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SPAIN, continued.

Revolutionary movement at Madrid ; The effective strength of the army fixed the authorities triumphant . Sept. 1, 1840 at 130,000 men

June 28, 1842 Dismissal of the ministry, and disso- An insurrection breaks out at Barlution of the Cortes

Sept. 9, 1840 celona; the national guard joins the Espartero makes his triumphal entry populace

Nov. 13, 1842 into Madrid

Oct. 5, 1840 Battle in the streets between the national
The queen regent appoints a new mi- guard and the troops; the latter lose

nistry, who are nominated by Espar- 500 in killed and wounded, and retreat
tero
Oct. 5, 1840 to the citadel

Nov. 15, 1842
The abdication of the queen regent of The troops evacuate the citadel, and
Spain
Oct, 12, 1840 retire to Montjuich

Nov. 17, 1842 [She subsequently leaves the kingdom, The port of Barcelona blockaded; the visits France; next settles in Sicily ;

British consul refuses refuge to any but returns to France.]

but British subjects on board British Espartero, duke of Victory, expels the ships

Nov. 26, 1842 papal nuncio

Dec. 29, 1840 The regent Espartero arrives before The Spanish cortes declare Espartero Barcelona, and demands its uncondi. regent during the minority of the

tional surrender

Nov. 29, 1842 young queen

Apr. 12, 1841 Bombardment of Barcelona Dec. 3, 1842 Queen Christina's protest to the Spanish It capitulates

Dec. 4, 1842 nation

July 19, 1841 The disturbances at Malaga . May 25, 1843 Insurrection in favour of Christina is The revolutionary junta is re-established commenced at Pampeluna by gen.

at Barcelona

• Jupell, 1843 O'Donnell's army

Oct. 2, 1841 [Corunna, Seville, Burgos, Santiago, and It spreads to Vittoria and other parts of numerous other towns, shortly afterthe kingdom

Oct. 1841 wards“ pronounce" against the regent Don Diego Leon attacks the palace at Espartero.)

Madrid, and his followers are repulsed, Arrival of Gen. Narvaez at Madrid, and numbers of them slain by the

which surrenders

July 15, 1843 queen's guards

Oct. 7, 1841 Espartero bombards Seville July 21, 1843 Don Diego Leon, having been seized, is The siege is raised

July 27, 1843 shot at Madrid

Oct. 15, 1841 | [The revolution is completely successfui,
Zurbano captures Bilboa Oct, 21, 1841 and Espartero flies to Cadiz, and em-
Rodil, the constitutional general, enters barks on board her Majesty's ship
Vittoria

Oct. 21, 1841 Malabar.)
Montes de Oca shot

Oct. 21, 1841 The new government deprive Espartero
Gen. O'Donnell takes refuge in the of his titles and rank

Aug. 16, 1843 French territory

Oct. 21, 1841 | Espartero and his suite and friends Espartero decrees the suspension of arrive in London

Aug. 23, 1843 queen Christina's pension. Oct. 26, 1841 Reaction against the new government The fueros of the Basque provinces are

breaks out at Madrid

Aug. 29, 1843 abolished

Oct. 29, 1841 The young queen Isabella II., 13 years Borio and Gobernado, implicated in the old, is declared by the cortes to be Christina plot, are put to death at

Nov. 8, 1843 Madrid

Nov. 9, 1841 The queen-mother, Christina, returned Espartero makes his triumphal entry to Spain into Madrid

Nov. 23, 1841 Don Carlos, from Bourges, formally reGeneral pardon of all persons not yet linquishes his right to the crown, in tried, concerned in the events of Octo

favour of his son

May 18, 1845 ber

Dec. 13, 1841

.

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of age

• 1844

KINGS OF SPAIN.
A.D. 406. Alaric I., king of the Goths ; murdered. 567. Levua I.

411. Athulsus; murdered by his soldiers. 568. Leovigilde.
415. Wallia.

586. Recard I.
420. Theodoric I ; killed in battle.

601. Levua II. ; murdered. 430. Torrismund ; assassinated by his fa- 603. Vetericus ; murdered. vourite.

610. Gundemar. 452. Theodoric II.

612. Sisebuth. 466. Euric.

620 Recard II. 484. Alaric II. ; killed in battle.

621. Suintilla ; deposed. 507. Gesalric; killed in battle.

630. Sisenand.
511. Amalario; killed in battle.

636. Cinthilla.
531. Theodat; assassinated by a madman. 640. Tulga.
548. Theodisele; murdered for female vio- 642. Cindasvinthe.
lation,

649. Rescebuintus.
549. Agila ; taken prisoner and put to death. 672. Wamba.
554. Athanagild.

680. Ervigius

SPAIN, continued.
687. Egica or Egiza.

