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number of British settled in the Netherlands, France, Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, is now supposed to far exceed 100,000, drawing from the country not less than five millions annually : “ a sum so large," observes Dr. Southey, " that if, instead of being scattered among strangers, it were spent in the deserted halls and mansions of these realms, it would materially alleviate the distress with which England now

struggles."'-Quar. Review. ABSENTEE TAX. In Ireland, a tax of four shillings in the pound was levied on profits,

fees, emoluments, and pensions of absentees, in 1715. This tax ceased in 1753. In 1773, Mr. Flood, the great Irislı orator, proposed a tax of two shillings in the pound, which was lost by a majority in the commons of 122 to 102. The question was renewed in the Irish parliament in 1783 by Mr. Molyneux, and again lost, on a

division of 184 to 122.-Statutes at large ; Parl. Reports. ABSTINENCE. St. Anthony lived to the age of 105, on twelve ounces of bread, and

water. James the Hermit lived in the same manner to the age of 104. St. Epiphanius lived thus to 115. Simeon, the Stylite, to 112 ; and Kentigern, commonly called St. Mungo, lived by similar means to 185 years of age.-Spottiswood. A man may live seven, or even eleven, days without meat or drink.-- Pliny Hist. Nat. lib. ii. Democritus subsisted for orty by smelling honey and hot bread, 323 B.c.Diog. Laert. A woman of Normandy lived for 18 years without food.-Petrus de Albano. Gilbert Jackson, of Carse-grange, Scotland, lived three years without sustenance of any kind, 1719. A religious fanatic, who determined upon fasting forty days, died on the sixteenth, 1789.-Phillips. A country girl, of Osnabruck, abstained four years from all food and drink, 1799.- Ilufeland's Practical Journal. Ann Moore, the fasting woman of Tutbury, Staffordshire, supposed to have been an impostor, was said to have lived twenty months without food, Nov. 1808. At Newry, in Ireland, a man named Cavanagh was reported to have lived two years without meat or drink; Aug. 1840 ; his imposture was afterwards discovered in England, where he was imprisoned as a cheat, Nov. 1841, See instances in Haller's Elementæ Physiolo

giæ ; Cornaro; Pricher's Surgical Library, &c. ; and in this volume, see Fasting. ABSTINENTS. The abstinents were a sect that wholly abstained from wine, flesh, and

marriage ; and were a community of harmless and mild ascetics. They appeared in France and Spain in the third century; and some authorities mention such a sect as

having been numerous elsewhere in a.d. 170.- Bossuet. ABYSSINIAN ERA. This era is reckoned from the period of the Creation, which they

place in the 5493rd year before our era, on the 29th August, old style ; and their dates consequently exceed ours by 5492 years and 125 days. To reduce Abyssinian

time to the Julian year, subtract 5492 years and 125 days. ACADEMIES, or societies of learned men to promote literature, sciences, and the arts,

are of early date. Academia was a shady grove without the walls of Athens (bequeathed to Hecademus for gymnastic exercises), where Plato first taught philosophy, and his followers took the title of Academics 378 B. C.-Stanley.

Ptolemy Soler is said to have founded an academy at Alexandria, about 314 B. C. Theodosius the Younger and Charlemagne are also named as founders. Italy has been celebrated for its academies ; and Jarckius mentions 550, of which 25 were in the city of Milan. The first philosophical academy in France was established by Père Mersenne, in 1635. Academies were introduced into England by Boyle and Hobbes ; and the Royal Society of London was formed in 1660. The following are among the principal academies :Ancona, of the Caglinosi, 1624.

Florence, Belles Lettres, 1272; Della Crusca
Berlin, Royal Society, 1700; of Princes, 1703; 1582; Antiquities, 1807,
Architecture, 1799.

Geneva, Medical, 1715,
Bologna, Ecclesiastical, 1687 ; Mathematics, Genoa, Painting, &c. 1751 ; Sciences, 1783.
1690 ; Sciences and Arts, 1712.

Germany, Medical, 1617; Natural History, Brescia, of the Erranti, 1626.

1652; Military, 1752. Brest and Toulon, Military, 1682.

