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previously the commanders of their own fleets. The first was appointed in France, in 1284. The rank of admiral of the English seas was one of great distinction, and

was first given to William de Leybourne by Edward I. in 1297.-Spelman ; Rymer. ADMIRAL LORD HIGH, OF ENGLAND. The first officer of this rank was created

by Richard II. in December 1385 : there had been previously high admirals of districts—the north, west, and south. This office has seldom been entrusted to single hands, and was uninterruptedly executed by lords commissioners from 1709 until 1827, when the duke of Clarence, afterwards William IV., was appointed, on the secession of lord Melville from the Admiralty. The duke resigned the rank 12th Aug. 1828, and it was again vested in a commission. A similar dignity existed in Scotland from the reign of Robert III. : in 1673, the king bestowed it upon his natural son, Charles Lennox, afterwards duke of Richmond and Lennox, then an infant; he resigned the office to the crown in 1703, and after the Union it was discontinued. The dignity of lord high admiral of Ireland was conferred upon James

Butler, in May 1534. See Navy. ADMIRALTY, Court of, erected by Edward III. in 1357. This is a civil court

for the trial of causes relating to maritime affairs. In criminal matters, which commonly relate to piracy, the proceedings were formerly by accusation and information ; but this being found inconvenient, it was enacted, by two statutes made in the reign of Henry VIII., that criminal causes should be tried by witnesses and a jury, some of the judges at Westminster (or, as now, at the Old Bailey,) assisting. The judgeship of the Admiralty was established in 1610, and was filled by two or more functionaries until the Revolution, when it was restricted to one.- Beatson. There are appeals from the decisions of this court to the judicial committee of the privy

council, by statutes 11 George IV. & 1 William IV. 1830 and 1831. ADRIAN'S WALL. The wall of Adrian and Severus, to prevent the irruptions of the

Scots and Picts, extended from the Tyne to Solway Frith, and was eighty miles

long, twelve feet high, and eight in thickness, with watch-towers ; built a.d. 121. ADRIANISTS. These were the disciples of Simon Magus, who flourished about A.D.

34.- Theodoret. Another sect of the same name, the followers of Adrian Hamp

stead, appeared in the sixteenth century. ADRIANOPLE, BATTLE OF, which got Constantine the empire, was fought July 3,

A.D. 323. Adrianople was taken by the Ottomans from the Greeks in 1360 ; and it continued to be the seat of the Turkish empire till the capture of Constantinople in 1453. Mahomet II., one of the most distinguished of the sultans, and the one who took Constantinople, was born here, in 1430.--Priestley, Adrianople was taken by the Russians, Aug. 20, 1829; but was restored to the sultan at the close of the war,

Sept. 14, same year. See Turkey. ADRIATIC. The ceremony of the doge of Venice wedding the Adriatic Sea was insti

tuted in A.D. 1173. Annually, upon Ascension-day, the doge married the Adriaticum Mare, by dropping a ring into it from his bucentaur, or state barge, and was attended on these occasions by all the nobility of the state, and foreign ambassadors, in

gondolas. This ceremony was intermitted, for the first time for centuries, in 1797. ADULTERY, ANCIENT LAWS AGAINST IT. Punished by the law of Moses with the

death of both the guilty man and woman.-Leviticus xx. 10. This law was repealed, first, because the crime had become common; and secondly, because, God's name should not be liable to be too often erased by the ordeal of the waters bitterness. Leo, of Modena, says that the husband was obliged to dismiss his wife for ever, whether he willed it or not.-Calmet. Lycurgus punished the offender as he did a parricide, and the Locrians and Spartans tore out the offenders' eyes. The Romans had no formal law against adultery; the emperor Augustus was the first to introduce a positive law to punish it, and he had the misfortune to see it executed in the persons of his own children.—Lenglet. Socrates relates that women who were guilty of adultery were punished by the horrible sentence of public constupration. In England the legal redress against the male offender has been refined into a civil

