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STANDARDS. See Banners, Flags, &c. The practice in the army of using the

cross on standards and shields arose in the miraculous appearance of a cross to Constantine, previously to his battle with Maxentius : this fact rests on the authority of Eusebius, who states that he had received it from the emperor himself, A.D. 312. For the celebrated French standard, see Lily. STANDARD OF MAHOMET : on this eosign no infidel dare look. It was carried in procession about 1768, when several hundred Christians who ignorantly looked upon it were massacred by the Turkish populace. The IMPERIAL STANDARD was first hoisted on the Tower of London, and on Bedford Tower, Dublin, and displayed by the Foot Guards, on the union of

the kingdoms, January 1, 1801. STAR-CHAMBER, COURT OF. So called haply from its roof being garnished with

stars.-Coke. This court of justice, so tremendous in the Tudor and part of the Stuart reigns, was called Star-chamber, not from the stars on its roof (which were obliterated even before the reign of queen Elizabeth), but from the Starra, or Jewish covenants, deposited there by order of Richard í. No Star was allowed to be valid except found in those repositories, and here they remained till the banishment of the Jews by Edward I. The court was instituted 2 Henry VII. 1487, for trials by a committee of the privy council. In Charles I.'s reign, it exercised its power, independent of any law, upon several bold innovators in liberty, who only gloried in their sufferings, and contributed to render government odious and contemptible.—Goldsmith. It was abolished 16 Charles I, 1641. There were from 26

to 42 judges, the lord chancellor having the casting voice.—Gibbon. STARS. They were classed into constellations, it is supposed, about 1200 3.c. Hicetas,

of Syracuse, taught that the sun and the stars were motionless, and that the earth moved round them (this is mentioned by Cicero, and probably gave the first hint of this system to Copernicus), about 344 B.C. Job, Hesiod, and Homer, mention several of the constellations. The Royal Library at Paris contains a Chinese chart of the heavens, made about 600 B.C., in which 1460 stars are correctly inserted. The aberration of the stars discovered by Dr. Bradley, 1727. See Astronomy and

Solar System. STARCHING OF LINEN. Starch is a sediment produced at the bottom of vessels

wherein wheat has been steeped in water ; is soft and friable, easily broken into powder, and is used to stiffen and clear linen, with blue ; its powder is employed to powder the hair. The art of starching linen was brought into England by Mrs.

Dinghein, a Flemish woman, 1 Mary, 1553.–Stowe. STATES-GENERAL OF FRANCE. An ancient assembly of France. Previously to

the Revolution it had not met since A.D. 1614. The states consisted of three orders, the nobility, clergy, and commons. They were convened by Louis XVI., and assembled at Versailles, May 5, 1789. Here a contest arose, whether the three orders should make three distinct houses, or but one assembly. The commons insisted upon the latter, and, assuming the title of the National Assembly, declared that they were competent to proceed to business, without the concurrence of the two other orders, if they refused to join them. The nobility and clergy found it expe

dient to concede the point, and they all met in one hall. See National Assembly. STATIONERS. Books and paper were formerly sold only at stalls, hence the dealers

were called stationers. The company of stationers of London is of great antiquity, and existed long before printing was invented ; yet it was not incorporated until

3 Philip and Mary, 1555. Their old dwelling was in Paternoster-row.—Mortimer. STATUES. See Moulds, Sculpture, &c. Phidias, whose statue of Jupiter passed

for one of the wonders of the world, was the greatest statuary among the ancients, 440 B.c.

He had previously made a statue of Minerva at the request of Pericles, which was placed in the Parthenon. It was made with ivory and gold, and measured 39 feet in height. Acilius raised a golden statue to his father, the first that appeared in Italy. Lysippus invented the art of taking likenesses in plaster moulds, from which he afterwards cast models in wax, 326 B.C. Michael Angelo was the greatest artist among the moderns. The first equestrian statue erected in Great Britain was that of Charles I. in 1678 *. Among the public statues erected in the London

squares and other public places, are the following :* This statue is of brass, cast by Le Sueur, in 1633, at the expense of the Howard-Arundel family. During the civil war, the Parliament sold it to John River, a brazier, in Holborn, with strict orders

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STATUES, continued.

