Page images

STRATTON-HILL, BATTLE OF, in Devonshire, between the royal army and the forces

of the parliament headed by the poet Waller; in this battle the victory was gained over the parliamentarians, who lost numbers in killed and wounded, and Waller was

obliged to fly to Bristol; fought May 16, 1643. STUCCO-WORK. The art was known to the ancients, and was much prized by them,

particularly by the Romans, who excelled in it.— Abbé Lenglet. It was revived by D'Udine about A.D. 1550; and is now exquisitely performed in Italy and France,

and is advancing rapidly to perfection in England. STYLE. The style was altered by Augustus Cæsar's ordering leap-year to be but once

in four years, and the month Sextilis to be called Augustus, 8 s.c. Again at Rome, by taking twelve days off the calendar, A.D. 1582.-See Calendar. Introduced into most of the other states of Europe, 1710. Act passed to change the style in England from the Julian to the Gregorian, 1751. It took effect Sept. 3, 1752.–See New

Style, and Year. STYLE, ROYAL, OF THE KINGS OF ENGLAND. See articles Majesty, and Titles. SUBSIDIES. Subsidies to the kings of England formerly granted in kind, particularly

in wool; 30,000 sacks were voted to Edward III. on account of the war with France, 1340.- Anderson. Subsidies raised upon the subjects of England for the last time by James I., 1624, but they were contained in a bill for the redress of grievances, 1639. England granted subsidies to foreign powers in several wars, particularly in the war against the revolutionists of France, and the war against Buonaparte. One of the most remarkable of these latter was June 20, 1800, when a treaty of subsidies was ratified at Vienna, between Austria and England, stipulating that the war should be vigorously prosecuted against France, and that neither of the contracting powers should enter into a separate peace. Subsidies to Austria, Prussia, Russia, the Porte, and other powers, were afterwards given by England, to the amount of many tens of

millions sterling.--Phillips. SUCCESSION, ACT OF. The memorable act to exclude Roman Catholics from

ascending the throne of these realms was passed in 1689 ; and the crown of England

was settled upon the present royal family by the act of June 12, 1701-2. SUCCESSION, THE WAR of. This celebrated war, alike distinguished by the glorious

achievements of the duke of Marlborough and its barren and unprofitable results, arose in the question whether an Austrian or a French prince, grandson of Louis XIV., should succeed to the throne of Spain. Our court opposed Louis, and Marlborough was victorious; but the allies withdrew one after another, and the French prince

succeeded; 1702 to 1713. See Utrecht, Peace of. SUGAR, Saccharum officinarum. Sugar is supposed to have been known to the

ancient Jews. Found in the East Indies by Nearchus, admiral of Alexander, 325 B.C. -Strabo. An oriental nation in alliance with Pompey used the juice of the cane as a common beverage.---Lucan. The best sugar was produced in India.- Pliny. It was prescribed as a medicine by Galen.- Encyclop. Brought into Europe from Asia, A.D. 625. In large quantities, 1150. It was attempted to be cultivated in Italy; but not succeeding, the Portuguese and Spaniards carried it to America about

1510.--Robertson's History of Charles V.* SUGAR-REFINING. The art of refining sugar was made known to the Europeans

by a Venetian, A.D. 1503. It was first practised in England in 1659, though some authorities say that we had the art among us a few years sooner. Sugar was first

taxed by name, 1 James II., 1685.-Anderson ; Mortimer. See Beet Root. SUICIDE. The first instance of it (passing that of Samson) recorded in Jewish

history is that of Saul, 1055 b.c.- - Apollodorus. The Greek and Roman philoso

* About the year 1138 the sugar-cane was transported from Tripoli and Syria to Sicily, thence to Madeira, and finally, to the West Indies and America. It is not known at what date sugar was introduced into England, but it seems to bave been prior to the reign of Henry VIII. Mr. Whittaker, in the History of Whalley, p. 109, quotes an earlier instance, in 1497. A manuscript letter from sir Edward Wotton to lord Cobham, dated Calais, 6th March, 1546, advertises him that sir Edward had taken up for his lordship, 25 sugar-loaves at six shillings a loaf,“ whiche is eighte pence a pounde." In 1840, the imports of sugar into the United Kingdom were nearly 5,000,000 cwts., of which nearly four millions were for home consumption ; and the duty amouted to about five millions and a half sterling.


