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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931
Sept. 23 Memorandum of Trans-Atlantic Telephone Conversation

Between the Secretary and Wilson: Secretary's opinion that
Japan will never accept an investigating committee, that
oriental peoples prefer direct negotiations, that the United
States cannot participate in League action but can assure its

moral support.
Sept. 23 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Copy of League Council resolution and of U. S. reply handed

to Japanese Ambassador.
Sept. 23 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(133) Letter from the Japanese representative on the Council to

the Secretary General (text printed) setting forth events in
Manchuria from September 18 to 21; information that League
members not represented on the Council plan to indorse

Council's action.
Sept. 23 Memorandum by Mr. Ransford S. Miller of the Division of Far

Eastern Affairs
Call from Mr. Kato of the Japanese Embassy with copy of
telegram from the Japanese Foreign Office, apparently the
same as letter delivered to the League Council; Rato's intima-

tion that situation in Japan is difficult.
Sept. 23 From the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs at Nanking to the

Chinese Legation
Chinese report of South Manchuria Railway bridge incident

and contention of evidence of Japanese responsibility.
Sept. 24 | From the Minister in China (tel.)
(640) Reuter report from Nanking, September 23: Denial by

Marshal Chang Hsueh-liang of reports of Soviet troop move-
ments on the border but report of Russian protest to Japanese
Consul against hindrance of operation of Chinese Eastern
Railway; news that League's action regarding Manchuria had
calming effect on anti-Japanese feeling, but that Chinese

demand mobilization.
Sept. 24 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Call from the Japanese Ambassador in regard to Secretary's proposed note to Japan and to China; Ambassador's opinion that Japanese forces were beginning to withdraw and that

definite news might come soon. Sept. 24 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Explanation to the Japanese Ambassador that a radio station built by the Radio Corporation of America had been destroyed at Mukden, September 19, creating the impression that Japan was trying to cut off communication with Manchuria.

the Minister tel (642)

, forcements and activity of Japanese aircraft, of occupation of Chengchiatun, Tungliao, and Taonan, and of preparations to move on Harbin.

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Sepek: 2,4 ferome Mukden, September 23: Report of Japanese rein

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OccupatION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE-Continued

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1931 Sept. 24

(159)

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Sept. 24

(385)

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Sept. 24

(340)

Sept. 24

(126)

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Sept. 24

(137)

From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)

Information from Drummond that proposed commission,
with two neutrals named by China, two by Japan, and three
by the Council, is intended merely as a fact-finding body;
inquiry whether Secretary would agree to the nomination of
an American if Japan accepts.
From the Ambassador in Great Britain (tel.)

Views of Lord Reading that the Manchurian situation is
less disquieting, that Russia considers it local but would be
concerned if the Japanese indicate the pursuance of a plan of
conquest.
To the Minister in China (tel.)

Text of identic note to Japan and China to be communicated
to the Chinese Minister for Foreign Affairs.

(Footnote: The same, mutatis mutandis, to the Chargé in Japan.)
To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)

Information concerning presentation of the identic notes to
Japan and China and to their representatives in Washington;
instructions to inform the President of the Council.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Discussion before the Council of the sending of investigating
commission to Manchuria; agreement of Japanese representa-
tive to consult his Government concerning proposal. Chinese
information that the Japanese have advanced within the
Great Wall.
To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)

Secretary's preference not to decide about American member-
ship on the proposed investigating commission until actual ac-
ceptance by China and Japan of some proposal. Instructions
to inform Ďrummond.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Statements before the Assembly of the League by the
President of the Council and the President of the Assembly.
From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)

Letter from the President of the Council (text printed)
acknowledging Secretary's message contained in telegram
No. 123, September 23, and stating that the Council has no
preconceived method for solving the difficulties, but believes
that through common endeavor a successful result is most
likely to be achieved.
Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation

With the British Chargé, September 24, 1931
Explanation by the Under Secretary of the Department's
views on the settlement of the Manchurian situation.
Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation

With the Japanese Ambassador, September 24, 1991
Japanese Ambassador's reference to misunderstandings
about the Manchurian situation; his assertion that the ap-
pointment by the military of a Japanese as mayor of Mukden
bad been disavowed by the Japanese Government.

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Sept. 24

(138)

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Sept. 24

(161)

Sept. 25

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Sept. 25

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE—Continued

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Sept. 25 From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)
(68) Inquiry concerning Associated Press despatch that the

Secretary had informed the Japanese Ambassador that, in the
light of Department's information, serious responsibility must

rest with Japan for events in Manchuria.
Sept. 25 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(140) Reply of Japanese Government (text printed) to Council's

identic telegram, justifying action as for security and pro-
tection, avowing intentions of pacific settlement, and declaring

the withdrawal of most troops into the railway zone.
Sept. 25 From the Minister in Switzerland (tel.)
(165) Inquiry by the Chinese Minister to Great Britain concerning

Department's attitude on Manchuria, and Minister's reply that

any attempt on his part to interpret its views might create confusion.
Sept. 25 Prom the Chargé in Japan (tel.)
(161) Delivery of Department's identic note to the Minister of

Foreign Affairs, who desired that it not be published and
thought a commission of investigation was unnecessary; dis-
cussions with British and French Ambassadors regarding
their positions; information that Russia's interest was only in

connection with the Chinese Eastern Railway. Sept. 25 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State

Discussion with Japanese Ambassador, whose information was that the Government was now largely under civilian control and that the situation would improve; his feeling that an investigation committee would retard the restoration of the status quo ante; advice by the Under Secretary that Japan should act quickly, that from the U. S. viewpoint there was

treaty violation, and that Russia might befriend China. Sept. 25 | To the Chinese Chargé