Achilles, Hyde-park, in honour of the George I., Grosvenor-square A.D. 1726 duke of Wellington, by the ladies of George I., Leicester-square

*** Great Britain June 18, 1822 George III,, Somerset-house

1788 Anne, queen, St. Paul's Churchyard

George III., Cockspur-street

1836 Bedford, duke of, Russell-square

1809 Howard, John; first erected in St. Paul'e 1790 Canning, George, New Palace-yard

James II., Whitehall .

1687 Cartwright, major, Burton Crescent

• 1831 Nelson, Trafalgar-square ; commenced 1841 Charles I., Charing-cross 1678 Pitt, William, Hanover-square

1831 Charles II., Soho-square *** Wellington, Duke of, city

1844 Cumberland, duke of, Cavendish-square 1770 William III., St. James's-square . 1717 Elizabeth, St. Dunstan's, Fleet-street

William IV., city, completed .

1845 Fox, Charles James, Bloomsbury-square 1816 York, duke of, Waterloo-place

1834 STATUTES. The following are among the most celebrated early statutes :-Statutes

of Clarendon, to restrain the power of the clergy, enacted 10 Henry II., 1164. Statutes of Marlborough, 1267. The statute of Gloucester, the earliest statute of which any record exists, 6 Edward I., 1277. Statute of Mortmain, 1279. Quo Warranto, October 1280. Of Winchester, October 1284. Statute forbidding the levying of taxes without the consent of parliament, 1297. Of Præmunire, 1306. The first printed bear date 1483, and are in English. The STATUTES of the Realm, from the original records and MSS., were compiled under commissioners, appointed in 1801 : the

first volume, from 20 Henry III., appeared 1811 ; the second volume in 1816. STEAM ENGINE. This is the most important prime mover that the ingenuity of

man has yet devised. The first idea of it was suggested by the marquis of Worcester in his Century of Inventions, as “ a way to drive up water by fire,” A.D. 1663. It does not, however, appear that the noble inventor could ever interest the public in favour of this great discovery. Papin's digester invented

A.D. 1631 Woolf's double cylinder expansion enCaptain Bavery's engine constructed for

gine constructed

A.D. 1804 raising water 1698 Manufactories warmed by steam

1806 Papin's engine, exhibited to the Royal Fulton started a steam-boat on the river Society, about

Hudson, America

1807 Atmospheric engine by Savery and New- Steam power to convey coals on a railcomen 1713 way, employed by Blenkinsop

1811 First idea of steam navigation set forth Steam-vessels first commenced plying on in a patent obtained by Hulls 1736 the Clyde

1812 Watt's invention of performing conden- Steam applied to printing in the Times sation in a separate vessel from the

office. See Press

1814 cylinder

There were five steam-vessels in ScotHis first patent 1769 land (Parl, Returns) in

1814 His engines upon a large scale erected in First steam-vessel on the Thames brought manufactories, and his patent renewed

by Mr. Dodd from Glasgow

1815 by act of parliament

1775 The first steamer built in England (Parl. Thomas Paine proposed the application


1815 of steam in America

The Savannah steamer, of 350 tons, came Engine made to give a rotary motion . 1778 from New York to Liverpool in 26 Watt's expansion engine

1778 days

July 15, 1819 Double acting engines proposed by Dr. First steamer in Ireland

Falck on Newcomen's principle 1779 Captain Johnston obtained 10,0001. for Watt's double engine, and his first pa- making the first steam voyage to India, tent for it granted .

1781 in the Enterprise, which sailed from The marquess Jouffroy constructed an


Aug. 16, 1825 engine on the Saône

1781 The locomotive steam-carriages on railTwo Americans published upon the ways, at Liverpool

Oct, 1829 steam-engine

1785 The Railway opened (see Liverpool) 1830 W. Symington made a passage on the The Great Western arrives from Bristol Forth and Clyde canal

1789 at New York, being her first voyage, First steam-engine erected in Dublin by

in 18 days

June 17, 1838 Henry Jackson 1791 War steamers built in England

1838 First experiment on the Thames

War steamers built at Berkenhead, The experiment of Mr. Symington re

named the Nemesis and Phlegethon, peated with success

carrying each two thirty-two pounders, Trevethick's high-pressure engine 1802 sent by government to China

1840 to break it to pieces ; but he concealed it under ground till the Restoration, when it was erected in 1678, on a pedestal executed by Grinlins Gibbons, and ornamented with the royal arms, trophies, &C.-Leigh. The first equestrian statue of bronze, founded at one cast, was that of Louis XIV. of Franco, A . 1699; it was elevated about 1724.

