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brated Mr. Jennings was an original subscriber for a 1001. share in a tontine company; and being the last survivor of the shareholders, his share produced hiin

30001. per annum. He died worth 2,115,2441., aged 103 years, June 19, 1798. TOPLITZ, BATTLE OF. A battle was fought at Toplitz between the Austrians and

Prussians, in which the latter were defeated, 1762. Battle of Toplitz, August 30, 1813. Here the allied sovereigns had their head-quarters a considerable time in this latter year. Treaty of Toplitz, being a triple alliance, between Russia, Austria, and Prussia, Sept. 9, 1813. Treaty of Toplitz, between Austria and Great Britain,

October 3, same year. TORGAU, BATTLE OF, between Frederick II. of Prussia and the Austrians, in which

the former obtained a signal victory; the Austrian general, count Daun, being

wounded, Nov. 11, 1760. Torgau was taken by the allies in 1814. TORTURE. It has disgraced humanity in the earliest ages in every country. It was

only permitted by the Romans in the examination of slaves. It was used early in the Catholic church against heretics. Occasionally used in England so late as the 1st Elizabeth, 1558 ; and in Scotland until 1690. The trial by torture was abolished in Portugal, 1776; in France, by order of Louis XVI., in 1780, although it had not been practised there some time before. Ordered to be discontinued in Sweden by

Gustavus III., 1786. It yet continues in other countries. TORY. Various authors have differently described this term. It is said to be derived

from an Irish word, originally signifying a savage, or rather a collector of tithes and taxes.- Encyclop. The names of Cavaliers and Round-heads which existed in the time of Charles I. were changed, some tell us, into those of Tories and Whigs. The Tories were those who vindicated the divine right of kings, and held high notions of their prerogatives ; while “ the Whigs” denoted a friend to civil and reli. gious liberty.-Ashe. The name of Tory was given by the country party to the court party, comparing them to Popish robbers ; and arose out of the Meal-tub plot (which see), in 1679. The terms are defined by extreme politici, as, as of two parties in the aristocracy : the Whigs, who would curb the power of the crown; and the Tories, who would curb the power of the people.- Phillips. But these names are,

perhaps, of uncertain derivation. See Whigs. TOULON, FRANCE. In 1706 this town was bombarded by the allies, both by land

and sea, by which almost the whole town was reduced to a heap of ruins, and several ships burned ; but they were at last obliged to raise the siege. It surrendered, August 23, 1793, to the British admiral lord Hood, who took possession both of the town and shipping, in the name of Louis XVII., under a stipulation to assist in restoring the French constitution of 1789. A conflict took place between the English and French forces, when the latter were repulsed, Nov. 15, 1793. Toulon was evacuated by the British, Dec. 19, same year, when great cruelties were exer

cised towards such of the inhabitants as were supposed to be favourable to the British. TOULOUSE, FRANCE. Founded about 615 B.C. A dreadful tribunal was esta

blished here to extirpate heretics, A.D. 1229. The troubadours, or rhetoricians of Toulouse, had their origin about A. D. 850, and consisted of a fraternity of poets, whose art was extended throughout Europe, and gave rise to the Italian and French poetry. See Troubadours. The allied British and Spanish army entered this city

on April 12, 1814, immediately after the memorable battle. See next article. TOULOUSE, BATTLE OF, the final battle between the British Peninsular army under

lord Wellington and the French-one of the most bloody that had been fought from the time lord Wellington had received the command of the troops in Portugal. The French were commanded by marshal Soult, whom the victorious British hero forced to retreat, after twelve hours' fighting, from seven o'clock in the morning until seven at night, the British forcing the French intrenched position before Toulouse. The loss of the allies in killed and wounded was between four and five thousand men ; that of the French exceeded 10,000. At the period of this battle Buonaparte had abdicated the throne of France ; but neither of the commanders was aware of

that fact, or the close of the war at Paris. Fought April 10, 1814. TOURNAMENTS OR JOUSTS. Some authors refer them to Trojan origin, such as

