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spect above all others, to follow my change for the goods made in that very example.

factory that I have above mentioned. This part of England is the most in- Nay, Barn-Elm Farm itself will supply teresting that I ever saw. I thought several of these towns with mangel that nature was in her most sportive wurzel seed to plant plots of ground mood when she formed the hills and for the raising of milk, which is the only dells at Hockley and Selburne, and farm produce, in this part of the counThursley and Mascomb; when she try, worth naming. formed the Devil's Punch Bowl, on the From this place to Halifax, you go side of Hindhead, and the Devil's Jumps nearly all the way upon a road which on the north side of that immense hill. runs parallel with the canal ; and there I had admired her works in the South are mills and houses almost the whole Downs, from which I had seen the of the way. Every now and then a clouds moving about in the valleys be- cross valley comes twisting down into low, while others came out from the this main valley; the view is never the sides of the hills, like the smoke from a same, riding in a post-chaise, for two pipe, and went directly and shed rain minutes at a time. From foot of hill to upon the valleys, as I once saw them foot of hill, the main valley is not, on an do near Petersfield, and got finely wet average, more than from two to four through while sitting on my horse and hundred yards wide; and the hills rise indulging in my philosophy. But it is up almost perpendicular. Sometimes here where nature has been sportive, they are covered with trees, of puny size, indeed. Here are never-ending chains to be sure ; sometimes with rough grass; of hillocks; hill after hill, and liill but in height, width, form, and every upon hill, the deep valleys winding other circumstance, the variety is endabout in every direction, and every less. The buildings, whether for manuvalley having river or run of water, factures or for dwelling, are all of solid greater or less.

By the side of the stone, exécuted in the best possible manriver or rivulet, where it is of any con- ner. The window frames and door siderable size, which is the case here, frames are generally of stone. The there is a canal. The water is made foors of passages to houses are of stone. use of for all the various purposes of the field fences are of stone walls; and the machinery; for the conveyance of goods gate posts and stiles are made of stone. When of all sorts ; so that you see no such I came to the North before, I used to call the thing as a team of horses or å wagon; iron country. Every thing appears. strong and

country, on this side of Warwickshire, the and theiland being a bed of stone, one bed hard and made to last for ever. At Rochdale, of solid stone, with a little slight cover- this very interesting scenery began. That ing of earth upon it; and there being not town is nice and clean and solii ; and it is the slightest appearance of corn fields, very curious, that all along there and through barns, or ricks; not the slightest appear-serable, squalid wretches. It appears to me,

this place and to Halifax, I bave seen po mi. ance of cattle being kept; I having that there are inore rags in Preston, more seen, with my own eyes, more corn col-wretched persons in one single street, than are lected together, and more sheep folded to be found amongst all this immense populaon one single farm 'in Wiltshire, than 1 tion from Rochdale to Halifax, both those

towns included. I have not seen a single have seen, put all together, in all the ragged person in Todmorden, nor in any of miles and miles that I have ridden in the villages all the way along this most inteLancashire and Yorkshire;' this being resting valley. I am sitting at a window, and the case, one would naturally wonder this is Sunday. Hundreds of the working peo

ple have passed by this window this day, aud whence the food came to sustain this it is a very long time since I have seen working immense population. But reflection people só well-dressed as they are here. Proteaches us, that this judicious applica- bably it is partly owing to the uncrowded state tion of the coal, the water, and the stone, of the people; to their being scattered in so

long a line as this valley consists of; there creates things, in exchange for which

may be, and there must be, less immorality the food and drink come and will come. than in places like Blackburne and Preston, Lincolnshire, Leicestershire, and, in- where there is such an immense mass in so deed, all the rich agricultural parts of small a circle ; but something must also be the country, not forgetting Ireland, send owing to the conduct of the employers, to

their conduct towards their people, aud to their hither a part of their produce in ex- own excellent example:

