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45,256,312 CONSEQUENCES OF THE LATE CAMPAIGN. 5th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000

in the last campaign, that nothing but he * 55,256,912 folly of its antagonist or conducting its reInterest

2,702,815 maining resources with great wisdom, pru.

dence, and foresight, can be expected soon

58,019,127 to restore it. It is necessary to weigh well 6th year deficiency of revenue (10,000,000 and in time what his next enterprizes may be,

for, I do think that they must be “Nature's

68,019,127 fools," not his, who can entertain an idea that Interest

3,400,956 he will remain satisfied not only with what

he has acquired, but with what he is in a

71,420,083 train of acquiring. He generally publishes 7th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 his schemes with an ostentation that would

be thought a design to mislead, if experience

81,420,083 did not prove that it arose from the preInterest

4,071,004 sumptuousness and insolence of success,

There can be little doubt, that the first of his

85,491,087 wishes is, to break the power of this coun8th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 try; and, it is not improbable, tbat - to suc

ceed more surely, to put an end to any coa-,

95,491,087 lition, and to be at liberty to prosecute other Interest

4,774,553 views with more freedom, he may propose

peace : it would be the armistice of Auster,

100,265,640 litz, or the peace of Presburgh: he there gth year deficiency of revenge 10,000,000 said to Austria,, desert your allies, and I

shall assist you in plundering them, to in110,205,040 demnify you for every thing but the loss of Interest

5,513,282 honour, independence, and the means of

defence. The tattered rags of the self

115,778,922 named Roman purple submitted to be sullied join year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 by the compromise ; it is hoped that Eng.

land is not yet sunk so low as even to take it 125,778,922 into consideration. If we had peace immeInterest

6,285,946 diately, no man, who values the safety or

independence of these islands, could lay his

132,007,865 head down 10 rest in tranquillity, unless 11th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 there was a fleet lying ready at a moment's

warning to intercept his embarkations. If 142,067,868 we had no allies, perhaps, eren such an Interest

7,103,393 armed truce might be tried at the hazard of

attempts upon our distant settlements; but

149,171,261 while we have alliances, and at least as great 12th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 as there could be any prospect of soon har.

-ing again, it is not only most honourable,

159,171,261 but likewise most prudent, to contribute as Interest

7,958,503 far as is in our power to assist their efforts

or their defence against the common eneny.

167,129,824 -- from the time of his first campaign, Buo. 13th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 naparie seens to have directed his attentions

to the East; the expedition to Egypt is said

177,129,824 to have been his own choice. He is himselt Interest

8,850,491 formed inore on the manners of the eastern

than the western nations. Instead of laying

185,980,315 the foundation of solid power, with the sim14th year deficiency of revenue 10,000,000 plicity of Augustus, be bas taken the pom.

pous despotismof Diocletianor Constantine for 195,986,315 his model; he has even introduced the offices Interest

9,799,315 and the very names of the pageantry of the

lower empire: his inflated reports, his bom203,785,630 bastic expressions, his spending enormous