Acknowledgment of Chargé's note of September 21 and

reference to steps already taken by U. S. Government. Sept. 25 To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.) (79)

Accurate text of the Secretary's statement referred to in the

Consul General's telegram No. 68, September 25.
Sept. 25 Press Release Issued by the Chinese Ministry of Foreign Affairs

Denial of treaty foundation for the stationing by Japan of
troops on the South Manchuria Railway; estimation that

Japanese troops in Manchuria exceed 50,000. Sept. 26 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.). (141)

Feeling among small states that Sino-Japanese situation is a test case for the League, and failure would mean discredit on

future conciliatory and security measures and disarmment. Sept. 26 | From the Consul at Geneva (tel.) (142)

Statements by Japanese and Chinese representatives before the Council concerning the policies of their Governments and the

present location of troops in Manchuria. Sept. 26 From the Minister in China (tel.) (668) Reports from Peiping-Mukden Railway employee of the

death of two passengers when a Japanese airplane fired on a

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train.

THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE--Continued

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1931 Sept. 26

(449)

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Sept. 27

(73)

Sept. 27

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Sept. 28

(131)

82

Sept. 28

(162)

84

Sept. 28

(675)

From the Consul General at Mukden to the Minister in China

Summary of the extent of Japanese occupation; aspects of governmental problems and of the railway incident of September 18 as immediate pretext for the occupation; memorandum (text printed) by the Consul at Mukden of a Japanese-conducted visit to the scene of the railway explosion. From the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Reports through Chinese officials at Geneva of the dis-
appointment among League Council members at the wording
of the U. S. communications to Japan and China; information
that the scope of Japanese occupation is being extended.
From the Chinese Chargé

Reply of Chinese Government (text printed) to the U. S.
identic note of September 24, expressing gratitude at U. S.
attitude and hope that measures will be taken to maintain
the inviolability of treaties.
To the Minister in Switzerland, at Geneva (tel.)

Approval of Minister's course as indicated in his telegram
No. 165, September 25.
From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Opinion that there is little chance of an arrangement with
Japan other than for direct negotiations, that the Japanese
want a settlement of a number of outstanding issues.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Nanking: Reports of student demonstration against
the Minister for Foreign Affairs for his alleged friendship for
Japan.
To the Consul General at Nanking (tel.)

Message of solicitude for the Minister for Foreign Affairs.
To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Secretary's request of Debuchi, in view of the absence of
Consul General at Mukden, that American diplomatic rep-
resentatives from Tokyo and Harbin be allowed to visit
Manchuria and report on situation there; instructions to make
the same request of Baron Shidehara.
From the Consul at Dairen to the Chargé in Japan

Observations on the Japanese occupation-circumstances,
economic causes, and effects.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Reiteration of Japanese and Chinese positions before the
League Council and discussion of Chinese proposal that a com-
mission be organized on the spot to arrange for the withdrawal
of troops.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

Estimate of Japanese troops and reservists in Manchuria.
From the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Estimate of Japanese troops in Manchuria, including rail-
way guards.

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(80) Sept. 28

(175)

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Sept. 28

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Sept. 29

(144)

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Sept. 29

(677) Sept. 29

(165)

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THE FAR EASTERN CRISIS OCCUPATION OF MANCHURIA BY JAPAN, BEGINNING OF JAPANESE MILITARY

AGGRESSION, AND EFFORTS OF THE UNITED STATES AND OTHER POWERS TO PRESERVE PEACE_Continued

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1931 Sept. 29

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Sept. 29

(177)

Prom the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Japanese nonobjection to visit of American representatives to Manchuria; plans for journey of Hanson and Salisbury. To the Chargé in Japan (tel.)

Instructions for Hanson and Salisbury to report on extent
of Japanese occupation in light of treaty rights, form of civil
administration, damage to R. C. A. radio station, attitude of
Chinese in Manchuria, and Japanese intentions of withdrawal.
From the Minister in China (tel.)

From Mukden: Report of election of provisional govern-
ment at Kirin and conditions in Mukden.
From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)

Text of Chinese compromise proposal for a commission on

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(680)

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Sept. 30

(149)

the spot.

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Sept. 30 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(683) Resignation of C. T. Wang and appointment of Alfred Sze

as Foreign Minister.
Sept. 30 Memorandum by the Under Secretary of State of a Conversation

With the Counselor of the French Embassy, September 28, 1931
Accord of French Government with Department's attitude

and policy.
Sept. 30 From the Minister in China
(1201) Aspects of Japanese news report of alleged warning of the

Minister to the Japanese Counselor of Legation in a conversa-
tion, September 17, concerning Japan's intentions in Man-

churia (memorandum of conversation printed).
Oct. 1 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(150) Statement by President of League Council that Council has

recognized importance of withdrawal of Japanese troops into
the railway zone and the time element involved; Council's
adoption of resolution to meet again on October 14 to con-

sider situation as it then stands.
Oct. 1 From the Consul at Geneva (tel.)
(151) Views of Drummond on the happenings in the Council;

his information that the Chinese have threatened an alliance
with Russia, but that the Japanese anticipate no difficulty
there; feeling that Chinese should act with independence

during the adjustment period ahead.
Oct. 1 From the Minister in China (tel.)
(686) Report that Mukden trains are in service but not safe and

that some communications are functioning. Oct. 1 From the Chargé in Japan (tel.) (170) Information from Japanese General Staff as to distribution

of Japanese troops. Oct. 1 Memorandum by the Secretary of State

Information from Japanese Ambassador that the tour of Manchuria by American representatives was welcome and would be facilitated by authorities, including the military.

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