To-morrow, the 18th, I go to Huddersfield, seen no such thing to the north of the town of taking a really reluctant farewell of the sensi- Derby. Of birds, I have not seen but one ble and kind friends which we shall leave here. single chaffinch since I came out of DerbyOn the 19th, I go to Dewsbury; on the 20th, shire. No rooks in the fields, or Ağing about ; to Leeds; from Leeds I intend to go on the pot a blackbird or a thrush; and I see no 23d to Barosley; to be on the 24th at Shef-house-sparrows; just about ten thousand field, and to be at Nottingham by the 26th or of which are every day to be seen in my 27th. From Nottingham I intend to go to farm-yard at Barn-Elm. I suppose that these Leicester or to Derby, I am not sure wbich; feathered gentry, wbo travel very quickly, do thence to Birmingham; and thence to Wol- just as they do in America; that is to say, verhampton.

get off to the south in the winter, and come WM, COBBETT.

back again in the summer. The vightingale,

I believe, has never been seen or heard to the P.S. I forgot to observe, that the weather north of Staffordshire ; so that those persons has been pretiy nearly constant freezing ever who delight in birds, havé, iv the south, some since I left London, which is now exactly a coin pensation for the loss of the coals and the calendar month, 1 baving left it on the eight- / water;. In the winter of 1828, the thrush, the teenth of December. The snow is not very

blackbird, the bullfioch, and some other deep, though it has frequently snowed; and, birds, sang at Barn-Elm all the winter long as w the suffering occasioned by the cold, it is almost every morning. But that is a very experienced in this couutry only where there rare spot, and, from inquiries that I have is not a sufficiency of clothing or of bedding made of several persons, we have the pightinAlmost the whole of the people are employed gale every year three weeks earlier than they within doors, and there can be no want of have her in Hampshire and Sussex. warmth when the brightest and most beautiful of coals cost ouly about four-pence the hundred weight. But, from want of a sufficiency

want of a sufficiency LINCOLN COUNTY MEETING. of clothing, and a sufficiency of bedding, the suffering of the working classes, particularly of the hand-loom weavers, is very great indeed.

I AM about to insert the petition agreed ou The day before I arrived at Preston, there at this famous County Meeting, and also the bad been the beginning of a visitation of speeches that were made. These things form an the poor, and the visitors had found upwards of 500 families destitute of even a blanket. epoch in the history of this terrible system of It must be nearly the same at Bolton and debt and taxation. Great praise is due to all Blakburne, and many other places, and even the gentlemen who took part in these proceedhere the band-loom weavers, who live about in detached hamlets upon or amongst the hills, ings; but particularly to Col. Johnson, by are, on account of the very low wages, in an whom the petition was drawn up and moved ; extremely destitute state. It is truly lament- and on whose sincerity the country may rely, able to behold so many thousands of men who fomerly earned from twenty to thirty shillings having a guarantee in his long-continued exa tveek, now compelled to live upon five, four, cellent conduct as a member of Parliament. or even less.

The miserable potatoes are I was afraid that the landowners had in view cheap, to be sure, but even of thuse, they have ut å sufficiency. It is the more sor that which Mr. Western had in view in 1822; rowful to behold these mer in this state, as namely, to drive back the Government to the they still retain the frank and bold charac. ter forined in the days of their independence.

It appears It is very carious that not only the solid tlemen in Lincolushire are in earnest to obtain provisions, these miserable potatoes, are, for the far greater part, brought from a dis? a reduction of the taxes, which is the only real latce ; but, even at Rochdale, which is about cure for the disorders of the country. Everya dozen miles to the north of Manchester, wbere where I have been, I have endeavoured there are scarcely any leguminous articles; that is to say, garden-stuff, wbich do not to root out of the minds of the manufacturers, come through Manchester from Cheshire ! particularly the labouring part of them, the The conveyance is by the canal, and it is truly stupid notion that the distress arises either surprising that this immense population should be supplied with all these things with from Corn-bills, or from the greedidess of out the sinallest appearance of bustle or effort. their own masters. They have, laid before You see market-carts in Manchester aud other towns ; and now add then a cart upon the them, the true causes, namely, double taxes ; Toad, plenty of carts and wagons in the double salaries; double pay; double iuterést town's carrying bates of cotton about, and bales of debt ; effected by a doubling of the value of goods : lifting the things from factory to factory, or from store-house to store-house; of money.' I have brushed away all the rubbut, on the high-road, at any distance froni a bishy, causes assigned hy the Ministers at town, I have not seen any thing of this sort various times ; I have exposed the folly of sur. since I entered Lancashire; and as to what We, in the south, call a team of horses, I have plus population, and all the follies of Malthus