Haerlem, the Sciences, 1760. Brussels, Belles Lettres, 1773.

Lisbon, History, 1720 ; Sciences, 1779. Caen, Belles Lettres, 1750.

London ; its various Academies are described Copenhagen, Polite Arts, 1742.

through the volume. Cortona, Antiquities, 1726.

Lyons, Sciences, 1700; had Physic and MaDublin, Arts, 1749; Science and Literature, thematics added, 1758.

1786; Painting, Sculpture, &c. 1823. Madrid, the Royal Spanish, 1713; Iistory, Erfurt, Saxony, Sciences, 1754.

1730; Painting and the Arts, 1753. Faenza, the Philoponi, 1612.

Manheim, Sculpture, 1775.

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ACADEMIES, continued.

Mantua, the Vigilanti, Sciences, 1704. Philadelphia, Arts and Sciences, 1749.
Marseilles, Belles Lettres, 1726.

Portsmouth, Naval, 1722 ; enlarged, 1806
Massachusetts, Arts and Sciences, 1780. Rome, Umoristi, 1611; Fantascici, 1625 ;
Milan, Architecture, 1380 ; Sciences, 1719. Infecondi, 1653; Painting, 1665 ; Arcadi,
Munich, Arts and Sciences, 1759.

1690 ; English, 1752.
Naples, Rossana, 1540 ; Mathematics, 1560 ; Spain, Royal, 1713 ; Military, 1751.
Sciences, 1695; Herculaneum, 1755.

Stockholm, of Science, 1741 ; Belles Lettres,
New York, Literature and Philosophy, 1814. 1753; Agriculture, 1781.
Nismes, Royal Academy, 1682.

Toulon, Military, 1682.
Padua, for Poetry, 1610 ; Sciences, 1792. Turin, Sciences, 1759 ; Fine Arts, 1778.
Palermo, Medical, 1615.

Turkey, Military School, 1775.
Paris, Sorbonne, 1256; Painting, 1391; Music, Upsal, Royal Society, Sciences, 1720.

1543; French, 1635; Medals, 1663; Archi- Venice, Medical, &c. 1701.
tecture, 1671; Surgery, 1731; Military, 1751; Verona, Music, 15-43; Sciences, 1780.
Natural Philosophy, 1796.

Vienna, Sculpture and the Arts, 1705 ; Sur.
Parma, the Innominati, 1550.

gery, 1783; Oriental, 1810.
Perousa, Insensati, 1561 ; Filirgili, 1574. Warsaw, Languages and History, 1753.
Petersburgh, Sciences, 1725; Military, 1732; Woolwich, Military, 1741.

the School of Arts, 1764.
ACAPULCO, Ship. This was the celebrated prize, a Spanish galleon, from Acapulco,

laden with gold and precious wares, and estimated by some annalists at 1,000,0001. sterling and upwards; taken by Lord Anson, who had previously acquired booty in his memorable voyage amounting to 600,0001. Admiral Anson arrived at Spithead

in the Centurion with his gains, after having circumnavigated the globe, June 15, 1744. ACCENTS. The most ancient manuscripts are written without accents, and without

any separation of words; nor was it until after the ninth century that the copyists began to leave spaces between the words. Michaelis, after Wetstein, ascribes the insertion of accents to Euthalius, bishop of Sulca, in Egypt, A.D. 458 ; but his invention

was followed up and improved upon by other grammarians in the various languages. ACCESSION, The. By this term is usually understood the accession of the house of

Hanover to the throne of England, in the person of George I. the elector of Hanover, as the Protestant descendant of Elizabeth, the daughter of James I. ; he being the son of Sophia, who was the daughter of that princess. He succeeded to the crown August 1st, 1714, by virtue of an act of parliament passed in the reign

of Anne, June 12, 1701. See article Hanoverian Succession. ACCUSERS. By the occult writers, such as Agrippa, accusers are the eighth order of

devils, whose chief is called Asteroth, or spy, and who, in the Revelation of St. John, is by way of eminence, called the accuser of the brethren. He is an accuser who charges another with a crime, whether the charge be true or false. False accusers were hanged in England by statute 4 Henry VI. 1446. They were burnt in the