Ascanius instituted among the Romans. The tournament is a martial sport or exercise which the ancient cavaliers used to perform, to show their bravery and address. It is derived from the French word tourner, " to turn round," because, to be expert in these exercises, much agility, both of horse and man, was necessary. They were much practised A.D. 890 ; and were regulated and countenanced by Henry I., emperor, about 919. The Lateran council published an article against their continuance in 1136. One was held in Smithfield so late as the 12th century, when the taste for them declined in England. Henry II. of France, in a tilt with the count de Montgomery, had his eye struck out, an accident which caused the king's death in a few days, June 29, 1559. Tournaments were from this event abolished in France, and with them “ the age of chivalry is fled.” A magnificent and costly feast, and splendid tournament, took place at Eglintoun castle, Aug. 29, 1839, and the following week : many of the visitors assumed the characters of ancient knights, lady Seymour being the “ Queen of Beauty," as fairest of the female throng. But this festivity is not likely to lead to a revival of the old

tournament. TOURNAY. Taken by the allies in 1709, and ceded to the house of Austria by the

treaty of Utrecht; but the Dutch were allowed to place a garrison in it, as one of the barrier towns. It was taken by the French under general Labourdonnaye, November 11, 1792. Battle near Tournay, by the Austrians and British on one side, and the French on the other, the former victorious, May 8, 1793. Another battle was fought between the British and French, when the latter were repulsed, at

Rousalaer, losing 200 men and three field-pieces, May 6, 1794. TOURNIQUET. An instrument for trepanning, invented by Morelli at the siege of

Besançon, A.D. 1674. Petit, of France, invented the screw tourniquet in 1718. TOURS, BATTLE OF. One of the glorious victories of Charles Martel, and that which

most established his fame, gained over the Saracens near Tours, and from wbich be acquired the name of Martel, signifying hammer. We are told that but for this timely victory of Charles Martel, all Europe, as well as Asia and Africa, must have

become Mahomedan ; October 10, A.D. 732. TOWERS. That of Babel, the first of which we read, built in the plains of Shinar

(Genesis xi.), 2247 s.c. See Babel. The Tower of the Winds at Athens, built 550 B.C.

The Tower of Pharos (see Pharos), 280 B.C. Towers were built early in England ; and the round towers in Ireland may be reckoned among most ancient curiosities. They were the only structures of stone found in Ireland before the first arrival of the English, except some buildings in the maritime towns founded by the Danes. These towers were tall, hollow pillars, nearly cylindrical, but narrowing towards the top, pierced with lateral holes to admit the light, high above the ground, and covered with conical roofs of the same materials. Of these productions of old

Irish masonry, fifty-six still remain, from 50 to 130 feet high. TOWER OF LONDON. Anciently a royal palace, and consisted of no more than

what is now called the White Tower, which appears to have been first marked out by William the Conqueror, A.D. 1076, commenced in 1078, and completed by bis son William Rufus, who, in 1098, surrounded it with walls, and a broad, deep ditch. Several succeeding princes made additions to it, and king Edward III. built the church. In 1638 the White Tower was rebuilt ; and since the restoration of king Charles II. it has been thoroughly repaired, and a great number of additional buildings made to it. Here are the Armoury, Horse Armoury, Jewel-office, and various other divisions and buildings of peculiar interest; and here were many executions

of high and illustrious persons, and many murders. See England. TOWTON, BATTLE OF. This great battle is supposed to be the most fierce and

bloody that ever happened in any domestic war. It was fought between the houses of York (Edward IV.), and Lancaster (Henry VI.) to the latter of whom it was fatal, and on whose side more than 37,000 of his subjects fell. Edward issued orders to give no quarter, and the most merciless slaughter ensued. Henry was made prisoner and confined in the Tower; his queen, Margaret, fled to Flanders,

fought March 29, 1461. TRAFALGAR, BATTLE OF, the most glorious naval victory ever obtained by England,

fought by the British, under command of the immortal Nelson, against the combined fleets of France and Spain, commanded by admiral Villeneuve and two Spanish admirals. The enemy's force was eighteen French and fifteen Spanish vessels, all of the line ; that of the British, twenty-seven ships. After a bloody and protracted fight, admiral Villeneuve and the other admirals were taken, and nineteen of their ships captured, sunk, or destroyed. But the hero of England lost his life in this memorable battle ; and admiral Collingwood succeeded to the command. Nelson's ship was the Victory; and his last signal on going into the engagement, was

“England expects every man to do his duty.'' Oct. 21, 1805. See Nelson's Funeral. TRAGEDY. That of Alcestis was the first represented by Thespis, the first tragic

poet at Athens, 536 B.C.–Arund. Marbles. Prizes instituted, and the first gained by Æschylus, 486 B.C.-Ibid. Another prize carried by Sophocles, 470 B.c.- Ibid. Another by Euripides, 442 B.c.- Ibid. Another by Astydamas, 377 B.C.-Ibid.