base paper-money.

that the gen

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and Wilmot Horton. With these I have made asked them whether they wanted any such clean work as I have gone. To prove to my permissiou after laudiog our goods at New

York or Philadelphia. I put this question : If hearers the monstrous error, that the Corn Bill the goods are wanted in the interior of the cannot produce distress like this, I liave only country, would there not be found persons 10 had to remind them, that they have had seve it would be the manifest interest of the East

carry them into the interior for sale, when ral 'spells of prosperity since the year 1815; India Company that such traffic should he and that the Corn Bill bas been in existence carried on to the greatest possible extent?

When I put these questions my hearers looked from that day to this. I have asked them, at | at one another, as if they were whispering the same time, whether it could have been the". How we have been humbugged !" 1 find Corn Bill that had reduced to the state of that nipe out of ten of the people have hitherto

believed that nobody but the East India Conbeggary, farmers and labourers of Lincolo- pany could send goods to India, and that, shire and Kent. It has given me infinite therefore, to open that trade, as it is called,

would cause a great outlet to English manu. pleasure to observe, during these represeuta - factures, and effectually relieve all this dis. tions of mine, inasters as well as workmen, tress. I asked my hearers at Halifax, whether turning their heads and looking at each other, free trade to ludia, as it is called, had been

they could possibly believe, that the wapt of a as much as to say, “How we have been de the cause of plunging into distress and ruin ceived!" I have now bere blinked any ques.

the farmers of Lincolnshire, Norfolk, Kent

and Sussex. tion ; I have nowhere fostered delusion; I

I repeat, that if the manufacturers be wise have nowhere endeavoured to obtain popula- and spirited, they will, uuless they wish to be rity by flattering the prejudices and errors of totally ruined, send up short petitions, in

substance similar to that of Lincolnshire; my bearers; but have everywhere maintained that is to say, praying for a repeal of the malt 'doctrines directly opposed to those prejudices and the beer taxes: then they will be listened

to; but, on the silly stuff about corn bills, and errors; and not one single mark of disap- free trade to India ; 'stuff about spinners and probation have I received since I left London. weavers, calculated only to set ope class of the The people of the North, whose fraukness and the tax-caters to fatten upon both, if they

community against the other, and to enable quick-sightedness, and warm hearteuness, pursue this path of crookedwess avd of folly, have, ever since I first knew them, been sub- let them look forward to an addition to their

sufferinge. jects of admiration with me, such men need not to be flattered.

If the manufacturers and their men now LINCOLN COUNTY MEETING. ' cordially join the landowners, and farmers,

SOME few weeks ago a requisition, most reand labourers : if the makers of the clothes spectably sigued by the freeholders of the join with the rearers of the food, we shall now .county of Lincolu, was presented to Richard see relief and renovation without confusion requesting him to convene a public meeting

Thorold, Esq., the High Sheriit of the county, All the manufacturers ought to copy the peti. of the inhabitants, in order that they might tion of the county of Lincolu, and send their have an opportunity of petitioning Parliament petitions up to Parliament signed by hun-beer. The High Sheriff, as most of our readers

respecting the duties iinposed upon malt aud dreds and thousands of men. If they do this, remember, declined calling any meetiug of we are all relieved, and the country is saved: the county, on the ground that any such petiif they do not, no one can tell what is to be tiou was calculated to embarrass bis Majesty's the result, but who is to imagine that there Government in the course it proposed to purwill not be turmoil without end, and final con- sue in the next Session of Parliament. This vulsion ?

