th year of the emperor Augustus, which reckoning was adopted among the Spaniards until the reign of Ferdinand the Catholic. The disciples of Mahomet began their Hegira from the flight of their prophet from

Mecca, which occurred A.D. 622. ERAS OF THE CREATION AND REDEMPTION. The Jews and Christians have

had divers epochas; but in historical computation of time are chiefly used the most extraordinary epochs, which are two, the Creation of the World, and the appearance of our REDEEMER, which last the Christians have made their era. They did not adopt it, however, until the sixth century, when it was introduced by Denys the Little, a Scythian, who became abbot of a monastery near Rome : he was the first who computed time from the birth of Christ, and fixed that great event according to the vulgar era.—Cassiodorus Chron. This computation began in Italy, A.D. 525, and in England in 816. It is the only one now in general use, and is that observed

in this work.–See Creation, and Christian Era. ERFURTH. Founded in A.D. 476; and its famous university established in 1390.

Erfurth was ceded to Prussia in 1802. It capitulated to Murat, when 14,000 Prussian troops surrendered, October 16, 1806. In this city Napoleon and Alexander met, and offered peace to England, September 27, 1808. The French retreated to

Erfurth from Leipsic, 18th October, 1813. ESCHEATS. Any land or other property that falls to a lord within his manor by for

feiture or death. The escheator observes the rights of the king in the county whereof he is escheator.-Cowel. In London a court of escheats was held before the lord mayor, to recover the property of a bastard who died intestate, for the king ; such a court had not been held in the city for one hundred and fifty years before, July 16.

1771.-Phillips. ESCURIAL. The palace of the kings of Spain, one of the largest and most magnifi

cent in the world. It was conimenced by Philip II. in the year 1562 ; and the first expenditure of its erection was 6,000,000 of ducats. It forms a vast square of polished stone, and paved with marble. It may give some notion of the surprising grandeur of this palace to observe, that, according to the computation of Francisco de los Santos, it would take up more than four days to go through all its rooms and apartments, the length of the way being reckoned thirty-three Spanish leagues, which is above 120 English miles. Alvarez de Colmenar also asserts, that there are

14,000 doors, and 11,000 windows belonging to this edifice. ESPIERRES, BATTLE OF, between the allied English and Austrians on the one side,

the former commanded by the duke of York, and the French on the other. The French attacked the allies concentrated here, with an army of 100,000 men, and were repulsed after a long and desperate engagement, losing 12,000 killed and

wounded, 500 prisoners, and seven pieces of cannon, May 22, 1794. ESQUIRES. Among the Greeks and Romans, esquires were armour-bearers to, or

attendants on, a knight.Blount. In England the king created esquires by putting about their necks the collar of SS, and bestowing upon them a pair of silver spurs. A British queen is recorded as having married the armigerum, or esquire, of her deceased husband. The distinction of esquire was first given to persons of fortune not

attendant upon knights, A.D. 1345.–Stowe. Meyrick's Ancient Armour. ESSLING, BATTLE OF, between the armies of France and Austria, commanded by

Napoleon and the archduke Charles; a dreadful contlict which commenced on May 21, and was renewed with increased vigour on the next day, May 22, 1809. Napoleon was defeated with the loss of 30,000 men; but the loss of the Austrians, also most severe, exceeded 20,000. This was the severest check that the French em.

peror had yet experienced, and his army was greatly endangered in its retreat. ETERNITY. When creation began we do not know: there were angels, and a place

of angelic habitation before the creation of man, and of the world destined for his residence, and even among those pure spiritual essences, there had been a rebellion, and a fall. How long those spirits had existed, and how many other orders of beings besides, we conjecture in vain; but how far back soever we suppose the commencement of creation, even beyond the greatest amount of ages that figures, in any way combined, could be made to express, still there was an eternity preceding an eter

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