. 1699


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STEEL-YARD. A most ancient instrument, the same that is translated balance in the

Pentateuch. The Statera Romana, or Roman steel-yard, is mentioned in 315 B.C. STEEL-YARD COMPANY. A company of London merchants had the Steel-yard

assigned to them by Henry III., A.D. 1232. They were all Flemings and Germans, and the only exporters, for many years after, of the staple commodities of England.

-Anderson. STENOGRAPHY. The art of writing in short-hand is said to have been practised by

most of the ancient nations. It is said to have followed from the bieroglyphics of the Egyptians. It is also attributed to the poet Ennius, improved upon by Tyro, Cicero's freed-man, and still more by Seneca. The Ars Scribendi Characteris, printed about A.D. 1412, is the oldest system extant. Peter Bales, the famous pen. man, published on stenography in 1590. There are now numerous systems of it,

many of them of easy acquirement and great simplicity. STEREOMETRY. The instrument by which is compassed the art of taking the

contents of vessels of liquids by gauging, invented about A.D. 1350.-Anderson. STEREOTYPE. See Printing. It is said that stereotyping was known in 1711 ;

but this is doubted. It is said to have been suggested by Wm. Ged of Edinburgh, 1735.-Nichols. This species of printing is ascribed by others to Mr. Tilloch, 1779. The invention of it is also attributed to Francis Ambrose Didot, of Paris, about that year.- Ferguson. But stereotype printing was in use, in Holland, in the last century; and a quarto Bible and Dutch folio Bible were printed there.

Phillips. Stereotyping was introduced into London, by Wilson, in 1804.- Idem. STIRRUPS were unknown to the ancients. Gracchus fitted the highways with stones

to enable the horsemen to mount. Stirrups were used in the fifth century. STOCKHOLM. See Sweden. PEACE of Stockholm, between the king of Great

Britain and the queen of Sweden, by which the former acquired the duchies of Bremen and Verden as elector of Brunswick, November 20, 1719. TREATY of STOCKHOLM, between Sweden and Russia, March 24, 1724. Treaty of Stock

HOLM, between England and Sweden, March 3, 1813. STOCKINGS. Those silk were first worn by Henry II. of France, 1547. In 1560,

queen Elizabeth was presented with a pair of black knit silk stockings, by her silkwoman Mrs. Montague, and she never wore cloth ones any more. Howell. He adds, "Henry VIII. wore ordinarily cloth hose, except there came from Spain, by great chance, a pair of silk stockings; for Spain very early abounded with silk." Edward VI. was presented with a pair of Spanish silk stockings by his mercbant, sir Thomas Gresham; and the present was then much taken notice of.-Idem. Others relate that William Rider, a London apprentice, seeing at the house of an Italian merchant, a pair of knit worsted stockings from Mantua, ingeniously made a pair like them, which he presented to the earl of Pembroke, the first of the kind

made in England, 1564.–Stowe. STOCKING FRAME. The art of weaving stockings in a frame was invented in

England by the Rev. Mr. Lee, of Cambridge, in 1589, twenty-five years after we had first learned to knit them with wires or needles. Silk stockings were first wora at the courts of France and England about the same time. They afterwards became

A very considerable article of commerce to both countries.-Stowe; Anderson. STOCKS. The public funding system originated in Venice, and was introduced into

Florence in 1340. The English funding system may be said to have had its rise in


1795 1800 1805

66 3 3
59 14 0

58 13 9
68 12 0



1694. The Act to prevent stock-jobbing passed March 1734. The foundation of
the Stock Exchange, in Capel-court, was laid in May 1800. The memorable Stock
Exchange hoax, for which Cochrane Johnstone, and others, were convicted, and lord
Cochrane was afterwards expelled the house of commons, Feb. 22, 1814. Stock-
exchange coffee-house destroyed by fire, Feb. 11, 1816. The number of stock-
holders in 1840 amounted to 337,481. By a return of the average price of the
public funds by the commissioners for the reduction of the national debt, it appears
that Consols averaged in the year-
1780 £63 13 6