Jan. 26, 1825

phers deemed it a crime, and burned the offending hand apart from the rest of the body. In the early part of the Roman history, the only instance recorded occurs in the reign of Tarquin 1., when the soldiers, thinking themselves disgraced by being ordered to make common sewers, destroyed themselves, 606 s.c. Instances after wards occurred, however, of illustrious men committing suicide, as Cato, 45 B.c. In the Catholic church, in the sixth century, it was ordained that no commemoration should be made in the Eucharist for such as committed self-murder. This ecclesiastical law continued till the Reformation, when it was admitted into the statute law of England by the authority of parliament, with the confiscation of land and goods.

Suicide of gen. Pichegru April 7, 1804 Of hop, colonel Stanhope
Of Miss Champante
Aug. 15, 1804 Of rev. Mr. Lee

May 21, 1836 Of Sellis, the valet of the duke of Cum- Of Mr. Montgomery in Newgate (see berland

May 31, 1810
Prussic Acid).

July 4, 1898
Of Williams, the murderer of the Marr Of Miss Charlotte Both

Jan. 3, 1830
Dec. 15, 1811 Of lord Greaves.

Feb. 7, 18:30
Of marshal Berthier
June 1, 1815 Of colonel Brereton

Jan. 13, 1832
Of Samuel Whitbread, esq. Sept. 6, 1815 Of major Thompson .

June 13, 1822 Of sir Samuel Romilly

Nov. 2, 1818 Of Mr. Simpson, the traveller, July 24, 1840 Of sir Richard Croft

Nov. 6, 1818 Of lord James Beresford April 27, 1841 Of Christophe, king of Ilayti Oct. 8, 1820 Of gen, sir Rufane Shaw Donkin, May 1, 1841 of admiral sir George Campbell,

Of the earl of Munster. March 20, 1842 Jan. 23, 1821 Of lord Congleton

June 8, 1842 Of marquess of Londonderry . Aug. 12, 1822 | Of Dr. Peter Kenney

Oct. 18, 1842 There have been only three instances of self-destruction by fire ; that of the philosopher Empedocles, who threw himself into the crater of Mount Etna; of a Frenchman, who, in imitation of him, threw himself, in 1820, into the crater of Vesuvius; and of an Englishman, who jumped into the furnace of a forge about the year 1811, Plutarch relates that an unaccountable passion for suicide seized the Milesian virgios, from which they could not be prevented by the tears and prayers of their friends; but a decree being issued that the body of every young maid who did self-murder should be drawn naked through the streets, a stop was soon put to the extraordinary frenzy. In England, the body was buried in cross-roads, a stake being previously

driven through it, until the statute 4 George IV., 1823. SULTAN. A Turkish title, from the Arabic, signifying king of kings, and given to the

grand signior or emperor of Turkey. It was first given to the Turkish princes Ångrolipex and Musgad, about A.D. 1055.- Vattier. It was first given, according

to others, to the emperor Mahmoud, in the fourth century of the Hegira. SUMPTUARY LAWS. Laws to restrain excess in dress, furniture, eating, &c. Those

of Zaleucus ordained that no woman should go attended by more than one maid in the street, unless she were drunk; and that she should not wear gold or embroidered apparel, unless she designed to act unchastely, 450 B.C.Diog. Laert. This law checked luxury. The Lex Orchia among the Romans limited the guests at feasts, and the number and quality of the dishes at an entertainment; and it also enforced that during supper, which was the chief meal among the Romans, the doors of every house should be left open. The English sumptuary laws were chiefly in the reigns

of Edward III. and Henry VIII. See Dress, Lurury, &c. SUN. Pythagoras taught that the sun was one of the twelve spheres, about 529 B.C.

The relative distances of the sun and moon were first calculated geometrically by Aristarchus, who also maintained the stability of the sun, about 280 B.c. Numerous theories were ventured during fifteen centuries, and astronomy lay neglected until about A.D. 1200, when it was brought into Europe by the Moors of Barbary and Spain. The Copernican system was made known in 1530.-See Copernican System and Solar System. Galileo and Newton maintained that the sun was an igneous globe. Maculæ were first discovered by Chr. Scheiner, 1611. Transit of Mercury observed by Gassendi. By the observations of Dr. Halley on a spot which darkened the sun's disk in July and August 1676, he established the certainty of its motion round its own axis. Parallax of the sun, Dr. Halley, 1702. A macula, three times the size of the earth, passed the sun's centre, April 21, 1766, and frequently since. Herschel measured two spots whose length taken together exceeded 50,000 miles, April 19, 1779.