silins in gaudy show while his soldiers are

often in want of pay, and the ridiculous proved in his hands. He is fortunately more distinctions he has bestowed on the mem- intent on the splendid than the solid; he has bers of his own family, are all in the same already, in one of his demi-official bravados, stile. His character is that of the same told us that he is to march to the Ganges, age. Let not the unthinking suppose that and, his dispositions and motions shew an like Alexander he would gild the disgrace of inclination, in addition to the crowns of conquest by the grandeur of his views, or the Charlemagne and Theodoric, to join grovelling expect, that, like Trajan, he that of Arcadius by the way. The great would soften subjection by the benignity of force he is marching into Italy, and his farhis government. His desire of power is not ther reinforcing the army of Massena, almost that of pre-eminence among men, it is that prove to what he points, so positively insistof despotism among slaves; even his brother, ing on the cession of Istria and Dalmatia, to whose eloqnence, conduct, and firmness, particularly specifying the islands of the while he himself had lost his presence of Adriatic, and, above all, so carefully inclumind, the success of the 18th Brumaire is ding the mouths of the Cataro, give strong said to be due, has been sent into exile, be- reason to suspect that he intends to seize cause he would not descend to all the servi- Albania, which has never been thoroughly lity he required. In him no trace of the subjected to the Turkish empire, and march hero is to be found, magnanimity kindles at a an army into the east to the south of Mount kindred spark, he extinguishes it, and it is Hæmus. If it should be confirmed that he said with a sarcastic smile, as if it was what is endeavouring to arm another fleet for the he envied and detested. Ability, bravery, Mediterranean, it is likewise to be presumed, and fidelity have long been a claim in Eu- that he means to transport that army across rope to those who, by the fortune of war, the Adriatic; indeed, the communication by have fallen into the bands of an enemy; be Istria, and Dalmatia would be so circuitous treats the meritorious with barbarity, while and difficult that it would be almost impossithe incapable, the traitor, and the coward, ble to convey regular supplies by that ronte, he receives with distinction. In no part of except such as he compelled Austria to furEurope, except in his dungeons, are prisoners nish. It is not improbable, that the comever suspected of suffering an unfair death.bined fleet, before the battle of Trafalgar, Many anecdotes are before the public, that was destined for that purpose, upon a preshew his character in a strong light. If the sumption of the success that has since atcircumstances related of the death of the tended him, and, it would not exceed the Duke d'Enghien are true, although from presumption he has shewn on former occathe violence of the deed, they have almost sions, it he had, already, dispatched a squaescaped attention, they mark his disposition dron to the East, to co-operate with that bein characters not to be mistaken: Nero or yond the Hellespont. Whether he will Caligula might have ordered him to be kill- abandon the Turkish provinces to the north ed on the spot. Aurelian might have im- of Mount Hæmus to the Austrians alone, remolated him in his camp, but to drag him mains yet to be seen; if he should, there some hundred miles, to force him to a mock can be little doubt that it must be for the trial without rest, to refuse his simple dying purpose of drawing upon them the vengeance requests, to order hini to immediate execu- of Russia, and, by that means, allow him 10 tion, and coolly and calmly to receive peti- pursue bis principal object in that quarter tions in his favour for several days after he without opposition. If that is his scheme, was put to death, belongs to more degene. or, even, if he should send an auxiliary army rate times than even those he has taken for to assist or rather to dictate to them, it is to his model, and can only be found in the last be hoped that Russia will not be duped by ages of the lower empire. He has a passion that artifice, but will direct and concen for military faine and for conquest, so had trate her whole force against the progress of Genghis and Tanierlane, and from the still the French. Austria is now so humbled, greater weakness of their enemies their con- that any acquisition there, can be no' object quests were still greater and more rapid than of jealousy; when Freuch influence and his. Thongh, by his victories he contributed French support are at an end, that power to the aggrandizement of France, he was can easily be reduced within narrower limit:. not the founder, nor even the restorer of -If such should be his plar, there is an esFrench greatness ; when it was restored, he sential part reserved for Great-Britain to sent the man who restored it to retirement; act in frustrating his schemes of ambition. be only makes use of the weapons that The safety of this country is the first and were forged by another, and I believe it primary object, to which every other ought is certain that they have not been im- to be subordinate; but, after fulfilling thit



purpose, we ought to have å naval force not so far outnumbered them as to competent to execute the other. To indif- bear to be divided, the Austrians ferent seamen, like the Turks and Russians, might have maintained that position, a trifling squadron of British vessels is proba- and would, almost certainly, have stopped bly necessary, as instructors, but their na- their progress, for, while their communivies ought to be Filly equal to preventing cations and supplies could have been cut any embarkation of his from crossing the off on one side, by detachments pushed. Adriatic, unless he can procure a naval force into Franconia, which had from the west of Europe, to oppose which retreat, and their rear harrassed and infestis a charge that must fall upon England, and ed from the Tyrol on the other, the would require that we should preserve a de- French never could have dared to advance cided superiority in the Mediterranean. beyond it. The King of Prussia, in his Buonaparté's anxiety to get possession of intrenched camp near Scheiridnitz, covered Malta is, perhaps, now explained, and, the Silesia against the whole force of the Aus. great value of it in our hands, not only to trians and an auxiliary army of Russians. this country but to Europe, is now seen ; It was evident that General Mack expected for, supposing an enemy's fleet to hare elu- the French by the Forest Towns, as General ded ours, and stood up the Mediterranean, if Moreau had penetrated before when they a proper number of light cruizers are kept had a large army in Switzerland ; and some on the look out from that island, it is hardly trifling demonstrations that Buonaparte. possible, by our fleet running immediately made there, seem completely to have de. tor Malta, that they should not get certain ceived him. But it cannot be conceived intelligence of their course, and avoid a re- that he had not taken care to have informapetition of the escape they made from Lord tion both of the very superior strength of Nelson on their expedition to Egypt. This the French army, and of the actual line of is the principal part that Great-Britain could their march, in time to have changed his act on that occasion, but such an expedition plan ; against the former, he must have opens a vast field for speculation in which known that his position was untenable, and though not immediately, we are ultimately as to the latter, instead of losing his army, concerned. - The political and military he might have given the French at least a causes of the aggrandisement of France, check. If he had immediately descended require a connected induction, and, I do not the Danube, he had an opportunity of at. mean even to touch apon them at present, tacking their divisions single as they passed but so much is to be learned for the future it with his whole army. It was thus that from the last campaign, that it cannot be Buonaparté himself ruined the army that passed over entirely, without observation. was sent to the relief of Mantua, as the diSince the end of the seventeenth century, visions entered Italy; and it was by disrewhen great armies began to be brought into garding thie intelligence that was sent him, action, experience has shewn that Austria, and wandering away to Genoa, instead of especially in a defensive war, should never attacking the different divisions of the French have met the French armies in the field, army that crossed the Alps, immediately on till they had buried themselves in the heart their issuing from the mountains, that Ġen. of Germany; when the Austrians have been Melas did not prevent the battle of Marengo, defeated on the frontiers, it has generally save Italy, and indeed the honse of Austria. been decisive of the campaign, and, some