1284. Sancho IV., the Brave; Peter III, in 697. Vitizza

Arragon.
71). Roderick; killed in battle in 714. 1295. Ferdinand IV.
An Interregnum till

1312. Alphonsus X.; John in Arragon. 718. Pelagius.

1350. Peter the Cruel ; deposed. Reinstated 736. Favila ; killed by a boar in hunting.

by Edward the Black Prince of Eng. 738. Alphonsus I. ; Catholic.

land; afterwards beheaded by his 757. Froila I.; killed by his brother Aure- subjects. lius.

1368. Henry II., the Gracious ; poisoned by & 768. Aurelius.

monk. 774. Silo.

1379. John I. ; he united Biscay to Castile. 783. Mauregat.

1390. Henry III., the Sickly. 789. Veremond.

1406. John II. 791. Alphonsus II,, the Chaste.

1454. Henry IV., the Impotent. 824. Ramiro I.; he put 70,000 Saracens to the 1474. Ferdinand V., the Catholic, in whom, sword in one battle.

by his marriage with Isabella, the 850. Ordogno I.

kingdoms of Castile and Arragon were 862. Alphonsus III. ; surnamed the Great ;

united. deposed by his son.

1504. Philip I., of stria, and his queen Joan. 910. Garcias.

1506. Joan alone over both kingdoms. 914. Ordogno II.

1516. Charles I., and emperor of Germany; 423 Froila II.

resigned both crowns, and retired to a 924. Alphonsus IV.; abdicated.

monastery. 931. Ramiro II. ; killed in battle.

1555. Philip II., married Mary, queen-regnant 950. Ordogno III.

of England. 955. Ordogno IV.

1598. Philip III., son of the preceding ; be 956. Sancho I., the Fat; poisoned with an

drove the Moors from Grenada and apple.

the adjacent provinces. 967. Ramiro III.

1621. Philip IV., his son ; a reign of nearly 982. Veremund II., the Gouty.

continuous and unfortunate wars with 999. Alphonsus V.; killed at the siege of

the Dutch and France. Viscu.

1665. Charles II.
1028. Veremund III.; killed in battle. 1700. Philip V., duke of Anjou, grandson to
1035. Ferdinand the Great, king of Leon and

Louis XIV. of France ; resigned.
Castile.

1724. Lewis I.; who reigned only a few months. 1065. Sancho II., the Strong, king of Castile ; 1724. Philip V.; again.

Alphonsus in Leon and Asturias; and 1745. Ferdinand VI., surnamed the Wise ; he
Garcias in Galicia.

distinguished his reign by acts of libe 1072. Alphonsus VI., the Valiant; in Castile,

rality and beneficence. and Leon.

1759. Charles III., king of the Two Sicilies 1109. Alphonsus VII.

1788. Charles IV.; abdicated in favour of his 1192. Alphonsus VIII.

son and successor. 1157. Sancho III., the Beloved, in Castile ; 1808. Ferdinand VII, whom Napoleon, of Ferdinand in Leon.

France, also forced to resign. 1158. Alphonsus IX., in Castile.

1808. Joseph Buonaparte, brother of Napo1214. Henry I.

leon ; deposed. 1226. Ferdinand JII., the Holy ; in him Cas- 1814. Ferdinand VII. ; restored ; succeeded tile and Leon were reunited, and per

by his daughter, petually annexed.

1833. Isabella II., Sept. 29; who came to the 1252. Alphonsus the Wise ; doposed.

throne when three years of age. While nearly all the other nations of the world have been at peace, this country, for the last quarter of a century, has been a prey to the most deplorable commotions, and almost continuous and destructive civil war. From the death of Ferdinand, the intrigues Christina, the queen-mother, and the parties in her interest, bare led to successive revolutions in the state, and caused, in 1840, her own abdication of the regency, and expulsion from the kingdom ; and now, the marriage proposed between the prince of Asturias, son of Don Carlos, and the queen-regnant, seems to

be the only event likely to restore tranquillity to the Spanish empite. SPANISH ARMADA AGAINST ENGLAND. See article Armada. SPARTA. The capital of Laconia, one of the most considerable republics of the Pelo

ponnesus, and the formidable rival of Athens. Though without walls, it resisted the attacks of its enemies by the valour of its citizens, for eight centuries. The epoch of its foundation is much disputed. Lelex is supposcd to have been the first king. From Lacedæmon the fourth king, and his wife Sparta, who are also spoken of as the founders of the city, it obtained the names by which it is most known. The