£74 8 6
67 16 3

68 6 6

89 15 7 1790 71 26

89 17 6 STOICS. Disciples of Zeno, the cynic philosopher ; they obtained the name of stoics

because they listened to his instructions and harangues in a porch or portico at Athens, called in Greek Stoa. Zeno taught that man's supreme happiness consisted in living according and agreeable to nature and reason, and that God was the soul of the world. The Pharisees affected the same stiffness, patience, apathy, austerity,

and insensibility, which this sect is famous for.–Stanley. STONE. The operation of extracting stone from the bladder was first performed by

Ammonius of Alexandria, about a.d. 240.-Nouv. Dict. Cutting for the stone was first performed on a criminal, at Paris, in 1474, with success.—Lenglet. A remedy discovered by Mrs. Stevens, for which she was rewarded by government, 1739.

See Lithotomy. STONE. Stone buildings were introduced into England, A.D. 670. A stone bridge

was built at Bow in 1087, and is accounted the first ; but a bridge exists at Crow. land, which is said to have been built in 860. See Bridges. The first stone building in Ireland was a castle, 1161. See Building. Stone china-ware was made by Wedgwood in 1762. Artificial stone for statues was manufactured by a Neapolitan,

and introduced into England, 1776. Stone paper was made in 1796. STONEHENGE. Among the most celebrated monuments of British antiquity. Said

to have been erected on the counsel of Merlin by Aurelius Ambrosius, in memory of 460 Britons who were murdered by Hengist, the Saxon, A.D. 475.-Geoffrey of Monmouth. Erected as a sepulchral monument of Ambrosius, A.D. 500.Polydore Vergil. An ancient temple of the Britons, in which the Druids officiated.-Dr. Stukeley. The Britons had annual meetings at Abury and Stonehenge, where laws were made, and justice administered, and heinous crimes punished, by burning alive

in wicker-baskets. STORMS. The following are among the best authenticated and most memorable. In

London a storm raged which destroyed 1500 houses, A.D. 944. One in several parts of England, the sky being very dark, the wind coming from the S.W.; many churches were destroyed; and in London 500 houses fell, October 5, 1091. One on the coast of Calais, when Hugh de Beauvais, and several thousand foreigners, on their voyage to assist king John against the barons, perished, 1215.- Holinshed. It thundered 15 days successively, with tem- Richard's second queen also ought a storm pests of rain and wind, A.D. 1233.

with her to the English coasts, in which the A storm, with violent lightnings; one flash king's baggage was lost, and many ships passed through a chamber where Edward J.

cast away, 1389.-Idem. and his queen were conversing, did them no A hurricane throughout Europe, which did damage, but killed two of their attendants; very considerable damage ; more remarked 1285.- Hoveden.

in England, happening Sept. 3, 1658, the A violent storm of hail near Chartres, in day that Cromwell died.-Mortimer,

France, which fell on the army of Edward A storm on the eastern coasts of England;
III., then on its march. The hail was so 200 colliers and coasters lost, with most of
large that the army and horses suffered very their crews, 1696.
much, and Edward was obliged to conclude The storm called the “ Great Storm," one of
a peace, 1339.—Matt. Paris,

the most terrible that ever raged in Eng When Richard I.'s queen came from Bohemia, land. The devastation on land was im

on her setting foot on shore an awful storm mense ; and in the harbours, and on the
arose, and her ship and a number of others coasts, the loss in shipping and in lives was
were dashed to pieces in the harbour, Jan. still greater, Nov, 26, 1703*,

A snow-storm in Sweden, when 7000 Swedes, * The loss sustained in London alone was calculated at 2,000,000.. sterling. The number of persons drowned in the floods of the Severn and Thames, and lost on the coast of Holland, and in ships the influence of terror, in May, 1788. blown from their anchors and never heard of afterwards, is thought to have been 8000. Twelve men-of-war, with more than 1800 men on board, were lost within sight of their own shore. Trees wore torn up by the roots, 17,000 of them in Kent alone. The Eddystone light-house was destroyed, and in it the ingenious contriver of it, Winstanley, and the persons who were with him. The bishop of Bath and Wells and his lady were killed in bed in their palace in Somersetshire. Multitudes of cattle were also lost; in one level 15,000 sheep were drowned.