face with an F by statute 37 Henry VIII. 1545.–Stowe's Chron.
ACHAIA. This country was governed by a race of kings, but even their names are all

forgotten. The capital, Achaia, was founded by Achæus, the son of Xuthus, 1080
B.C. The kingdom was united with Sicyon or subject to the Ætolians until about
284 B.C. The Achæi were descendants of Achæus, and originally inhabited the
neighbourhood of Argos ; but when the Heraclidæ drove them thence, they retired
among the lonians, expelled the natives, and seized their thirteen cities, viz. Pelene,
Ægira, Ægeum, Bura, Tritæa, Leontium, Rhypæ, Ceraunia, Olenos, Helice, Patræ,
Dymæ, and Pharæ.
The Achæan league

B.C. 281 | Philopæmen defeated by Nabis, in a naval
Fortress of Athenæum built

. 228

B.C. 194
Defeat of the Achæans by the Spartans, Sparta joined to the league
and Lysiades killed

226 The Achæans overrun Messenia with fire
Battle of Sallacia.

and sword

182 The Social war begun

220 The Romans enter Achaia The Peloponnesus ravaged by the Etolians 219 Metellus enters Greece

Aratus poisoned at Ægium

• 215 The Achæan league dissolved
Battle of Mantinea ; Philopamen defeats Greece subjected to Rome, and named
the Spartan tyrant Mechanidas

the province of Achaia
Alliance with the Romans
The United States of America seem to have adopted the plan of the Achæan league
in forming their constitution ; and the Swiss cantons also had a great resemblance to
it in their confederacy.




• 146

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. 146

. 201

ACHONRY, BISHOPRICK OF, founded by St. Finian, who erected the church of

Achad, usually called Achonry, about the year 520. St. Finian having built this church, conferred it on his disciple Nathy, named in Irish, Dathy, or David, who was the first bishop, and a man of great sanctity. In the ancient annals of Ireland the prelates this see are, for the most part, called bishops of Luigny, or Liny, from the subdivision of the county wherein it is situated. The see of Achonry has

been held in commendam with Killala since 1612.-See Killala. ACOUSTICS. The doctrine of the different sounds of vibrating strings, and communi

cation of sounds to the ear by the vibration of the atmosphere, was probably first explained by Pythagoras, about 500 B.c. Mentioned by Aristotle, 300 B.C. The speaking-trumpet is said to have been used by Alexander the Great, 335 B.C. The discoveries of Galileo were made about A.D. 1600. The velocity of sound was investigated by Newton before 1700. Galileo's theorem of the harmonic curve was demonstrated by Dr. Brook Taylor, in 1714; and further perfected by D'Alembert, Euler, Bernoulli, and La Grange, at various periods of the eighteenth century.

See Sound. ACRE. This measure was formerly of uncertain quantity, and differed in various parts

of the realm, until made standard by statute 31 Edward I., and fixed at 40 poles or perches in length, and 4 in breadth—or 160 square poles, containing 4840 square

yards, or 43,560 square feet, A.D. 1303.-Pardon. ACRE, ST. JEAN D'. Taken by Richard I. and other crusaders in 1192, after a siege of two years,

with the loss of 6 archbishops, 12 bishops, 40 earls, 500 barons, and 300,000 soldiers. Retaken by the Saracens, when 60,000 Christians perished, 1291. This capture was rendered memorable by the murder of the nuns, who had mangled their faces to repress the lust of the Infidels. Acre was attacked by Bonaparte in July 1798 ; and was relieved by sir Sydney Smith, who gallantly resisted twelve attempts during the memorable siege by the French, between March 6 and May 27, 1799, when, baffled by the British squadron on the water and the Turks on shore, Bonaparte relinquished his object and retreated. St. Jean d'Acre is a pachalic subject to the Porte; seized upon by Ibrahim Pacha, who had revolted, July 2, 1832. It became a point of the Syrian war in 1840. Stormed by the British fleet under sir Robert Stopford, and taken after a bombardment of a few hours, the Egyptians losing upwards of 2,000 in killed and wounded, and 3000 prisoners, while the