Had General Mack thus brought his own times of the war. In the war of 1742 the army safe to the Inn, or perhaps the Enns, French

which entered Germany under been reinforced by the corps there and the the most favourable circumstances, was first Russian army; while the French would ruined in Austria and Bohemia ; it was the have been weakened, not only by the losses same in the first irruption of Jourdan and they might have sustained, but by the nuMoreau , iw the war of the Spanish succes- merous detachments they must have left, sion, the Austrians were defeated by Tal- what might have been now the situation of lard, near Spires, and the Duke of Marl- Buonaparte ? he might have shared the same þorongh was obliged to march from the fate with Moreau, who, I believe,' was at Netherlands to retrieve their affairs at Blen- least his equal in military talents, have colheim ; in the campaign that preceded the lected the remains of his army on the Rhine. peace of Luneville, the Austrian army re- Let the fate of the Austrians likewise be a ceived a blow near the sources of the Danube, warning, never to trust an army to a nomiwhich they never recovered. If Ulm, how- nal commander with a preceptor. The deever, had been an inattainable position, with struction of that army would hardly have full magazines, and the French army had been so complete, if a difference of opinion had not arisen between the Archduke and day before, and by having conducted that his preceptor, which kept them undecided attack upon the supposition that his dispoand motionless, when their fate depended sition was not to be changed in the night ; upon promptitude and vigour of action. If whereas, as might bave been expected, he I'do not mistake, General Mack owed his had strengthened and extended his right by rise to having the address at court to get the Davoust's division, which they unespectedly success of the allied armies on the frontiers encountered on their march to gain his flank. of Poland placed chiefly to his account. In Had King William passed the Ghate in the an evil hour, when the general in the Ne- night, after the approach of the first divi. therlands had given offence at Vienna, by sion of the French army, to the ground on acting too wisely, did the Emperor take the which Dumourier attacked the Austrians, all command there, that General Mack might the skilfui manquvres of the Duke of Luxcommand in his parue; the disasters that emburg would have been ineffectual to bring followed are well known. Again, I think, on the battle of Neerwinden. After all, for I speak from memory, he consented to the battle of Austerlitz seems to have let another prince, the Archduke John, re- been only a repulse, and it is highly ceive the glory of his exploits, while he was probable that Buonaparté had not made satisfied to enjoy it only by reflection. The up bis exaggerated report of it till after attack upon General Moreau, who had his conference with the Emperor of Gerposted himself behind defiles, terminated many, and that the armistice of Austerlitz, in that part of the army which came into and the peace of Presburg were less the cons action being cut to pieces; for, as in the sequences of that battle, than of insidious Netherlands, a part of it never reached the proposals - from him; this jesuitical minisenemy. Not satistied with these trials of ter which had been better received in that his skill, he was still sent to crown the quarter than by the Emperor of Russia. Archduke Ferdinand with laurels. For the If Buonaparté should undertake such an loss of that army which was the hope of the eastern expedition, would his first step be to House of Austria, and almost of Europe, overwhelm the Russians in Corfu, with an he has been arrested as a traitor, It is an immense force: to advance far into the Turk instructive lesson, both to those who are ish provinces, while they were there would willing to become tools, and to those who require two armies, one for that purpose, and are willing to employ them. We read of another to be left on the Adriatic to cover Belisarius, but it is at least rare that merit is his rear; they have there the same check to be found the inmate of servility. The upon him that General Mack would have accounts of the battle of Austerlitz are so had in an impregnable camp at Ulm, which many and so various, that it is difficult to from the insular situation, theirs is as long as hazard a conjecture respecting it; but, from the sea is well guarded. Will he trust to the official reports, it is evident, that from the half desert provinces of Turkey Buonaparte's retreating to take possession of for subsistence ? how an hundred and eighty that ground, he had chosen it for the field thousand men were subsisted without magaof battle, it then became the business of zines, is not easily accounted for, even if the allies, as they were determined to give they have spread famine and desolation battle, to compel him, if possible, to fight wherever they have been. Turenne whose upon other ground. There may be sound whole army did not much exceed one of Teasons, but they do not appear on the face their divisions, had the plan of one of his of the reports, why they did not march di- campaigns entirely disconcerted by a conrectly upon Nicolsburg, with so superior a nivance of the Bishop of Wurtzburg, where force as to cut off the division there, before his bread was baked with the Imperialists. it could be reinforced, which would probably No resistance is to be expected from the have rendered it necessary for Buonaparte Turkish troops ; if left to themselves, their to have changed his position, to open his only means of defence is to lay the whole communication with the Danube. If ie country waste before him. No effectual ophad still advanced, Olmutz was not a place position can be expected except from Russia. to be taken withont a regular siege ; and, as Should the expedition be detained til a Rusto farther reinforcements, they had already sian army could he brought to their asdetermined to come to action wtthout them. sistance, would it not still be wise to alIt seems likewise clear, that Buonaparte's low him to plunge himself deep into the right was either not supported, or was at Turkislı provinces before they met him in least attackable ; and they appear to haye