SUN-DIALS. Invented by Anaximander, 550 B.C.— Pliny, 1. 2. The first erected at

Rome was that by Papirius Cursor, when time was divided into hours, 293 B.C.

Sun-dials were first set up in churches, A.D. 613.- Abbé Lenglet. SUNDAY, OR LORD'S DAY. Sunday was the day on which, anciently, divine

adoration was paid to the Sun. Among Christians it is called the Lord's day, on account of our Saviour's rising from the dead on that day, which, according to the Jewish account, was the next day after the sabbath. The apostles transferred that religious rest observed by the Jews on the sabbath to this day. The first civil law for its proper observance was made by Constantine, A.D. 321.-Eusebius. The council of Orleans prohibited country labour, 338. The Book of Innocent Sunday Sports, authorising certain sports and pastimes after divine service on Sundays, published in England 14 James I. in 1617, was violently opposed by the clergy and puritans. Its sanction by the unfortunate Charles I. was a primary cause of the civil war which ended in his death. This book was burnt by the hangman, and the sports suppressed by order of parliament.-Rapin. Sunday schools were established in

England first by Mr. Raikes in 1780. The Sunday act passed 1781. SUPREMACY OVER THE CHURCH. The supremacy of the king over the church,

as well as sovereignty over the state, whereby the king was made the head of the church of England, was established in 1534, when Henry VIII. shook off the yoke of Rome, and settled the supremacy in himself. Our kings have from that time had the title of supreme head of the church conferred upon them by parliament. The bishop of Rochester (Fisher) and the ex-lord chancellor (sir Thomas More) were,

among numerous others, beheaded for denying the king's supremacy, 1535. SURAT. Before the English East-India Company obtained possession of Bombay, the

presidency of their affairs on the coast of Malabar was at Surat; and they had a factory here, established under captain Best in 1612. The Great Mogul had then an officer here, who was styled his admiral. Memorable attack of the Mahratta chief Sivagee, on the British factory, defeated by sir George Oxenden, 1664. The English were again attacked in 1670 and 1702, and often subsequently. The East-India Company, in 1759, fitted out an armament, which dispossessed the admiral of the castle ; and, soon after, the possession of this castle was confirmed to them by the

court of Delhi. The Surat was vested in the British by treaty in 1800 and 1803. SURGERY. It was not until the age of Hippocrates that diseases were made a

separate study from philosophy, &c., about 410 B.c. Hippocrates mentions the ambe, the ancient instrument with which they reduced dislocated bones. Celsus flourished about A.D. 17 ; Galen, 170 ; Ætius, 500 ; Paulus Ægineta in 640. The Arabians revived surgery about 900; and in the 16th century sprung up a new era in the science ; between these periods surgery was confined to ignorant priests or barbers. Anatomy was cultivated under the illustrious Vesalius, the father of modern surgery, in 1538. Surgeons and doctors were exempted from bearing arms

or serving on juries, 1513, at which period there were only thirteen in London. SURGEONS, COLLEGE OF. The first charter for surgeons was granted by Henry

VIII., 1540. Formerly barbers and surgeons were united, until it was enacted that "no person using any shaving or barbery in London shall occupy any surgery, letting of blood, or other matter, excepting only the drawing of teeth.” The surgeons obtained another charter in 1745; and a new charter in 1800. Since that period, various legislative and other important regulations have been adopted to promote their utility and respectability; and no person is legally entitled to practise as a surgeon in the cities of London and Westminster, or within seven miles of the former, who has not been examined at this college. The college in Lincoln's-ion

Fields was re-modelled in 1836, and the interior completed in 1837. SURPLICES. First worn by the Pagan priests. First used in churches, A.D. 316,

and generally introduced by Pope Adrian, 786. Every minister saying public prayers shall wear a comely surplice with sleeves, Can. 58. The garb prescribed by Stat. 2 Edward VI., 1547 ; again, 1 Elizabeth, 1558; and 13 and 14 Charles

II., 1662, SUSPENSION BRIDGES. The greatest and oldest in the world is in China, near

King-tung; it is formed of chains. Rope suspension bridges, from rocks to rocks, are also of Chinese origin. In these realms chain suspension bridges are of recent construction. The bridge over the Menai Strait is the most surprising work, every way considered, of modern times. See Menai Strait, Hungerford Bridge, fe.