British had but 12 killed and 42 wounded, Nov. 3, 1840. See Syria and Turkey. ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS. The citadel of Athens was built on a rock, and accessible

only on one side : Minerva had a temple at the bottom.- Paus. in Attic. The roof of this vast pile, which had stood 2000 years, was destroyed in the Venetian siege, A.D. 1687.- Aspin. The Acropolis of Mycenæ was marked by terraces, and defended by ponderous walls, on which were high towers, each at the distance of fifty

feet.Euripides. ACTIUM, BATTLE OF, between the fleets of Octavianus Cæsar on the one side, and

of Marc Antony and Cleopatra on the other, and which decided the fate of Antony, 300 of his galleys going over to Cæsar; fought Sept. 2, 31 B.C. This battle made Augustus (the title afterwards conferred by the senate upon Cæsar) master of the world, and the commencement of the Roman empire is commonly dated from this year. In honour of his victory, the conqueror built the city of Nicopolis, and insti.

tuted the Actian games.Blair. ACTRESSES. Women in the drama appear to have been unknown to the ancients ;

men or eunuchs performing the female parts. Charles II. is said to have first encouraged the public appearance of women on the stage in England, in 1662 ; but

the queen of James I. had previously performed in a theatre at court.— Theat. Biog. ACTS OF PARLIAMENT. The first promulgated, 16 John, 1215. See Parliament.

For a great period of years the number of acts passed has been annually large, although varying considerably in every session. Between the 4th and 10th of George IV. 1126 acts were wholly repealed, and 443 repealed in part, chiefly arising out of the consolidation of the laws by Mr. Peel (afterwards sir Robert): of these acts, 1344

related to the kingdom at large, and 225 to Ireland solely. ADAM AND EVE, ERA OF, set down by Christian writers as being 4004 B.C. There

have been as many as one hundred and forty opinions on the distance of time between the creation of the world and the birth of the Redeemer : some make it 3616 years, and some as great as 6484 years. See Creation.



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• 1687

. 1540

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. 1553

ADAMITES, a sect that imitated Adam's nakedness before the fall, arose A.D. 130.

They assembled quite naked in their places of worship, asserting that if Adam had not sinned, there would have been no marriages. Their chief was named Prodicus ; they deified the elements, rejected prayer, and said it was not necessary to confess Christ.–Eusebius. This sect, with an addition of many blasphemies, and teaching from the text “increase and multiply," was renewed at Antwerp in the thirteenth century, under a chief named Tandeme, who, being followed by 3000 soldiers, violated females of every age, calling their crimes by spiritual names. A Flandrian, named Picard, again revived this sect in Bohemia, in the fifteenth century, whence

they spread into Poland and existed some time.-Bayle ; Pardon. ADMINISTRATIONS OF ENGLAND, AND OF GREAT BRITAIN, from the acces

sion of Henry VIII. The following were the prime ministers, or favourites, or chiefs
of administrations, in the respective reigns, viz. :-

Bishop Fisher and earl of Surrey . 1509 Earls of Sunderland and Tyrconnell,
Cardinal Thomas Wolsey


sir George afterwards lord Jeffries
Sir Thomas More and Cranmer . 1529 | Lord Jeffries, earl of Tyrconnell, lord
Lord Audley, chancellor ; archbishop Bellasis, lord undel, earl of Middle-

1532 ton, visct. Preston
And lord Cromwell (earl of Essex) 1534

Duke of Norfolk, earl of Surrey, and Sir John, afterwards lord Somers, lord
bishop Gardiner

Godolphin, cari of Danby, afterwards
Lord Wriothesloy, earl of Hertford 1544 duke of Leeds, &c.

The earl of Sunderland, &c.

The earl of Hertford, continued

Charles Montagu, afterwards earl of
John, duke of Northumberland

. 1552 Halifax, earl of Pembroke, viscount
Lonsdale, earl of Oxford, &c.

Bishop Gardiner


Lord Godolphin, R. Harley, esq., lord

Pembroke, duke of Buckingham
Sir Nicholas Bacon.

Duke of Marlborough, &c.