refusal being sigoified to the requisitionists, Amongst other rubbish that I have thought some of the more active of them being magisit necessary to sweep away in my course, I trates, called a meeting of the county by the began at Halifax (I had forgotten it before) following notice :to brush away the rubbish relative to a re- “ To the Sheriff of Lincolnshire.-We, the medy from free trade to India. I assured my undersigned, reqnest that you will convene a hearers that Manchester goods are selling at County Meeting, to take into consideration Calcutta cheaper than at Manchester ; that the propriety of petitioning the Legislature every one who had made a shipment to India on the subject of the Malt and Beer Duties:for years past, had lost a great deal by that Richard Sutton,Chas. Auderson, Robert Heron, shipment; that there was already perfectly Wm. Huttoo, W. A. Johnson, Chas. Allix, free trade to India; that any man might send Fred. Peel, Edw. Wright, Russel Caller, J. H. a ship to India, and send in her whatsoever Thorold, Richard Empsom, Richard Ellis, goods he pleased; that, as to want of permis- W. J. Cholmeley, H. W. Sibthorpe, Andrew sion to prowl about the country with goods, I Balfour, John Buntt, John Bratton, John

Brown, J. Coultass, Samuel Slater, J. L. Mil. any one who might offer himself to their noner, J. G. Stevenson, T. Luard, Richard Healy, tice. If things were stated wbich they did not Wm. Shield, Charles Reesby, S. E. Hopkin- wish to bear, they must be opposed by argu. son, B. Broomhead, W.E. Welby, Robert Cra- inent, and not by clamour, by which they crost, Bacon Hickman, Henry Handley, Benj. would give that tone and character to the Handley, James L. Nixon, Lewis Watson, meeting which could not fail to impress on the G. F. Heneage, C. D. W. Sihthorpe, J. C. L. country, the Parliament, and the Ministers, Calcraft, Wm. Musson, John Hardy, Wm. that the county of Lincoln had a right to be Robinson, W. Dolby, Thos. Lowry, Jos. Ro- heard. He would not detain them further that berts, J.C. Beasley, R. Duckle, W. Bright cold day from the business of the meeting, more, G. Parnel, W. Mercer, John Garfite, and he trusted that every speaker would conJames Cross, and Thos. Duckle.

fine himself to that business, in order to pre" And the Sheriff having thought proper to vent the introduction of any unnecessary mat. refuse to call a County Meeting, we the under ter. (Hear.) signed Magistrates of this County, do hereby Sir R. Heron thought that there could be convene a Meeting to be held at the Castle but one opinion on the point of the Sheriff's Hill, Lincoln, at Twelve o'clock precisely, on thinking proper to give a flat denial to a requiFriday, the 8th day of January, 1830, in con- (sition the most numerous and (after the withforinity with the above Requisition : Robert drawal of his own name) the most respectable Herón, Frederick Peel, Charles Allix, Heory that had ever been presented on any subject to Handley."

any sheriff. On what ground could hé bave la coasequence of this notice, a meeting was refused ? Was it on the strength of his own held on that day in the Castle yard, in the opinions? He (Sir Robert) hoped by this time city of Lincolo. The High Sheriff, though he that he had repented of such presumption. Was refused to take any part in the meeting, offer- it by the advice of others? He (Sir Robert) ed the requisitiouists the use of either the would tell him that all he could have called to Castle-yard or the Session-house; the latter bis counsel ougbt uot to have had a tenth part being thought too small to accommodate the of the weight of such a requisition as that number expected to attend the meeting, a presented to him. (Applause.) He trusted that scaffold on waggons was erected in the Castle- the meeting would receive the High Sheriff's yard, and on this spot the meeting took place. couduct with the indignation that was due to