SUTTEES, OR THE BURNING OF WIDOWS. This custom began in India from

one of the wives of “ Bramah, the son of God," sacrificing herself at his death, that she might attend him in heaven. So many as seventeen widows have burned them. selves on the funeral pile of a rajah ; and in Bengal alone, 700 have thus perished, until lately, in each year. Mr. Holwell was present at many of these sacrifices. On February 4, 1743, he saw a young and beautiful creature, only seventeen years of age, the mother of two children, thus sacrifice herself, with a fortitude and courage that astonished every witness of the scene.Holwell. The English government in India have discouraged these self-immolations, while yet avoiding any undue interference with the religion and prejudices of the natives. Suttees were abolished,

Dec. 7, 1829; but they have since occasionally, though rarely, taken place. SWAN RIVER SETTLEMENT. Projected by Colonel Peel in 1828. Regulations

issued from the Colonial-office, and captain Stirling appointed to the colony 25 lieutenant-governor, Jan. 17, 1829. The three towns of Perth, Freemantle, and Guildford, were founded the same year. A journal, called the Freemantle Gazette,

was published here in March 1831. See article Colonies. SWEARING ON THE GOSPEL. First used A.D. 528. Introduced in judicial pro

ceedings about 600.-Rapin. PROFANE SWEARING made punishable by fine; a labourer or servant forfeiting 1s., others 2s. for the first offence ; for the second

offence, 48. ; the third offence, 6s. ; 6 Wm. III., 1695. See Oaths. SWEATING SICKNESS. An English disease, which caused great mortality in 1485,

soon after the accession of Henry VII. It raged with great violence in London, where two mayors and six aldermen died of it in one week ; many thousands of persons were carried off by this complaint.--Hall's Chronicle. Again in 1517, when it carried off the afflicted in three hours, and destroyed one-half of the inha. bitants in many parts of England; the terms were obliged to be adjourned for a year.Salmon. It broke out again in 1528, 1529, and 1551, but with less violence. At Oxford, where in one month 510 persons (all men, no women) died, July 1575.

Coghlan. SWEDEN. The ancient inhabitants were the Fins, now the modern inhabitants of

Finland, a diminutive race, who retired to their present territory on the appearance of the Scandinavians or Goths, who have ever since been masters of the country. Gylf reigns in Sweden

57 Christian II., " the Nero of the North," During this reign, Odin, surnamed the

massacres all the Swedish nobility, to Divine, at the head of a swarm of bar

fix his despotism

1520 barians, falls upon the north of Europe, The Swedes delivered from the Danish making vast conquests

yoke by the valour of Gustavus Vasa , 15:23 Ynge, founder of the family of the Yn- He makes the crown hereditary, and inlingars, reigns 32 troduces the reformed religion

1344 [The early history of the kingdom is al. The titles of count and baron introduced together involved in fables and ob- by Eric XIV.

1501 scurity.)

The conquests of Gustavus Adolphus,

between 1612 and Olif the Infant is baptised, and introduces He is slain at Lutzen

1633 Christianity among his people, about Rugen ceded to Sweden by Denmark 1648 A.D. 1000 Abdication of Christina

1634 Gothland, so celebrated for its warlike Charles X. overruns Poland

. 1657 people and invasions of other countries, Arts and sciences begin to flourish 162) is annexed to Sweden


Charles XII., “the madman of the Waldemar I. of Denmark subdues Rugen,

North," begins his reign and destroys the pagan temples 1168 He makes himself absolute; abolishes Stockholm founded

1260 the senate Magnus Ladelus establishes a regular Battle of Pultowa, where Charles is deform of government

1279 feated by the czar of Russia. See The crown of Sweden, which had been

Pultora hereditary, is made elective ; and He escapes to Bender, where, after three Steenchel Magnus, surnamed Smeek years' protection, he is made a prisoner or the Foolish, king of Norway, is elected 1318 by the Turks

1713 The crown made elective

13.20 He is restored ; and after ruinous wars. Waldemar lays Gothland waste

. 1361

and fighting numerous battles, he is at Albert of Mecklenburg reigns


length killed at the siege of FredericksSweden united to the crown of Denmark


Dec. II, 1718 and Norway, under Margaret

1394 Queen Clrica Eleanor abolishes despotic University of Upsal founded

1476 government






[ocr errors]



• 1617


• 1699

. 1709

. 1719


SWEDEN, continued.