action for a money compensation.—Lord Mansfield, ADULTERY, English Laws AGAINST IT. The early Saxons burnt the adultress,

and erected a gibbet over her ashes, whereon they hanged the adulterer.Pardon. King Edmund punished the crime as homicide. It was punished by cutting off the hair, stripping the female offender naked, and whipping her through the streets, if the husband so demanded it to be done, without distinction of rank, during the Saxon Heptarchy, A.D. 457 to 828.-Stowe. The ears and nose were cut off under Canute, 1031. Ordained to be punished capitally, together with incest, under Cromwell, May 14, 1650 ; but there is no record of this law taking effect. In New England a law was ordained whereby adultery was made capital to both parties, even though the man were unmarried, and several suffered under it, 1662.-Hardie. At present this offence is more favourably viewed ; to divorce and strip the adultress of her dower, is all her punishment among us; but in Romish countries they usually

shut up the adultress in a nunnery.--Ashe. ADVENT. In the calendar it signifies, properly, the approach of the feast of the

Nativity; it includes four Sundays, the first of which is always the nearest Sunday to Saint Andrew (the 30th November), before or after. Advent was instituted by the

council of Tours, in the sixth century. ADVENTURE BAY. Captain Furneaux visited this bay, which lies at the south-east

end of Van Diemen's Land, in his first voyage to the Pacific, and called it Adventure Bay from the ship Adventure in which he sailed, 1778. It was visited by captain

Bligh in 1788. ADVENTURERS, MERCHANT, a celebrated and enterprising company of merchants,

was originally formed for the discovery of territories, extension of commerce, and promotion of trade, by John duke of Brabant, in 1296. This ancient company was afterwards translated into England, in the reign of Edward III., and queen

Elizabeth formed it into an English corporation in 1564.- Anderson. ADVERTISEMENTS IN NEWSPAPERS. As now published, they were not general

in England until the beginning of the eighteenth century. A penalty of 501. was inflicted on persons advertising a reward with “No questions to be asked" for the return of things stolen, and on the printer, 25 Geo. II. 1754.-Stututes. The advertisement duty was formerly charged according to the number of lines ; it was afterwards fixed, in England at 3s. 6d., and in Ireland at 2s. 6d. each advertisement. The duty was further reduced, in England to ls. 6d., and in Ireland to ls, each, by

statute 3 and 4 Will, IV. 1833. ADVOCATE, THE KING'S. This office was instituted about the beginning of the

sixteenth century ; and the advocate was empowered to prosecute at his own instance certain crimes, 1597.-Statutes. LORD Advocate, in Scotland, is the same as the attorney-general is in England. It was decided in the parliament of Paris, in 1685, that the king's advocate of France might at the same time be a judge; and so in like manner it was allowed in Scotland, where sir John Nisbet and sir William

Oliphant were lord advocates and lords of session at the same time.-Beatson. ÆDILES, magistrates of Rome, first created 492 B.C. There were three degrees of

these officers, and the functions of the principal were similar to our justices of the peace. The plebeian ædiles presided over the more minute affairs of the state, good order, and the reparation of the streets. They procured all the provisions of the

city, and executed the decrees of the people.--Varro. ÆNIGMA. The origin of the ænigma is doubtful : Gale thinks that the Jews borrowed

their ænigmatical forms of speech from the Egyptians. The philosophy of the Druids was altogether ænigmatical. In Nero's time, the Romans were often obliged to have recourse to this method of concealing truth under obscure language. The following epitaph on Fair Rosamond is an elegant specimen of the ænigma :

Hic jacet in tomba, Rosa mundi, non Rosa munda ;

Non redolet, sed olet, quæ redolere solet. ÆOLIAN HARP. The invention of this instrument is ascribed to Kircher, 1653 ;

but Richardson proves it to have been known at an earlier period than his time.Dissertation on the Customs of the East. There is a Rabbinical story of the aërial harmony of the harp of David, which, when hung up at night, was played upon by

the north wind.-Baruch. AERONAUTICS. To lord Bacon, the prophet of art, as Walpole calls him, has been

attributed the first suggestion of the true theory of balloons. The ancient speculations about artificial wings, whereby a man might fly as well as a bird, refuted by Borelli, 1670. Mr. Henry Cavendish ascertained that inflammable air is at least seven times lighter than common air, 1766. The true doctrine of aëronautics announced in France by the two brothers Montgolfier, 1782.-See Balloon.