See Drama ; Plays ; Theatres. TRAJAN'S PILLAR. Erected A.D. 114, by the directions of the emperor Trajan,

and executed by Apollodorus. This column, which still exists at Rome, was built in the large square called the Forum Romanum ; it is 140 feet high, of the Tuscan

order, and commemorates the victories of the emperor. TRANSFIGURATION, THE. Among divines by this term is meant the miraculous

change of our Saviour's appearance on Mount Tabor, in the presence of Peter, James, and John, when he appeared in his glory, in company with Moses and Elias. The word is also applied to a feast held in the Romish church on the 6th of

August, in commemoration of that miracle. TRANSFUSION OF THE BLOOD. It began to be practised in the fifteenth century,

and was successful in France, where Louis XI., when dying, went farther still, and drank the warm blood of infants, in the vain hope of prolonging life, A.D. 1483.– Henault. After trials of the efficacy of transfusion upon animals, M. Denis revived the practice in Paris, where, out of five persons upon whom he operated, two died, and the magistracy prohibited the experiment upon human bodies afterwards, 1668. Lower, an English physician, who died in 1691, practised in this way.–Freind's Hist. of Phys. Transfusion again attempted in France, in 1797 ; and recently in

these countries, but seldom with success. See article Blood. TRANSLATION TO HEAVEN. The translation of Enoch to heaven for his piety at

the age of 365 years, took place 3017 B.C. The prophet Elijah, a zealous advocate for the law, in an idolatrous generation, translated to heaven in a chariot of fire, 896

The possibility of translation to the abode of eternal life has been maintained by some extravagant enthusiasts. The Irish house of commons expelled Mr. Asgill from his seat for his book asserting the possibility of translation to the other world

without death, 1703. TRANSPORTATION OF FELONS. The first criminals were ordered for transpor

tation instead of execution, A.D. 1590 ; but banishment for lighter offences than those adjudged death was much earlier. England is reproached abroad for transporting persons whose offences are comparatively venial. John Eyre, esq., a man of fortune, was sentenced to transportation for stealing a few quires of paper, Nov. 1, 1771.-Phillips. More recently, the reverend Dr. Halloran, tutor to the earl of Chesterfield, was transported for forging a frank (10d. postage), Sept. 9, 1818. The first transportation of felons to Botany Bay was in May 1787 ; they arrived at the settlement in January 1788. Returning from transportation was punished with death until 5 William IV., August 1834, when an act passed making the offence

punishable by transportation for life. TRANSUBSTANTIATION. This doctrine was first introduced by a friar, about A.D.

840. It became a confirmed article of Christian faith about 1000. It was opposed in England about 1019; but the English church admitted the doctrine before 1066. Belief in it as necessary to salvation was finally established by the council of Placentia, 1095. The word “ transubstantiation" was first used by Peter of Blois about 1165. John Huss, in subsequent times, was the first opposer of this doctrine ; he was burnt by order of the council of Constance, A.D. 1415.-Cave's

Hist. Lit. TRAPPISTS, OR MONKS OF LA TRAPPE. A French order in the department of

Orne, famed in the days of superstition for their austerity of discipline, and for keeping a perpetual silence. This order was charged with rebellion and conspiracy in France, and 64 English and Irish Trappists were shipped by the French government at Paimbæuf, Nov. 19, and were landed from the Hébé French frigate at Cork, Nov. 30, 1831. They have established themselves at Mount Melleray, county of Waterford.

B.C.

TRAVELLING ABROAD. See article Absentees. In order to discourage English

subjects from travelling to foreign countries and spending money there, a tax Fas levied (but of very inadequate amount) by way of licence for going abroad, and paid

to the crown, 10 Charles I., 1635.- Rapin. TREAD-MILL. An invention of the Chinese, and used in China to raise water for

the irrigation of the fields. The tread-mill lately introduced into the prisons of Great Britain is of a more complicated construction. It is the invention of Mr.