Sir William Cecil, afterwards lord Bur-

Earl Godolphin, lord Cowper, dukes of
leigh; chief minister during almost the
whole of this long reign

Marlborough and Newcastle

Earl of Leicester, a favourite

R. Harley, afterwards earl of Oxford 1710
Earl of Essex .

Earl of Rochester, lord Dartmouth, and
Lord Buckhurst

Henry St. John, esq. afterwards visct.
Bolingbroke; lord Harcourt


Charles, duke of Shrewsbury, &c. 1714
Lord Buckhurst (earl of Dorset)

Earls of Salisbury, Suffolk, and North.

Lord Cowper, duke of Shrewsbury, mar
Sir R. Carr, created viscount Rochester,

quess of Wharton, earl of Orford, duke

of Marlborough, visct. Townshend, &c. 1714 afterwards earl of Somerset


Robert Walpole, esq. .
Sir George Villiers, created earl, marquis,
and duke of Buckingham

James, afterwards earl Stanhope
Charles, earl of Sunderland, &c.

• 1718

Robert Walpole, esq., afterwards sir
Duke of Buckingham continued

Robert and earl of Orford.

Earl of Portland, archbishop Laud 1628

Archbishop Laud, earl of Strafford, lord Lord Carteret, lord Wilmington, lord

Bath, Mr. Sandys, &c.

Earl of Essex


Hon. Henry Pelham, lord Carteret, earl
Lord vis. Falkland, lord Digby


of Harrington, duke of Newcastle 1743 (The civil war commenced, and all went

Mr. Pelham, earl of Chesterfield, duke into confusion.]

of Bedford, &c.


Duke of Newcastle, sir Thomas Robin-
Edward, earl of Clarendon

1660 son, Henry Fox, &c., lord Anson 1754
Dukes of Buckingham and Lauderdale 1667 Duke of Devonshire, Mr. William Pitt,
Lord Ashley, lord Arlington, sir T. Clif-

earl Temple, Hon. H. B. Legge .
ford, afterwards lord Clifford

1667 (Dismissed in April, 1757. Restored in
Lord Arlington, lord Ashley, created June, same year.]
earl Shaftesbury, and sir Thomas

William Pitt, Mr. Legge, cari Temple,

1673 duke of Newcastle, &c.
Sir Thomas Osborne


• 1564 . 1538


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. 1608

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• 1715 . 1717

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· 1757


KING GEORGE III. Earl of Essex, duke of Ormond, earl Earl of Bute, carl of Egremont, duke of

afterwards marquess of Halifax, sir Bedford William Temple

1677 Earl of Bute, hon. George Grenville, sir Duke of York, and his friends

Francis Dashwood, &c.

· 1761

• 1682

. 1762

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Right hon. George Grenville, earl of

Halifax, earl of Sandwich, duke of
Bedford, &c.


Earl of Liverpool, viscount Sidmouth,

Mr. Vansittart, &c. continued.
Marquess of Rockingham, duke of Graf.

ton, earl of Shelburne, &c. . July 1765 Rt. hon. George Canning, lord viscount
Duke of Grafton, hon. Chas. Townshend,

Goderich, lord Lyndhurst, Mr. Sturges
earl of Chatham, &c.

Aug. 1766
Bourne, &c.

April 10, 1827
Duke of Grafton, right hon. Frederick,

Viscount Goderich, duke of Portland, lord North, &c.

Dec. 1767

right hon. William Huskisson, Mr.

Herries, &c.
Lord North, lord Halifax, &c.


August 11, 1827 Lord North, lord Dartmouth, lord Stor

Duke of Wellington, right hon. Robert mont, lord Hillsborough, lord St. Ger

Peel, earl of Dudley, viscount Melville, main, &c.

· 1779

earl of Aberdeen, Mr. Goulburn, Mr.
Marquess of Rockingham, right honble.

Herries, Mr. Grant, &c. January 25, 1828
Charles James Fox, &c. Mar. 30, 1782 Duke of Wellington, earl of Aberdeen,
Earl of Shelburne, William Pitt, lord

sir George Murray, lord Lowther, sir
Grantham, &c.

