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TRIALS, continued.

Of John Francis, for attempting to assassinate the queen. (See article Francis) June 17, 1842
Of Mr. Macready against the Dispatch newspaper, for libel ; damages 51. June 23, 1842
Of Patrick Byrne in Ireland, for the murder of Mr. Ilall

June 30, 1842
Of Thomas Cooper, for the murder of Daly, the policeman; hanged

July 4, 1842 Of Nicholas Suisse, valet of the late marquess of Hertford, at the prosecution of that nobleman's executors, charged with enormous frauds; acquitted .

July 6, 1842 Of M‘Gill and others, for the abduction of Miss Crellin; guilty

August 8, 1842 Of Nicholas Suisse again, upon like charges, and again acquitted

August 24, 1842 Of Bean, for pointing a pistol at the queen ; 18 months' imprisonment. August 25, 1842 Of the persons implicated in the disturbances and outrages in the provinces, under a special commission at Stafford, commenced .

October 1, 1842 of the Cheshire rioters, under a special commission, before lord Abinger October 6, 1812 Of the Lancashire rioters, also under a special codimission

October 10, 1842 of Alice Lowe, at the prosecution of lord Frankfort ; acquitted

October 31, 1842 Of Mr. Howard, attorney, versus sir William Gossett, serjeant at arms of the house of commons, and others, for a trespass ; damages 100.

Dec. 5, 1842 Of Mr. Egan, in Dublin, for the robbery of a bank parcel; acquitted

Jan. 17, 1843 Of the Rev. W. Bailey, LL.D., for forgery, guilty; transportation for life

Feb. 1, 1843 of Mac Naughten, for the murder of Mr. Drummond, secretary to sir Robert Peel ; acquitted on the ground of insanity

March 4, 1843 Of the Rebeccaites, at Cardiff, under a special commission; a principal was found guilty,

and sentenced to transportation for 20 years; the others pleaded guilty, and two were transported, and several imprisoned

October 27, 1843 Of Samuel Sidney Smith, for forgery, sentenced to transportation for life Nov. 29, 1843 Of Edward Dwyer, for the murder of his child at Southwark; guilty December 1, 1843 of Mr. Charles Rosenberg, on a charge of larceny; acquitted

December 1, 1843 Of Mr. Holt, of the Age ; libel on the duke of Brunswick; guilty

. Jan. 29, 1844 Of lieut. Grant, second to lieut. Munro, in his duel with col. Fawcett ; acquitted, Feb. 14, 1844 of Frazer v. Bagley, for crim. con., verdict for the defendant .

February 19, 1844 Of lord William Paget v. earl of Cardigan, for crim. con.; verdict for defendant, Feb, 26, 1844 Of Mr. Holt, of the Age ; libel on lord William Paget; guilty

March 4, 1844
Of Mary Furley, for the murder of her child in an agony of despair

April 16, 1844
Of Mr. William Read, for causing the loss of the ship Colina ; acquitted April 17, 1844
Of the will-forgers, Wm. Henry Barber, Joshua Fletcher, Georgiana Dorey, Wm. San-
ders, and Susannah his wife; all found guilty, April 15; sentenced

April 22, 1844 of Crouch, for the murder of his wife, found guilty, May 8; hanged .

May 27, 1844 of Messrs. O'Connell sen., O'Connell jun., Steele, Ray, Barrett, Gray, Duffy, and rev.

Thomas Tierney, at Dublin, for political conspiracy: the trial commenced Jan. 15; lasted 24 days, and all the traversers were found guilty, Feb. 12. Proceedings on motions for a new trial, &c., extended the case into Easter term ; and sentence was

pronounced upon all but the clergyman, on whom judgment was remitted May 30, 1844 Of Augustus Dalmas, for the murder of Sarah Macfarlane ; guilty

June 14, 1844 of Wm. Burton Newenham, for the abduction of Miss Wortham; guilty June 17, 1844 TRIBUNES OF THE PEOPLE. Tribuni Plebis. Magistrates of Rome, first chosen

from among the commons to represent the people, 492 B.C., at the time the people, after a quarrel with the senators, had retired to Mons Sacer. The first two were C. Licinius, and L. Albinus ; but their number was soon after raised to five, and 37 years after to ten, which remained fixed. Their office was annual, and as the first had been created on the 4th of the ides of December, that day was ever

after chosen for the election. TRICHINOPOLI, East Indies, Siege of, from 1751 to 1755. Blown up by the

magazine of gunpowder taking fire : 300 of the inhabitants lost their lives ; 340,000

ball-cartridges were destroyed; and the whole foundation shaken, 1772. TRIENNIAL PARLIAMENTS. Parliaments every three years were established

shortly after the period of the Revolution. The bill for the triennial assembling of parliament was passed 6 William and Mary, 1694. This act was repealed, and septennial parliaments were voted, which have ever since continued, i George I.,