Cubitt of Ipswich. The first was erected at Brixton gaol, 1817. TREASON. See High Treason. It was punished in England only by banishment

till after Henry I.-Baker's Chronicle. Ascertained by law, Edward III., 1349. Trials regulated, and two witnesses required to convict, 1695. The laws relating to treason are numerous, and formerly the punishment was creadfulhanging, quartering, beheading, &c., and even burning alive. Mr. Martin brought in a bill for the abolition of burning alive for treason, which passed both houses in 1788. PETTY TREASON may happen three ways : a wife's murder of her husband; a servant's murder of his master; and an ecclesiastical person's murder of his

prelate or other superior—so declared by Statute 25 Edward III., 1350. TREASURER, LORD HIGH, or ENGLAND. The third great officer of the crown,

a lord by virtue of his office, having the custody of the king's treasure, governing the upper court of exchequer, and formerly sitting judicially among the barons. The first lord high treasurer in England was Odo, earl of Kent, in the reign of William I. This great trust is now confided to a commission; it is vested in fire persons, called lords commissioners for executing the office of lord high treasurer, and of these the chancellor of the exchequer is usually one. The first officer of this rank in Ireland was John de St. John, Henry III., 1217. William Cheevers, second justice of the King's Bench, first held the office of vice-treasurer for Ireland,

222 Henry VI., 1443. TREATIES. The first formal and written treaty made by England with any foreign

nation was entered into A.D. 1217. The first commercial treaty was with the Flemings, 1 Edward, 1272; the second, with Portugal and Spain, 1308.-Ander

The chief treaties the principal civilised nations of Europe will be found described in their respective places : the following forms an index to them. See Conventions ; Coalitions ; Leagues, &c. Abo, peace of 1743 Chunar, India

1781 Aix-la-Chapelle

1668 Cintra, convention of
Aix-la-Chapelle, peace of
1748 Closterseven, convention of

1757 Akermann, peace of

Coalition, first, against France
Alt Radstadt
1706 Coalition, second, ditto

1799 America, peace with

1783 Coalition, third, ditto
Amiens, peace of
1802 Coalition, fourth, ditto

1816 Armed Neutrality

. 1800

Coalition, fifth, ditto
Arras, treaty of
. 1435 Coalition, sixth, ditto

1913 Arras, ditto

Concordat

• 1801 Augsburgh, league of

1686 Conflans, treaty of
Baden, peace of

1714 Constantinople, peace of
Barrier treaty
1715 Constantinople, treaty of

1853
Basle, peace of
1795 Copenhagen, peace of

1660 Bassein, India

Cressy
Bayonne, treaty of

1808 Dresden
Belgium, treaty of London

Family compact

1761 Belgrade, peace of 1739 | Fontainebleau, peace of

1679 Berlin, peace of

1742
Fontainebleau, treaty of

. 1785 Berlin decree

1806 | Fontainebleau, concordat at Berlin convention

1808 Friedwald, treaty of Breda, peace of

1667 Fuessen, peace of Bretigny, peace of

Ghent, pacification of

1576 Bucharest, treaty of

1812 Ghent, peace of (America)
Cambray, league of
1508 Golden Bull

1356 Cambray, peace of

Grand Alliance
Campo-Formio, treaty of

1797

Greece, treaty of London
Carlowitz, peace of

• 1699

Hague, treaty of the
Carlsbad, congress of

1819 Hague, treaty of the
Cateau-Cambresis, peace of

Halle, treaty of

1610 Chaumont, treaty of

1814 Hamburgh, peace of

son.

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. 1826

. 1782

. 1815

. 18119

• 1492

1712

1802

. 1544 . 1745

• 1839

. 1813 • 1551 . 1745

• 1360

• 1814

.