B.C. 201


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193 • 192

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ÆSOP'S FABLES. Written by the celebrated fabulist, the supposed inventor of this

species of entertainment and instruction, about 540 B.c. Æsop's Fables are, no doubt, a compilation of all the fables and apologues of wits both before and after his own time, conjointly with his own.-1

- Plutarch. ÆTHIOPIA. The inhabitants were little known to the ancients, though Homer has

styled them the justest of men, and the favourites of the deities. They were the first inhabitants of the earth.-Diod. And first to worship the gods; on which

account, some say, their country had never been invaded. ÆTOLIA. This country was named after Ætolus of Elis, who, having accidentally

killed a son of Phoroneus, king of Argos, left the Peloponnesus, and settled here. The inhabitants were very little known to the rest of Greece, till after the ruin of Athens and Sparta, when they assumed a consequence in the country as the opposers and rivals of the Achæans, to whom they made themselves formidable as the allies of Rome, and as its enemies. They were conquered by the Romans under Fulvius. The Ætolians begin to ravage the Pelo- Therma, Xenia, Cyphara, and other

B.C. 282

cities, and destroy with fire all the
They dispute the passage of the Macedo- country they invade
nians at Thermopylæ

223 They next invite the kings of Macedon,
Acarnania ceded to Philip as the price of Syria and Sparta, to coalesce with them

218 against the Romans
Battle of Lamia; the Ætolians, com- They seize Calchis, Sparta, and Deme-

manded by Pyrrhus, are defeated by trias, in Thessaly
Philip of Macedon

. 214 Their defeat near Thermopylæ
With the assistance of allies, they seize They lose Lamia and Amphissa

Oreum, Opus, Tribon, and Dryne . 212 Made a province of Rome.

They put to the sword the people of
AFFINITY, DEGREES OF. Marriage within certain degrees of kindred was prohibited

by the laws of almost all nations, and in almost every age. Several degrees were
prohibited in scriptural law, as may be seen in Leviticus, chap. xviii. In England, a
table restricting marriage within certain near degrees was set forth by authority, A.D.
1563. Prohibited marriages were adjudged to be incestuous and unlawful by the
ninety-ninth Canon, in 1603. All marriages celebrated within the forbidden degrees

of kindred are declared to be absolutely void by statute 5 and 6 Will. IV. 1835. AFFIRMATION OF THE QUAKERS. This was first legally accepted as an oath

A.D. 1696. The affirmation was altered in 1702, and again altered and modified
December 1721. Quakers were relieved from oaths when elected to municipal
offices, by an act which extended relief, generally, to all conscientious Christians not
of the Established Church, 9 Geo. IV. 1828. Declaration to be made by Quakers,
statute of 1 Victoria, 1837 : extension of this act to persons who were formerly

Quakers, but who have seceded from that sect, 2 Vict. 1838.
AFFIRMATION OF THE TRUTH. “Truth being of universal obligation on the followers

of Jesus, it follows that, with true Christians, a deliberate, yet simple affirmation or
negation possesses a force perfect in its kind, and incapable of any real augmentation:
hence there arises a plain moral obligation, in conformity with the precept of the
apostle James, that our yea should be yea, and our nay, nay: for if a man swear in
addition to his yea and nay, in order to render them more convincing, their force
becomes comparatively weak at other times, when they receive no such confirmation.
Countenance is thereby given to the notion, that the oath of a Christian is more
binding upon his conscience, and therefore more credible, than his deliberate word ;
and thus he lowers the standard of the law of truth.”—Gurney's Peculiarities of the