. 669

.

history of Lacedæmon may be divided into five æras, viz., 1st. Under the ancient kings, from Lelex to the settlement of the Heraclidæ, comprising about four hundred and twelve years. 2d. Under the Heraclide as absolute monarchs, till Lycurgus instituted a senate, by which the people obtained a share in the government, including about two hundred and twenty years. 3d. From the establishment of the senate, to the introduction of ephori, or five inspectors, by Theopompus, about one hundred and twenty-four years. 4th. From the appointment of the ephori, to the total abolition of royalty, about five hundred and forty years. 5th. From the abolition of the monarchy, to the subjugation of the country by the Roman power, a period of about seventy-two years, 147 B. C.- Abbé Lenglet. '[First state of Sparta.]

The Messenians revolt, and league with Lelex begins the kingdom

B. c. 1516

Elis, Argos, and Arcadia against the Lacedæmon marries Sparta . 1490 Lacedæmonians

685 Sparta founded (Pausanias)

. 1490 [This war lasts fourteen years.] Tyndarus marries Leda ; Helen born ** Carnian festivals instituted

675 Helen stolen by Theseus, king of Athens, The Messenians settle in Sicily.

but recovered by her brothers 1213 Tyranny of the Pisistratidæ ends . 506 The princes of Greece demand Helen in The States of Greece unite against the marriage; she makes choice of Mene

Persians.

482 laus, of Mycenæ

1201 Leonidas, at the head of 300 Spartans, Paris, son of Priam, king of Troy, carries withstands the Persian arms at the oft Helen

1198 defile of Thermopylæ. (See ThermoThe Trojan war commences to avenge pyla, Batlle of)

480 this wrong 1193 Persians defeated by Pausanias

479 After a war of ten years, and a disastrous His treason; the Grecian armies choose voyage of nearly eight, Menelaus and an Athenian general

474 Helen return to Sparta

1176 An earthquake at Sparta destroys thirty Helen is banished from the Pelopon- thousand persons

466 nesus for infidelity *** Platæa taken by the Spartans

428 [Second state of Sparta.]

The Spartans, under Agis, enter Attica, Reign of Orestes, the son of Agamem

and lay waste the country

426 non. Pausanias.

. 1175 Agis gains a great victory over the The kingdom is seized by the Heraclidæ. Argives and Mantinxans

418 -Lenglet .

1104 The Lacedæmonian fleet, under MindaBirth of Lycurgus, the son of Eunomus. rus, defeated at Cyzicum, and Mindarus -Eusebius 926 slain in the battle

410 Rule of Lycurgus, who establishes the The Spartans defeated by land and at Senate.-Eusebius

884 sea sue for peace, which is denied by the Athenians

409 [Third state of Sparta.] Reign of Pausanias

408 Charilaus declares war against Poly

Athens taken by Lysander, which ends mestor, king of Arcadia

848
the Peloponnesian war .

400 Alcamenes, known for his apophthegms,

Agesilaus enters Lydia

396 makes war upon the Messenians 813

The Athenians, Thebans, Argives, and Nicander succeeds his father, Charilaus;

Corinthians, enter into a league against war with the Argives

800

the Spartans, which begins the CorinTheopompus introduces the Ephori into

thian war

395 the government

760

The Lacedæmonian fleet, under Lysan[Fourth state of Sparta, under the Ephori, der, defeated by Conon, the Athenian commences.]

commander, near Cnidos; Lysander War declared against the Messenians, killed in the engagement

394 and Amphia taken

743 The Thebans drive the Spartans, from War with the Argives, and celebrated Cadmea-Lenglet .

378 battle *

735 The Spartans lose the dominion of the The progeny of the Partheniæ, or the seas; their fleet totally destroyed by sons of Virgins 733 Timotheus

376 Battle of Ithome

730 Epaminondas, heading 50,000 Thebang, Ithome taken ; the Messenians become

appears before Sparta

369 vassals to Sparta, and the war ends, Battle of Mantinæa; the Thebans obtain which had lasted nineteen years 724 the victory. See Mantinæa.