1529

• 1689 • 1829 • 1659 • long

1559

1762 • 1815

. 1548 • 1814 . 1:21

. 1031

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• 1807 • 1648 . 1598

• 1724 • 1813 • 1664

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• 1420

• 1810 • 1814

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• 1817 . 1698

1579 • 1713 • 1813

TREATIES, continued.
Hanover treaty
1725 Radstadt, congress of

1797
Holland, peace with
1784 Ratisbon, peace of

1630 Holy Alliance

Ratisbon, treaty of

1806 Hubertsberg, peace of . 1763 | Religion, peace of

1555 Interim

Rhine, Confederation of the

1806 Kiel, treaty of

Ryswick, peace of

. 1697 Laybach, congress of

St. Germain's, peace of

1570 League 1176 St. Germain-en-Laye

1679 Leipsic, alliance of

St. Ildefonso, alliance of Spain with
Leoben, peace of

. 1797
France

1795
Lisbon, peace of
1668 Seville, peace of

1792 London, treaty of (Greece) 1829 Siöröd, peace of

1613 London, convention of (Turkey) · 1840

Smalcald, league of

1529 Lubeck, peace of

. 1629
Spain, pacification of (London)

1834
Luneville, peace of
1801 Stettin, peace of

1570 Madrid, treaty of 1526 Stockholm

1630 Methuen treaty . 1703 Stockholm, peace of

1719 Milan decree

Stockholm, treaty of
Munster, peace of

Steckholm, treaty of
Nantes, edict of

Temeswar, truce of
Naumberg, treaty of
1554 Teschen, peace of

1779 Nice, treaty of

. 1518
Teusin, peace of

1595
Nimeguen, peace of
1678 Tilsit, peace of

1807 Noyon, treaty of

· 1516
Tolentino, treaty of

1793
Nuremberg, treaty of
1532 Toplitz, treaty of

1813 Oliva, peace of . 1660 Triple Alliance

1717 Paris, peace of (see Paris) 1763 Triple Alliance of the Hague

1668 Paris, treaty of 1796 Troppau, congress of

1820 Paris, peace of (Sweden)

Troyes, treaty of
Paris, capitulation of

Turkmauchay, peace of

1828 Paris, treaty of

• 1814
Ulm, peace of:

. 1620 Paris, peace of

. 1815

Utrecht, union of
Paris, treaty of

Utrecht, peace of
Partition, first treaty

Valençay, treaty of
Partition, second treaty
1700 Verona, congress of

1822 Passarowitz, peace of

Versailles, peace of
Passau, treaty of
1552 Vienna, treaty of

1725 Petersburgh, peace of

Vienna, treaty of alliance

1731 Petersburgh, treaty of 1772 Vienna, definitive peace

1737 Petersburgh, treaty of

Vienna, peace of

1809 Petersburgh, treaty of

. 1810 Vienna, treaty of, March 23
Peterswalden, convention of
. 1813 Vienna, treaty of, May 31

1815 Pilnitz, convention of

Vienna, treaty of, June 4
Poland, partition of
1795 Vossem, peace of

1673 Pragmatic Sanction

Warsaw, treaty of

1768 Pragmatic Sanction 1713 Warsaw, alliance of

1683 Prague, peace of

Westminster, peace of

1674 Presburg, peace of 1805 Westminster (with Holland)

1716 Public good, league for the 1464 Westphalia, peace of

1648 Pyrenees, treaty of the

Wilna, treaty of

. 1561 Quadruple Alliance 1718 Worms, edict of

1521 Radstadt, peace of 1714 Wurtzburg, treaty of

1610 TRENT, COUNCIL OF. This celebrated council is reckoned in the Catholic church as

the eighteenth or last general council. Its decisions are implicitly received as the standard of faith, morals, and discipline in that church. The first council assembled A.D. 1545, and continued (but with interruptions) under pope Paul III., Julius III.,

and Pius IV., to 1563, when the last council was held. TRIA JUNCTA IN UNO.The motto of the knights of the military order of

the Bath, signifying the three theological virtues, "faith, hope, and charity." It is supposed to have been first used by Richard II., and adopted by Henry IV. in

1399, as the motto of this order. See Bath. TRIALS. Alfred is said to have been the contriver of trial by jury; but there is good

evidence of such trials long before his time. In a cause tried at Hawarden, nearly a hundred years before the reign of Alfred, we have a list of the twelve jurors ; confirmed, too, by the fact that the descendants of one of them, of the name of Corbyn, of the Gate, still preserves their name and residence at a spot in the parish yet called the Gate.--Phillips.

1718

1783

1762

.

1805

. 1815

• 1791

1815

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