1715. See Parliaments. TRINCOMALEE. Reckoned the finest harbour in the East Indies. Trincomalee was

taken from the Dutch, by the English, in 1782; it was retaken by the French the same year ; but was restored to the Dutch by the peace of 1783. It surrendered to the British, under colonel Stewart, August 26, 1795, and was confirmed to Eng

land by the peace of Amiens, in 1802. See Ceylon. TRINIDAD. This island was discovered by Columbus in 1498, and was taken from

the Spaniards by sir Walter Raleigh in 1595 ; but the French took it from the English in 1676. Taken by the British, with four ships of the line, and a military force under command of sir Ralph Abercrombie, to whom the island capitulated, Feb. 21, 1797 ; they captured two, and burnt three Spanish ships of war in the harbour. This possession was confirmed to England by the peace of Amiens in

1802. The insurrection of the negroes occurred January 4, 1832. See Colonies. TRINITY AND TRINITARIANS. The doctrine of the Trinity is generally received

by all Christians. Theophilus, bishop of Antioch, who flourished in the second century, the first who used the term Trinity, to express the three sacred persons in the Godhead. His Defence of Christianity was edited by Gesner, at Zurich, in 1546.-Walkins. An order of the Trinity was founded, A.D. 1198, by John de Matha and Felix de Valois. The Trinity fraternity, originally of fifteen persons, was instituted at Rome by St. Philip Neri, in 1548. The act to exempt from

penalties persons denying the doctrine of the Trinity, passed in 1813. TRINITY COLLEGES. Trinity college, Cambridge, was founded by Henry VIII.,

1546. Trinity Hall, Cambridge, was founded by William Bateman, bishop of Norwich (see Cambridge), in 1351. Trinity COLLEGE, OXFORD : founded by sir Thomas Pope, 1554 (see Oxford). Trinity COLLEGE, DUBLIN: grant of the Augustine monastery of All Saints within the suburbs for erecting this college, conferred by queen Elizabeth, 1591. First stone laid by Thomas Smith, mayor of Dublin, January 1, 1593. New charter, 1637. Made a barrack for soldiers, 1689.

-Burns. The principal or west front erected, 1759. Library erected, 1732. TRINITY HOUSE, LONDON. Founded by sir Thomas Spert, A.D. 1512. It was

incorporated by Henry VIII. in 1514, and re-incorporated in 1685. The present Trinity-house was erected in 1795. Trinity Houses were founded at Deptford, at Hull, and at Newcastle : these three societies were instituted and incorporated by Henry VIII., the first in 1512, the other two in 1537. By their charter they had the power of examining, licensing, and regulating pilots, and of erecting beacons and lighthouses, and of placing buoys in the channels and rivers : their powers and

privileges have been greatly augmented by succeeding kings.-Gibson's Camden. TRINITY SUNDAY. The festival of the Holy Trinity was instituted by pope

Gregory IV. in 828, on his ascending the papal chair, and is observed by the Latin and Protestant churches on the Sunday next following Pentecost or Whitsuntide, of which, originally, it was merely an Octave. The observance of the festival was first enjoined in the council of Arles, 1260. It was appointed to be held on the

present day by pope John XX. in 1334. TRIPLE ALLIANCE. This celebrated treaty of alliance was ratified between the

States-General and England, against France, for the protection of the Spanish Netherlands ; Sweden afterwards joining the league, it was known as the Triple

Alliance, January 28, 1668. TRIUMPHS. The triumph was a solemn honour done generals of armies after they

had won great victories, by receiving them into the town with great magnificence and public acclamations. Among the Romans there were two sorts—the great, that was called simply the triumph ; and the little, styled the ovation. They also distinguish triumphs into land and sea triumphs, accordingly as the battles were

fought. See Ovation, TRIUMVIRI. Three magistrates appointed equally to govern the Roman state with

absolute power. These officers gave a fatal blow to the expiring independence of the Roman people, and became celebrated for their different pursuits, their ambi. tion, and their various fortunes. The first triumvirate, B.c. 60, was in the hands of Julius Cæsar, Pompey, and Crassus, who at the expiration of their office kindled a civil war. The second and last triumvirate, B.c. 43, was under Augustus, Mark Antony, and Lepidus, through whom the Romans totally lost their liberty. Augustus disagreed with his colleagues, and after he had defeated them, he made himself absolute in Rome. The triumvirate was in full force at Rome for about twelve

years. See Rome. TROPPAU, CONGRESS OF. The emperors Francis and Alexander of Austria and

Russia met at Troppau, October 20. The conference between them and the king of Prussia, against Naples, took place November 10 ; and the congress was trans. ferred to Laybach, nearer to Italy, Dec. 17, 1820. See Laybach, Congress of.