363 Conspiracy of the Partheniæ with the Battle of Arbela, which leaves AlexHelots to take Sparta

ander master of all Asia

331

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707

This celebrated battle was fought between 300 select heroes of each nation, and all perished except two Argives and one Spartan. The latter remained on the field, whilst the two former repaired to Argos to announce their victory. Each party claimed the advantage ; the Argives, because they had lost the fewest men; the Lacedæmonians, because they remained masters of the field. A second battle was fought, in which the Argives were beaten.-Pausanias.

210

SPARTA, continued.

Pyrrhus invades Sparta ; is defeated be-
fore the walls

B.C.
The laws of Lycurgus cease to be ob-

served, about.
Leonidas vacates the throne, and flies

from Sparta.
He is recalled, and becomes sole sove-

reign ; Agis put to death
Reign of Cleomenes III., the son of Leo-

nidas
He re-establishes most of the laws of

Lycurgus.
Antigonus meets Cleomenes on the plains

of Sellacia, routs his army, and enters

Sparta as conqueror
Cleomenes retires to Egypt
The Spartans murder the ephori

[Fifth state of Sparta.] 294 Mechanidas ascends the throne, and

abolishes the ephori . 244 He is defeated and slain by Philopemen,

prætor of the Archæan league 243 Government of Nabis, who is execrable

for his cruelties 241 The Romans besiege Sparta, and the ty

rant sues for peace 235 The Ætolians obtain Sparta by trea

chery ; Nabis is assassinated 225 The laws of Lycurgus abolished

Sparta, under the protection or rather

subjugation of Rome, retains its autho222

rity for a short time. 222 Its name is soon afterwards swept from 221 the historic page.

197

199 188

147

.

The Lacedæmonians were a nation of soldiers. They cultivated neither the arts, sci.

ences, commerce, nor agriculture. All their laws, all their institutions, all their education, in a word, the very constitution of their republic, were calculated to make them warriors. And never were men brought into the field more capable of enduring fatigue. They hardened their bodies by stripes, and by manly exercises, accustoming themselves to undergo hardships, and even to die, without fear or regret. The women were as courageous as the men, and celebrated with festivals the fall of their sons, when killed in battle, or coolly put them to death with their own hands, if, by a shameful flight, or the loss of their arms, they brought disgrace upon their country.

- Abbé Lenglet. SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS. Peter de Montfort, afterwards killed

at the battle of Evesham, was the first speaker, 45 Henry III. 1260. But sir Petre de la Mare is supposed to have been the first regular speaker, 50 Edward III., 1376. The king refused his assent to the choice of sir Edward Seymour as speaker, March 6, 1678 ; when sergeant William Gregory was chosen in his room. Sir John Trevor was expelled the chair and the house for taking a gratuity after the act for the

benefit of orphans had passed, March 20, 1694. SPEAKING-TRUMPET. One is said to have been used by Alexander, 335 B.C.

One was constructed from Kircher's description by Saland, 1652. Philosophically

explained and brought into notice by Moreland, 1671. SPECTACLES AND READING-GLASSES. See Optics. Spectacles were unknown

to the ancients. They are generally supposed to have been invented in the 13th century, by Alexander de Spina, a monk of Florence, in Italy, about A.D. 1285.Gen. Hist. They were invented by Roger Bacon, our own illustrious countryman, according to Dr. Plott. The hint was certainly given by Bacon about 1280. Some affirm that the real inventor was Salvino ; and Mr. Manni gives proofs in favour of

Salvino in his Treatise on Spectacles. SPHERES. The celestial and terrestrial globes, and also sun-dials, were invented by

Anaximander, 552 B.C. The armillary sphere is said to have been invented by Eratosthenes about 255 B.C. The planetarium was constructed by Archimedes before 212 B.C. It was maintained by Pythagoras that the motions of the twelve spheres must produce delightful sounds, inaudible to the ears of mortals, which he

called the music of the spheres. SPINNING. The art of spinning was ascribed by the ancients to Minerva, the goddess