Friends, 1824.
AFRICA, called Libya by the Greeks, one of the three parts of the ancient world, and

the greatest peninsula of the universe, first peopled by Ham. It was conquered by
Belisarius in A.D. 553 et seq. In the seventh century, about 637, the Mahometan
Arabs subdued the north of Africa ; and their descendants, under the name of Moors,
constitute a great part of the present population. See the several countries of Africa
through the volume. Among the late distinguished travellers in this quarter of
the world, may be mentioned Bruce, who commenced his travels in 1768; Mungo
Park, who made his first voyage to Africa, May 22, 1795 ; and his second voyage,
January 30, 1804, but from which he never returned. See Park. Richard Lander
died of shot-wounds (which he had received when ascending the river Nunn) at
Fernando Po, Jan. 31, 1834. The African expedition, for which parliament voted
61,0001., sailed in 1841; its result was disastrous, Oct. same year.

AFRICAN COMPANY, a society of merchants trading to Africa. An association in

Exeter, which was formed in 1588, gave rise to this company. A charter was granted to a joint stock company in 1618 : a third company was created in 1631 ; a fourth corporation in 1662; and another formed by letters patent in 1672, and

remodelled in 1695. The rights vested in the present company, 23 Geo. II. 1749. AFRICAN INSTITUTION, founded in London in 1807, with a view to the civili

zation of Africa, and to afford moral and social instruction to its people-an immense but laudable undertaking. Many schools have been established, particularly at Sierra Leone, where the number of scholars, male and female, is said to approach 2000. The schools are usually well attended, and both males and females appear

zealous to reap the advantages of instruction.-Leigh. AGE. Historians and chronologers have, commonly, divided the time that elapsed

between the Creation and the birth of Christ into six periods, called ages. The first age was from the Creation to the Deluge, and comprehended 1656 years ; the second age was from the Deluge to the coming of Abraham into the land of promise, and comprehended 426 years, terminating in the year of the world 2082 ; the third age, from Abraham to Moses quitting Egypt, comprising 430 years, and ending in the year of the world 2513; the fourth age, from the going out of Egypt to the foundation of the temple of Solomon, being 479 years, and ending in the year of the world 2992; the fifth age, from the building of the temple to the destruction of Jerusalem, 424 years, ending in the year of the world 3416 ; and the sixth age, from the Babylonish captivity to the birth of the REDEEMER, 584 years, ending in the year of the world 4000, and fourth year before the vulgar era, or 4004. See

next article. AGE: GOLDEN AGE, Middle Age, &c. Among the ancient poets, an age was the

space of thirty years, in which sense age amounts to much the same as generation. The interval since the first formation of man has been divided into four ages, distinguished as the golden, silver, brazen, and iron ages ; but a late author, reflecting on the barbarism of the first ages, will have the order assigned by the poets inverted—the first, being a time of ignorance, would be more properly denominated an iron, rather than a golden age. Various divisions of the duration of the world have been made by historians : by some the space of time commencing from Constantine, and ending with the taking of Constantinople by the Turks, in the fifteenth century, is called the middle age ; the middle is also styled the barbarous age. The ages of the world may be reduced to three grand epochs, viz., the age of the law of nature, from Adam to Moses ; the age of the Jewish law, from Moses to Christ;

and the age of grace, from Christ to the present year. AGE, OF. In England the minority of a male terminates at twenty-one, and of a

female in some cases, as that of a queen, at eighteen. In 1547, the majority of Edward VI. was, by the will of his father, fixed at eighteen years ; previously to completing which age, Henry VIII, had himself assumed the reins of government, in 1509. A male of twelve may take the oath of allegiance ; at fourteen he may consent to a marriage, or choose a guardian, or make a will; at seventeen he may be an executor, and at twenty-one he is of age. A female at twelve may consent to a marriage ; at fourteen she may choose a guardian, and at twenty-one

she is of age. AGINCOURT, BATTLE OF, between the French and English armies, gained by Henry

V.-one of the most glorious of our victories. Of the French, there were 10,000 killed, and 14,000 were taken prisoners, the English losing only 100 men. Among the prisoners were the dukes of Orleans and Bourbon, and 7000 barons, knights, and gentlemen, and men more numerous than the British themselves. Among the slain were the dukes of Alençon, Brabant and Bar, the archbishop of Sens, one marshal, thirteen earls, ninety-two barons, and 1500 knights, Ocu. 25, 1415.