B.C. 1224

. 1224

B.C. 1546



. 1193

. 1314




TROUBADOURS OR JONGLEURS. They first appeared in the ninth century, and

were so encouraged by the patronage of the court of Poitou, and by several powerful princes, that they spread in process of time throughout Europe. They cultivated poetry and music, and refinement followed in their steps, greatly improving the taste

and temper of the times. To the troubadours we owe Latin and French poetry. TROY. The history of Troas, or Phrygia Minor, is at best but obscure, and more

particularly so in times prior to the reign of Dardanus, who came hither from Italy
(or Crete) about the year 1506 B.C., and married the daughter of Teucer, prince of
the country, whom he succeeded. Dardanus built a city, and named it, after him.
self, Dardania : Troas, the second in succession from Dardanus, changed the name
to Troy ; and Ilus, his successor, converted it into Ilium.
Arrival of Scamander in Phrygia Minor. War of Hercules and Laomedon

Reign of Priam, or Podarces
Teucer succeeds his father

1502 Rape of Helen, by Alexander Paris, son Dardanus succeeds Teucer, and builds the of Priam, 20 years before the sacking city of Dardania

1480 of Troy - Ilomer's Iliad, book xxiv., Reign of Ericthonius

line 964, Pope's edit. Reign of Troas, from whom the people Commencement of the invasion of the are called Trojans

1374 Greeks to recover Helen The rape of Ganymede

1341 Troy taken and burned in the night of Ilus, son of Troas, reigns

the 11th June, i. e. 23d of the month Reign of Laomedon

1260 Thargelion.- Parian Marbles. Arrival of Hercules in Phrygia; He- years before the first Olympiad.--Apolsione delivered from the sea-monster.


1184 Blair, Usher

Æneas arrives in Italy.–Lenglet Some time after the destruction of old Troy, a new city was built, about thirty stadia distant from the old site; but though it bore the same name, and received ample donations from Alexander the Great in his Asiatic expedition, it never rose to

much importance, and in the age of Strabo was nearly in ruins.—Priestley. TROY WEIGHT. The Romans left their ounce, now our avoirdupois ounce, in

Britain.-Arbuthnot. The present ounce of this weight was brought from Grand Cairo into Europe, about the time of the Crusades, A.D. 1095. It was first adopted at Troyes, a city of France, whence the name ; and is used to weigh gold, silver, and precious stones. The troy weight, Scots, was established by James VI. (our

James I.) in 1618. TROYES, TREATY OF, between England, France, and Burgundy, whereby it was

stipulated that Henry V. should marry Catherine, daughter of Charles VI., be appointed regent of France, and after the death of Charles should inherit the crown, May 24, 1420. The French were driven from Troyes by the allied armies, Feb. 7; it was retaken by Napoleon, Feb. 23; and was finally re-occupied by the allies,

March 4, 1814. TRUMPET. Some of the Greek historians ascribe the invention of the trumpet to

the Tyrrhenians, and others to the Egyptians. It was in use in the time of Homer, but not at the time of the Trojan war. First torches, then shells of fish, sounded like trumpets, were the signals in primitive wars.— Potter. The speaking-trumpet is said to have been used by Alexander the Great in 335 B.c. Trumpets were first sounded before the king in the time of Offa, king of Mercia, A.D. 790. Speakingtrumpets were improved by Kircher in 1652. Made by Salland, 1654. Philoso

phically explained by Moreland, 1671. TRUMPET-FLOWER, Bignonia radicans, was brought hither from North America,

about 1640. The Trumpet Honeysuckle, Lonicera sempervirens, came from North America in 1656. The Bignonia capensis was brought to England, from the Cape, in 1823. The Large-flowered Trumpet-flower, or Bignonia grandiflora, was

brought from China in 1800. TUAM, ARCHBISHOPRIC OF. St. Jarlath, the son of Loga, who sat in A.D. 501, is

looked upon as the first founder of the cathedral of Tuam, though the abbey is said to have been founded in 487. The church was anciently called Tuaim-da-Gualand. In the year 1151, Edan O'Hoisin was the first archbishop, at least the first who had the use of the pall, for some of his predecessors are sometimes called bishops of Connaught, and sometimes archbishops, by Irish historians. The see of Mayo was annexed to Tuam in 1559. This arch-see is valued in the king's books, by an


extent returned anno 28 Elizabeth, at 501. sterling per annum.-Beatson. Tuam ceased to be archiepiscopal, conformably with the statute 3 and 4 William IV.,