STORMS, continued.

it is said, perished upon the mountains, in to Cornwall, in which great numbers of

their march to attack Drontheim, A.D. 1719. vessels were lost, Nov. 1821. One in India, when many hundreds of ves. In Ireland, particularly in the vicinity of

sels were cast away, a fleet of Indiamen Dublin, when many houses were thrown greatly damaged, and some ships lost, and down, and vast numbers unroofed, Dec. 12, 30,000 persons perished, Oct. 11, 1737.

1822. A dreadful hurricane at the Havannah; many Awful storm on the coast of England ; many

public edifices and 4048 houses were de- vessels lost, and 13 driven ashore and stroyed, and 1000 inhabitants perished, wrecked in Plymouth alone, Jan. 12-13, Oct. 25, 1768.- Annual Register.

1828. An awful storm in the north of England, in At Gibraltar, where more than a hundred

which many vessels were destroyed, and 4 vessels were destroyed, Feb. 18, 1828

Dublin packets foundered, Oct. 29, 1775. Dreadful storm at the Cape of Good Hope, At Surat, in the East Indies ; destroyed 7000 of where immense property was lost, July 16, the inhabitants, April 22, 1782.

1831. One hundred and thirty-one villages and farms A hurricane visited London and its neighbourlaid waste in France, 1785.

hood, which did great damage to the buildOne general throughout Great Britain: se- ings, but without the destruction of human

veral hundred sail of shipping destroyed or life, though many serious accidents occurred,
damaged, Oct. 6, 1794.

Oct. 28, 1838.
One which did vast damage in London, and Awful hurricane on the western coast of

throughout almost the whole of England, England, and in Ireland. The storm raged
Nov. 8, 1800.

through Cheshire, Staffordshire, and War A tremendous storm throughout Great Britain wickshire; 20 persons were killed in Liver

and Ireland, by which immense damage pool, by the falling of buildings, and 100 was done, and many ships wrecked, Dec. were drowned in the neighbourhood; the 16-17, 1814.

coast and harbours were covered with An awful gale, by which a great number of wrecks; the value of two of the vessels lost

vessels were lost, and much damage was being nearly half a million sterling. In done to the shipping in general on the Eng. Limerick, Galway, Athlone, and other lish coasts, Aug. 31, 1816.

places, more than 200 houses were blown A dreadful hurricane, which ravaged the Lee down, and as many more were burnt, the

ward Islands, from 20th to 22d Sept. 1819. wind spreading the fires. Dublin suffered At the Island of St. Thomas alone, 104 ves- dreadfully; London and its neighbourhood sels were lost.

scarcely sustained any damage, Jan. 6-7, A great storm along the coast from Durham 1839. STOVES. The ancients used stoves which concealed the fire, as the German stores

yet do. They lighted the fire also in a large tube in the middle of the room, the

roof being open. Apartments were warmed too by portable braziers. See Chimneys. STRAND, London. Houses first built upon it about a.d. 1353, at which period it

was the court end of the town, or formed the communication between the two cities of London and Westminster, being then open to the Thames and the fields. Somerset and other palaces were erected in 1549.-Stowe. The Strand bridge was commenced Oct. 11, 1811.-See Waterloo Bridge. The Strand improvements were

commenced in 1829. STRASBURG. The attempt at insurrection in the city of Strasburg, by Louis-Napo.

leon Buonaparte, a nephew of the deceased emperor, aided by two officers and some privates, which was instantly suppressed by the arrest of the parties. The prince was afterwards shipped off to America by the French government, Oct. 29, 1836. This enthusiast made another attempt, by a descent at Boulogne, Aug. 6, 1840. See

France. STRATHMORE, COUNtess or. Miss Bowes of Durham, the then richest heiress in

Europe, whose fortune was 1,040,0001., with vast additions on her mother's death, and immense estates on the demise of her uncle, married the earl of Strathmore, Feb. 25, 1766. Having, after the earl's death, married Mr. Stoney, she was forcibly carried off by him and other armed men, Ncv. 10, 1786. She was brought up to the King's Bench by habeas corpus and released, and he committed to prison, Nov. 23. She recovered her estates, which she had assigned to her husband under

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