July 10, 1782 Henry Hardinge, &c., (Mr. Huskisson,
Duke of Portland, lord North, Mr. Yox,

visc. Palmerston, Mr. Grant, earl of
(The Coalition Ministry. See Dudley, &c. retiring)

May 30, 1828 * Coalition )

April 5, 1783

Rt. hon. William Pitt, lord Gower, lords

Sidney, Carmarthen, and Thurlow, Duke of Wellington and his cabinet,
right hon. W. W. Grenville, Henry continued.
Dundas, lord Mulgrave, duke of Rich- Earl Grey, viscounts Althorpe, Mel-
mond, &c.

Dec. 27, 1783 bourne, Goderich, and Palmerston,
Mr. Pitt, lord Camden, marq. of Stafford, marquess of Lansdowne, lord Holland,
lord Hawkesbury, &c.

1786 lord Auckland, sir James Graham, Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, duke of Leeds,


Nov. 22, 1830 lord Camden, &c.

1790 (Earl Grey resigns May 9; but resumes
Mr. Pitt, lord Grenville, earl of Chatham, office May 18, 1832.]
lord Loughborough, &c.

1793 Viscount Melbourne, viscount Althorp, Mr. Pitt, duke of Portland, lord Gren.

lord John Russell, viscts. Palmerston ville, Mr. Dundas, &c.

1795 and Duncannon, sir J. C. Hobhouse, Mr. Pitt, earl of Westmorland, earl of lord Howick, Mr. S, Rice, Mr. Poulett Chatham, lord Grenville, &c.

Thomson, &c.

July 14, 1834 Right hon. Henry Addington, duke of Viscount Melbourne's administration

Portland, lord llawkesbury, lord Ho- dissolved: the duke of Wellington bart, lord Eldon, &c.

Mar. 17, 1801 takes the helm of state provisionally, Mr. Pitt, lord Melville, rt. hon. George waiting the return of Sir Robert Peel Canning, lord Harrowby, lord West

from Italy

Nov. 14, 1834 morland, duke of Portland, Mr. Dun. Sir Robert Peel, duke of Wellington, das, &c.

May 12, 1804 lord Lyndhurst, earl of Aberdeen, lord
Lord Grenville, lord Henry Petty, earl Ellenborough, lord Rosslyn, lord

Spencer, rt. hon, William Windham, Wharncliffe, sir George Murray, Mr.
Mr. Fox, lord Erskine, rt. hon. Charles

A. Baring, Mr. Herries, Mr. Goulburn,
Grey, lord Sidmouth, &c. (See “ All

&c. .

Dec. 15, 1834 the Talents.':).

Feb. 5, 1806 Viscount Melbourne and his colleagues Duke of Portland, Mr. Canning, lord

return to office

April 18, 1835
Hawkesbury, earl Camden, right bon.
Spencer Perceval, &c. Mar. 25, 1807

Duke of Portland, earl Bathurst, lord

Visct. Melbourne and the same cabinet, viscount Castlereagh, lord Granville

continued. Gower, &c.


Viscount Melbourne resigns May 7, 1839 Mr. Perceval, earl of Liverpool, mar

Sir Robert Peel receives the queen's quess Wellesley, viscount Palmerston,

commands to form a new administraMr. Ryder, &c.

Oct. 1809

tion, May 8.

This command is withdrawn, and lord REGENCY OF GEORGE, PRINCE OF WALES.

Melbourne and his friends are reinstated

May 10, 1839 Mr. Perceval, the earl of Liverpool, &c. Sir Robert Peel, duke of Wellington, continued.

earl of Aberdeen, earl of Haddington, Earl of Liverpool, Earl Bathurst, visct. earl of Ripon, lord Stanley, Mr. Goul

Sidmouth, viscount Castlereagh, Mr. burn, Mr. W. E. Gladstone, sir Henry
Ryder, earl of Harrowby, right hon. Hardinge, sir Edward Knatchbull,
Nich. Vansittart, &c.

June 8, 1812

Aug. 30, 1841 ADMIRAL. The first so called in England was Richard de Lucy, appointed by

Henry III. 1223. Alfred, Athelstan, Edgar, Harold, and other kings, bad been

• 1798


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