1833, and is now a bishopric only. See Archbishops. TUESDAY. The third day of the week, so called, as is supposed, from Tuisco, or

Tiw, a Saxon deity, that was particularly worshipped on this day. Tuesday was

called the third day among the Jews. See Week Days. TUILERIES, Paris. One of the royal palaces of that city, commenced by Catharine

de Medici, after the plans of Philibert de Lorme, A.D. 1564 ; continued by Henry IV.; and finished by Louis XIV. This palace was the scene of great events during

the two memorable revolutions. TULIPS. They came to England from Vienna, A.D. 1578, and have always been

among our most esteemed flowers. It is recorded in the register of the city of Alcmaer, in Holland, that in the year 1639, 120 tulips, with the offsets, sold for 90,000 forins ; and in particular, that one of them, called the viceroy, sold for 4203 guilders! The States at last put a stop to this extravagant and ruinous passion for flowers. The tulip-tree, Liriodendron tulipifera, was brought to these realms from

North America, about 1663. TUNBRIDGE-WELLS. The celebrated springs here were first discovered by Dudley

lord North, who had retired into the neighbourhood in the last stage of consumption,

and became perfectly restored to health by the use of its waters, A.D. 1606. TUNIS AND TRIPOLI. The former stands near where Carthage was built. The

territories of both formed part of the celebrated Carthaginian state, and were entirely destroyed by the Romans after the third Punic war, 148 B.C. Besieged by Louis IX. of France, 1270. It remained under African kings till taken by Barbarossa, under Solyman the Magnificent. Barbarossa was expelled by Charles V. ; but the country was recovered by the Turks, under Selim II. Taken, with great slaughter, by the emperor Charles V., when 10,000 Christian slaves were set at liberty, 1535. The bey of Tunis was first appointed in 1570. Tunis was reduced by admiral

Blake, on the bey refusing to deliver up the British captives, 1656. TUNNELS. The earliest tunnel for the purpose of internal navigation was executed

by M. Riguet, in the reign of Louis XIV. at Bezières, in France. The first in England was by Mr. Brindley, on the duke of Bridgewater's pavigation, near Manchester, about 1760. Æra of the Gravesend tunnel, 1800—the report upon it, 1801.

The 'Thames tunnel projected by Mr. Brunel in 1823. See Thames Tunnel. TURBAN. The head-dress of many of the Eastern nations, consisting of two parts, a

cap and a sash, the latter artfully wreathed about the head. The sash of the Turk's turban is white linen ; that of the Persians, red woollen. These are the distinguish. ing marks of their different religions. Sophi, king of Persia, being of the sect of Ali, was the first who assumed the red colour, to distinguish himself from the

Turks, who are of the sect of Omar. TURIN. The French besieged this city in 1706 ; but prince Eugene defeated their

army, and compelled them to raise the siege. In 1798, the French republican army took possession of Turin, seized all the strong places and arsenals of Piedmont, and obliged the king and his family to remove to the island of Sardinia. In 1799, the French were driven out by the Austrians and Russians ; but shortly afterwards the city and all Piedmont surrendered to the French. In 1814, it was delivered up to

the allies, when they restored it to the king of Sardinia. TURKEY. The Turks themselves were originally a tribe of Tartars ; but by reason

of the number of people whom they conquered, and with whom they became incorporated, the modern Turks must be regarded as a mixture of many races of men. Birth of Mahomet, the prophet, at Mecca The Turkish empire first formed under (see Mecca)

571 Othman at Bithynia His imposture commenced (see Maho- The Turks penetrate into Thrace, and metanism)

take Adrianople The Koran written (soe Koran)

Amurath I institutes the Janizaries, a Flight to Medina (see Medina)

guard composed of Christian slaves Æra of the Hegira (see Hegira) Death of Mahomet

Bajazet I. overruns the provinces of the Holy wars begin (see Crusades)

Eastern empire

1339, et seq.




604 610 622 622 631

bred Mahometans




• 1453



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TURKEY, continued.