of wisdom, such was their veneration for it. Arcas, king of Arcadia, taught his subjects the art of spinning about 1500 B.C. Lucretia with her maids was found spinning, when her husband Collatinus paid a visit to her from the camp. The wife of Tarquia was an excellent spinner; and a garment made by her, worn by Servius Tullius, was preserved in the temple of Fortune. Augustus Cæsar usually wore no garments but such as were made by his wife, sister, or daughter. The spinning-wheel was invented at Brunswick, about A.D. 1530. Till 1767, the spinning of cotton was performed by the hand-spinning-wheel, when Hargrave, an ingenious mechanic, near Blackburn, made a spinning-jenny, with eight spindles. Hargrave also erected the first carding-machine, with cylinders. Arkwright's machine for spinning by water was an extension of the principle of Hargrave's ; but he also applied a large and small roller to expand the thread, and, for this ingenious contrivance, took out a patent in 1769. At first, he worked his machinery by horses ; but in 1771 he built a mill on the stream of the Derwent, at Cromford. In 1779, Crompton invented the mule, which is a further and wonderful improvement

of this art.-Phillips. SPIRES. In ancient times the emperors held many diets at Spires, and it was the seat

of the imperial chamber till 1689, when the city was burnt by the French, and not rebuilt till after the peace of Ryswick in 1697. The diet to condemn the reformers was held at Spires, called there by the emperor Charles V. 1529. This was the era

of Protestantism. See Protestants. SPIRITS. See Distillation. No human invention has ever tended more to corrupt

the morals, and ruin the character, constitution, and circumstances of numbers of mankind, than distillation. In all nations spirituous liquors have been considered as a proper subject of heavy taxation for the support of the state. In 1840 England made about ten millions of gallons of spirits, Scotland made about seven millions of gallons, and Ireland about nine millions of gallons. In England, Ireland, and Scotland, duty was paid, in 1840, on the following quantities of spirits, viz.–Rum, 2,830,263 gallons ; brandy, 1,167,756 gallons ; Geneva, 18,640 galloos; on other foreign spirits, 8,758 gallons; and on British, Irish, and Scotch spirits, 25,190,843 gallons ; making in the whole nearly thirty millions of gallons, upon which the duty

amounted to about eight millions of pounds sterling !-Parl. Returns. SPITZBERGEN. Discovered in 1533, by sir Hugh Willoughby, who called it Green

land, supposing it to be a part of the western continent. In 1595 it was visited by Barentz and Cornelius, two Dutchmen, who pretended to be the original discoverers, and called it Spitzbergen, or sharp mountains, from the many sharp-pointed and

rocky mountains with which it abounds. See Phipps. SPURS. Anciently the difference between the knight and esquire was, that the knight

wore gilt spurs (eques auratus) and the esquire silver ones. Two sorts of spurs seem to have been in use at the time of the Conquest, one called a pryck, having only a single point, the other a number of points of considerable size. Spurs near

to the present kind came into use about A.D. 1400. See article Plating. STAGE COACHES. The stage-coach duty act passed in 1785. These coaches were

made subject to salutary provisions for the safety of passengers, 50 George III. 1809. They were made subject to mileage duties, 55 George III. 1814. The duty upon stage coaches is about half a million sterling. See Coaches ; Hackney

Coaches ; Mail Coaches, fc. STAMP-OFFICE. The first institution of stamp-duties was by statute 5 and 6

William and Mary, June 23, 1694, when a duty was imposed upon paper, vellum, and parchment. The stamp-duty on newspapers was commenced in 1713, and every year added to the list of articles upon which stamp-duty was made payable. The American Stamp Act, a memorable statute, one of those imposts levied by the parliament of Great Britain which produced the American war, and led to the inde pendence of that country, was passed March 22, 1765. Stamp-duties in Ireland commenced 1774. Stamps on notes and bills of exchange in 1782. The stampduties produced in England, in 1800, the revenue of 3,126,535l.; and in 1840, for

the United Kingdom, 6,726,8171. See Newspapers, &c. STANDARD. First fixed by law for gold and silver in England, A.D. 1300.

Standard gold is 22 parts out of 24 of pure gold, the other two parts or carats being silver or copper. The standard of silver is il oz. 2 dwts. of fine silver alloyed with 18 dwts. of copper, or 37 parts out of 40 of pure silver, and 3 parts copper. In A.D. 1300, these 12 oz. of silver were coined into 20 shillings. În 1412 they were coined into 30 shillings; and in 1527 into 45 shillings. În 1545, Henry VIII. coined 6 oz. of silver and 6 oz. of alloy into 48 shillings, and the next year he coined 4 oz. of silver and 8 oz. of alloy into the same sum. Elizabeth, in 1560, restored the old standard in 60 shillings; and in 1601 in 62 shillings. It is now 66 shillings. The average proportions of silver to gold at the Royal Mint are 15} to l. The standard of plate and silver manufactures was affirmed, 6 George I. 1719, et seg.

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