Royal Academy founded by Linné, after-
wards called Linnæus

Conspiracy of counts Brahe and Horne,
who are beheaded

Despotism re-established

. 1772 Order of the Sword instituted

. 1772
Assassination of Gustavus III. by count

Ankerstrom, at a ball, March 16: he
expired the 29th

The regicide was dreadfully scourged

with whips of iron thongs three suc-
cessive days; his right hand was cut
off, then his bead, and his body im-

May 18, 1792
Gustavus IV. dethroned, and the govern-

ment assumed by his uncle, the duke
of Sudermania

March 13, 1809

Sweden cedes Finland to the czar of

Sept. 17, 1809
Marshal Bernadotte, the prince of Ponte

Corvo, is chosen the crown prince of

Aug. 21, 1810
Gustavus IV. arrived in London, Nov. 12, 1810
Swedish Pomerania seized by Napoleon

Jan. 9, 1812 Alliance with England

July 12, 1812 Sweden joins the grand alliance against Napoleon

March 13, 1813 Norway is ceded to Sweden by the treaty of Kiel

Jan. 14, 1814 Bernadotte ascends the throne of Sweden as Charles John XIV.

Feb. 5, 1818 Treaty of navigation between Great Britain and Sweden

May 19, 1826



KINGS OF SWEDEN. A D. 825. Regnard Lobrock.

1365. Albert. *** (Reigns uncertain.]

1397. Margaret. 966. Eric, the Victor,

141), Erio XIII. ; abdicated. 994. Olaf, or Olif Sckotkong.

1441. Christopher. 1026. Edmund Jacobson.

1448. Charles VIII, 1035. Edmund, or Amand III.

1458. Christian I. 1041. Haquin.

1497. John II.
1056. Stenkell, or Steenchel.

1520. Christian II.
1060. Ingo L; assassinated by his brother, 1528. Gustavus I., Vasa.
1064. Halstan.

1556, Erio XIV.; died in prison.
1080. Philip

1569. John III.
1100. Ingo II. ; died in a monastery.

1592. Sigismond I., king of Poland.
1130. Ragwald ; murdered by the Visigoths. 1606. Charles IX.
1133. Magnus I. ; assassinated in Scania. 1611. Gustavus Adolphus II.
1144. Suercher II.

1632. Christina ; resigned her crown to
1150. Eric X. ; beheaded by rebels.

1654. Charles X., Gustavus duke of Deux. 1162. Charles VII. ; made prisoner by Canute,

Ponts. who reigns.

1660, Charles XI. 1168. Canute, son of Eric X.

1699. Charles XII. ; killed at the siege of 1192. Suercher III., son of Charles ; killed in

Frederickshall. battle.

1718. Ulrica Eleanora; resigned when her 1211. Eric XI.

husband was elected. 1220. John I.

1720. Frederick, landgrave of Hesse-Cassel. 1223. Eric XII.

1751. Adolphus Frederick, duke of Holstein. 1250. Waldemar.

1771. Gustavus III., Adolphus. 1276. Magnus II.

1792. Gustavus Adolphus IV. 1290. Birger II.

1809. Charles XIII. 1318. Magnus III. ; dethroned by his sub- 1818. Charles John XIV., Bernadotte, Feb. 5. jects.

1844. Oscar, his son, March 8. SWEDENBORGIANS. A sect of mystics, so called from the learned but eccentric

Emanuel Swedenborg, a Swedish nobleman. He considered the New Jerusalem, foretold in the Apocalypse, to be a church now about to be established, in which will be known the true nature of God and of man, of the Word, of heaven and of hell-concerning all which subjects error and ignorance now prevail, and in which church this knowledge will bear its proper fruits-love to the Lord and to one's neighbour, and purity of life. His first work on theology was published in 1743;

his sect rose about 1760, but it did not spread in England until 1782. SWEET-BAY, Laurus nobilis, was brought to these realms from Italy before 1548.

The Sweet-Fern Bush, Comptonia asplenifolia, came from America, 1714. SWITHIN, ST. This saint lived in the ninth century, and was bishop of Winchester

in 838, he being the seventeenth prelate of that see. The tradition, that if it rain upon St. Swithin's day, July 15, it will rain forty days following, is supposed to have a shadow of reason only from the circumstance of some particular constellations, which have the character of portending rain, rising cosmically about the time of St. Swithin's festival.

« PreviousContinue »