He lays siege to Constantinople; but is
at length taken by Tamerlane (see

The Turks invading Hungary, are repelled
by Huniades

1450 Constantinople taken by the Turks un

der Mahomet II., which ends the

Eastern Roman empire
Greece made subject to the Mahometans
(see Greece)

1458 The Turks penetrate into Italy, and take

Otranto, which diffuses terror through-
out Europe

1480 Selim I. raised to the throne by the Ja

nissaries : he murders his father, bro-
thers, and their sons

He takes the islands of the Archipelago
from the Christians

1.514 He overruns Syri

1515 Adds Egypt to his empire

. 1516 Solyman II. takes Belgrade

1521 Rhodes taken from the knights of St. John, who go to Malta

1522 Battle of Mohatz (which see)

1526 Solyman II., with 250,000 men, is repulsed before Vienna

1529 Cyprus taken from the Venetians

. 157! Great battle of Lepanto, which puts an

end to the fears of Europe from Turkish
power (see Lepanto)

Amurath II. ascends the throne ; stran-
gles his five brothers

1574 [Dreadful persecutions of the Christians

during this reign.]
The Turks driven out of Persia by the
famous Schah Abbas

1585 Bloody reign of Mahomet III.

1595 Reign of Achmet I.

. 1603 Great fire in Constantinople

1606 Reign of Amurath IV., who strangles his

father and four brothers
The Turks defeat the Persians, and take

the city of Bagdad
The island of Candia, or Crete, taken
after a 25 years' siege

1669 Vienna besieged by Mahomet iv., but

relieved by John of Poland Mahomet IV. deposed by Solyman 1687 Pence of Carlovitz

1699 Mustapha III. deposed

1703 The Morea retaken by the Turks

1715 Belgrade taken from Austria; and Russia relinquishes Azof

1739 Great sea-fight in the channel of Scio;

the English and Russian fleets defeat
the Turkish

1770 The Crimea falls to Russia

Jan. 1783 Cession of Oczacow

1791 (This ends the disastrous war with Russia

and Austria (begun in 1787), the Turks
having lost more than 200,000 men-

War against Russia

Dec. 30, 1806
Passage and repassage of the Dardanelles

effected by the British fleet, but with

great loss (see Dardanelles) Feb. 19, 1807 Murder of Hali Aga

May 25, 1807 The sultan Selim is deposed and mur

dered, and Mustapha IV, called to the throne

May 29, 1807 Treaty of Bucharest (which see) May 28, 1812 A caravan, consisting of 2000 souls, re

turning from Mecca, destroyed by a pestilential wind in the deserts of

Arabia ; 20 only were saved Aug. 9, 1812 Subjection of the Wachabees

1819 Ali Pacha of Janina, in Greece, declares himself independent

1820 Insurrection of Moldavia and Wallachia,

March 6, 1821 The Greek patriarch put to death at Constantinople

April 23, 1821 Horrible massacre at Scio; the most

dreadful in modern history (see note to Greece)

April 23, 1822 Sea-fight near Mitylene

Oct. 6, 1824 New Mahometan army announced to be organised

May 29, 1826 Insurrection of the Janissaries at Constantinople

June 14, 1826 Firman of the sultan abolishing the Janissaries

June 16, 1826 Fire at Constantinople ; 6000 houses reduced to ashes

August 30, 1826 Battle of Navarino; the Turkish fleet de

stroyed by the fleets of England, France

and Russia (see Navarino) Oct. 20, 1827 Banishment of 132 French, 120 English,

and 85 Russian settlers, from the Turkish empire

January 5, 1828 War with Russia

April 26, 1828 The emperor Nicholas takes the field against the Turks

May 20, 1828 Capitulation of Brahilow June 19, 1828 Surrender of Anappa

June 23, 1828 The eminences of Shumla taken by the Russians

July 20, 1828 The Russian emperor arrives before Varna

Aug. 5, 1928 Battle of Akhalzic'

Aug. 24, 1828 Fortress of Bajazet taken Sept. 9, 1828 The sultan leaves his capital for the

camp, bearing with him the sacred standard

Sept. 26, 1829 Dardanelles blockaded

Oct. 1, 1828 Surrender of Varna

Oct. 15, 1828 Russians retreat from before Schumla,

October 16, 1828 Surrender of the castle of the Morea to the French

Oct. 30, 1828 Siege of Silistria raised by the Russians

November 10, 1828 Victory of the Russians at Kulertscha, near Shumla

June 11, 1829 Battle near Erzeroum

July 2, 1829 Adrianople is entered by the Russian troops

Aug. 20, 1829 Armistice between the Russian and Turkish armies

Aug. 29, 1829 Treaty of peace

Sept. 14, 1829 Fire at Constantinople; extinguished by

the seamen and marines of H. M. S. Blonde

Jan. 22, 1830 Treaty with America

May 7, 1830 St. Jean d'Acre taken by Ibraham Pacha, son of Mehemet Ali

July 2, 1832

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