The meeting has, we believe, excited con- it (applause); for, had they tamely submitted siderable attention in the county, but, owing to his arbitrary decision, an example would be to the unfavourable state of the weather, it set, by which the people of Eogland might was not so numerously attended as was antici- hereafter be deprived of their dearest rights; pated. At half-aster twelve, when the meet those of assembling for the consideration of ing commenced, there were about 800 per- their grievances, and of petitionivg Parliament. sons present; but this number subsequent. There were persons who thought (and from ly increased to nearly 2,000. Oo the Com- the apswer of the Sheriff he supposed that that mittee, &c., coming upon the hustings, we gentleman was one of the number) that the observed among ihe Gentlemen preseut, Sir meeting ought to have been called for the purR. Heron, Sir W. Iogleby, Sir E. F. Broom- pose of considering the general distress of the head, Colonel Sibthorpe, M.P., Colonel John- nation, but could any one in his senses be of son, Mr. Handley, Mr. Chaplin, M.P., &c. such an opinion? Was not the subject before

Mr. Handley was unanimously called upon them large enough? (Hear, bear.) What ridito take the Chair.

cule would not have been thrown upon the The CHAIRMAN then addressed the meeting. meeting, what clamour would not bave been He said that under any other circumstances, made, if they had attempted to set themselves he should probably have shrunk from the up as a sort of Lincoln Convention, for the task imposed upon him, but from the peculiar purpose of superseding the duties of the Brinature of the case, he did not feel warranted in tish Parliament; or if they had attempted to doing so, nor would he, after the extraordinary regulate without books, papers, or documents, conduct of the High Sheriff, say that he was the affairs of the navy, the army, and the vafit to represent an office which that gen- country, in the course of four hours; a thing tieman had deserted. (Hear, hear.) It was un- which the Parliament, with all its advantages, necessary for him to tell the meeting, that the found it difficult enough to perform in the High Sheriff bad, in the exercise of his privi, course of four Sessions : Under these circumlege rather than that of his courtesy, refused stances, he intended to move the resolution to comply with a requisition must numerously which he held io his hand, and be trusted that sigoed, and a more respectable one had never it would be generally confirmed by the meetbeen presented from that or any other county. ing. It would, however, he necessary for bim (Hear, hear.) Not agreeing with the argu- before concluding, to say a few words on the ments which that gentleman had just put important subject on which they were assemforth, relative to the embarrassments such a bled; but he could assure them that he would meeting would inpose upon the Ministers, be endeavour to be as concise as possible. The (the Chairman) was one of four. who had object for which they had met was one of the signed the requisition, in conformity with most important topics that had ever attracted which they were there assembled. Having said the attention of the county of Lincoln. It tbus much, he would not detain themn longer would not, however, be vecessary for him to from the more inportant business of the day, trouble them with details respecting the tax than to request ihem to hear with attention on malt and beer; suffice it to say, that the