-Goldsmith. AGITATORS, in English history, officers appointed by the army to take care of its

interests : each troop or company had two, instituted by Cromwell, 1647. The Protector himself was, however, obliged to repress the power and influence of the agitators, owing to the sedition they excited. At a review he seized the ringleaders of a mutiny, shot one instantly, in the presence of his companions and the forces on the ground, and thus, by a bold act, restored the discipline of the army.-Hume.

AGRA, FORTRESS OF, termed the key of Hindostan, surrendered, in the war with the

Mahrattas, to the British forces, Oct. 17, 1803. This was once the most splendid of all the Indian cities, and now exhibits the most magnificent ruins. In the 17th century the great mogul frequently resided here ; his palaces, and those of the Omrahs, were very numerous; Agra then contained above 60 caravansaries, 800

baths, and 700 mosques.-See Mausoleums. AGRARIAN LAW, Agraria Lex. This was an equal division among the Roman

people of all the lands which they acquired by conquest, limiting the acres which each person should enjoy, first proposed by Sp. Cassius, to gain the favour of the citizens, 486 s.c. It was enacted under the tribune Tiberius Gracchus, 132 B.C.; but this law at last proved fatal to the freedom of Rome under Julius Cæsar.

Livy; Vossius. AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES. The first society for the promotion of agriculture

in the British Isles, of whose history we have any account, was the Society of Improvers of Agriculture in Scotland, instituted in 1723. The establishment of the Dublin Agricultural Society, in 1749, gave a stimulus to agriculture in Ireland ; but the origin of this society may be traced as early as 1731, when Mr. Prior, of Rathdowney, Queen's County, and a number of gentlemen, associated themselves for the improvement of husbandry. Miss Plumptre considers this the first association of the kind formed within the British dominions; but she errs : societies for the promotion of agriculture multiplied in every direction during the eighteenth century; among them the highest rank may be claimed for the Bath and West of England Society, in 1777, and the Highland Society of Scotland, in 1793. The London Board of Agriculture was established, by act of parliament, same year. The good and illustrious Francis, duke of Bedford, who died March 2, 1802, was a great promoter and patron of agriculture : a fine statue to his memory, by Westmacott, has been erected

in Russell-square, London. AGRICULTURE. The science of agriculture may be traced to the period immediately

succeeding the Deluge. In China and the eastern countries it was, perhaps, coeval with their early plantation and government. Of the agriculture of the ancients little is known. The Athenians pretend that it wasamong them the artof sowing corn began; and the Cretans, Sicilians, and Egyptians lay claim, the last with most probability, to the honour. Brought into England by the Romans, as a science, about A. D. 27. Official account of the cultivated, uncultivated, and unprofitable land of the United Kingdom, from the Third Report of the Emigration Committee :

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These numbers are considerably below some former computations, but the quantities may perhaps be correct in relation to each other. Much of the waste land of the three countries has been brought into cultivation in the few years that have elapsed since the above report was made. At that period it was computed that the soil of the United Kingdom was annually cropped in the following proportions:ACRES.

ACRES. Wheat


Brought forward 21,210,000 Barley and rye 1,950,000 Nursery-grounds

20,000 Potatoes, oats, and beans

6,500,000 Inclosed fruit, flower, kitchen, and Turnips, cabbages, and other vege

other gardens

110,000 tables 1,150,000 Pleasure-grounds

100,000 Clover, rye-grass, &c. 1,750,000 Land depastured by cattle

21,000,000 Fallow

2,800,000 Hedge-rows, copses, and woods 2,000,000 Hop-grounds 60,000 Ways, water, &c.


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Cultivated land


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