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duty imposed on them amounted to within a rather left unexercised, the important futic fraction of 50s., or, in other words, that there tions of that office, the country was not likely was a tax of nearly 150 per cent. on the raw to be much better off. (Hear, hear.) But head commodity. (Hear, hear.) This was what did not pretend to say that the tax would be might be called a pretty severe tax on the repealed; it was true that pamphlets liad been mod agriculture of the country; but fortunately, it published for the purpose of endeavouring to bring did not fall upon the agriculturists alone; all show that the additional consumption would classes of the community concurred in oppos. be the means of restoring the amouut of the ing the tax; so that it could not now be thrown tax; but his ohject was to petition that all the into the teeth of the landlords and farmers taxes should be done away with (Bravo, and that they were petitioning only for themselves, a laugh); he meant all the taxes on malt and and did not care what became of the rest of beer. In his opinion, the increased consumpthe people. The labourers in agriculture and tion would do nothing towards keeping the manufactures were equally oppressed, and tax at its present produce ; for supposing half cven those who were able to make the enor- the tax should be repealed, what was gaited mous sacrifice that was necessary to procure by the additional covsumption might add to a wholesome beverage, were again checked the amount of malt duties, but it would as and unable to do it on account of the misera certainly be absorbed by the deficiency in the ble monopoly of the licensing systein. What amount of duties on ardent spirits. (lear, was the consequence of this? That they were hear.) But he would say at once that he did driven to the use of ardent spirits, to the not wish that the tax should be replaced, beruit of their industry, the degradation of cause he knew that by a loug, decided, and their morali, and the destruction of their radical economy, by a new organization and health. (Cheers.) It had been his fortune to diminution of the army, by a reduction of its spend a great part of his early life in Kent, pay and pensions, every deficiency in the taxes at a time when the trade of smuggling was might be supplied. (Cheers.) A great deal of scarcely checked, and the consequence was, talk was made about the necessity of keeping that the lower classes of the county univer- the national faith with the public creditur; sally resorted to that pernicious liquor called but in bis opinion the doing so would be the gin. And what was the result? Why, that breaking that faith with the grossest injustice there was scarcely a man who was able to do towards all the rest of the community. He a good day's work in the wbole county; to did not mean to say that the Government which he might add, that his father's house ought to be blamed for the alteration in the was every night surrounded by thieves, on the circulating medium, or for reducing that look out for any thing that might have been which was opce exclusively British circulation left unguarded or exposed to their depreda- to the circulation of all Europe ; he believed 'tions. Such were the blessings derived from that in time of peace such a course was necesthe use of ardent spirits. (Hear.) He should sary; but he objected to their now paying the perform his promise of heing as concise as interest of what was borrowed at a depreciated possible ; but he must entreat them, on an currency in the advanced currency of the preoccasion so important as the present, not to sent time. (Hear, hear.) Those who were give way to any sort of exaggeration. Men calling out loudest respecting the national were not always aware of the mischief that faith with the public creditor, knew that it arose from painting a picture too highly, or could not be done; they knew that in the very representing things as ihey were not really. first year of a war, the whole system must be He remembered an instance of this, which put an end 10. His object was to anticipate took place in that very Castle-yard, on the that time, to prevent its running to the last, occasion of a public meeting being held re- and to put an end to a system which carried specting the Corn Laws. One of the persons with it the destruction of thousands, and the present on that occasion stated that in the ruin of millions. He trusted, therefore, that opposite port, on the Continent, there was the petition would meet with the unanimous sufficient corn to supply the consumption of the approbation of the meeting. The eyes of all country for seven years. Had he stated seven England were upon them, every county was days, instead of seven years, he (Sir Robert) waiting for the issue : Lincolnshire had for thuught he would bave exceeded the fact. once, at least, taken the lead; and if they But what was the consequence ? lustead of gave their unanimous support to the present the statement being treated with the ridicule proposition, their resolutions would be echoed it deserved, it went the round of the public through the whole of the empire, aud they papers; was bandied backward and forward and the people of England must' ultimately on both sides of the House of Commons; and, prevail. (Cheers.) in more ways than one, did incalculable mis- The following is the resolution which was chief to the cause (Hear, hear); and he was proposed to the meeting by the Hon, Baronet sure that he had a right to complain of it, for in the course of his speech :he was set down as the author of the assertivn. “ Resolved,—That Richard Thorold, Esq., In connexii on with the repeal of the malt dı- Sheriff of this county, by refusing to convene ties, a most important question was sometimes a County Meeting, on a requisition most unaasked, How ihe tax was to be replaced ? He pimously signed by the Gentry, Clergy, and was not the Chancellor of the Exchequer; Yeomaory, has shown an unwarrantable conand unless they were shortly to have a better tempt for the wishes of the county, and has Chancellor of the Exchequer than those seeble set a most dangerous example, tending to demen who, of late years, had exercised, or, prive the people of England or their legitimate

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