the field? Would the Russian army at failed in their attack from having clearly Corfou, be reinforced so as to take the field discovered their object by their motions the in his, rear, or would a Russian army be


transported to Macedonia or Romania ? Is this sum of £10,000 originally came into there any strong position to cover Constan- the possession of Lord Melville, is left by the tinople without hazarding the fate of a reports referred to your committee wholly battle, or would the Russians not meet him, uncertain. It was manifest that it must till he crossed the Bosphorus ? Should he have been received by Lord Melville, prior to reach Constantinople, would the Turkish the appointment of Mr. Trotter; and as the government renove to Asia, or would they former paymaster (the late Mr. Andrew rather descend into one of his federative Douglas, executed that office during the kingdoms? If the latter, let it be remein- whole of Lord Melville's first Treasurership, bered, that shattered as the Turkish empire and so much of the second as preceded Mr. is, it still extends to the Tigris, and we Trotter's appointment; your committee may then be able to form some conjecture thought it expedient to call for and inspect how he cast his eyes on the Ganges from all such books, papers, and accounts, of the the banks of the Danube: but, in consider- late Mr. Douglas, relating to the Navy Pay ing the consequences of such an event; it Office, as could be produced to them. Many is necessary to withdraw our attention for a of these were found in the possession of his moment from the more important atfairs of widow, and the examination of them has, in Europe, to the glittering scenes of Asia. the estimation of your committee, brought Such wild projects may hasten the crash of to light very important matter; the truth of his brittle empire, but their effects may be which is confirmed by information derived felt to the extremities of the globe.

from other sources. It is already known to CAMILLUS. the House that Lord Melville was first ap

pointed Treasurer of the Navy on the 19th REPORT FROM THE COMMITTEE APPOINTED of Aug. 1782, and that by a warrant dated

TODRAW UP ARTICLES OF IMPEACHMENT the 23d of Oct, 1782, his salary was inAGAINST HENRY LORD VISCOUNT MEL- creased to the net sum of £4,000,“ in full

PRESENTED TO THE HOUSE OF " of all wages and fees, and other profits and COMMONS ATH MARCH, 1906.

- emoluments theretofore enjoyed by other The Committee appointed to draw up Arti

" Treasurers of the Navy."-It now appears cles of Impeachment against Henry Lord that Lord Melville on the 20th of Aug. 1782, Vise. Melville ; and who were empowered (the day after he first entered upon his office)

to report such further Matters as shell | constituted Mr. Andrew Douglas his paya have cofre to iheir knowledge in the course master; and that on the same day Mr. Doug.

of the Examinations taken before them, las paid to the account of Lord Melville at : with respect to the Conduct of the said his bankers, Messrs. Drummonds, the sum

Lord Visc. Melville, during the time that of 1,0001. <But as this advance seems to he held the Office of Treasurer of his Ma- have been made to Lord Melville from the jesty's Navy; Have agreed to the follow- private funds of Mr. Douglas, it is here noing REPORT.

ticed by your committee only to explain in Your committee have already reported part the subsequent transactions. Your to the House several Articles of Impeach- committee 'find, that until the 6th of Nov. ment against Henry Lord Visc. Melville. 1782, all the money issued froin the Exche; which they considered it their duty to pre- quer to the Treasurer of the Navy for narah pare without delay, upon the circumstances services, was regularly paid upon his account and transactions disclosed in the reports re- as Treasurer of the Navy to the Bank of ferred to them.--They have since applied England, whese clerks appear to have atthemselves to the further investigation of the tended at the Exchequer to receive it. On matters contained in those reports, and the oth of Nov. 1782, this course of proceedhaving obtained much new and material in- ing seems to have been, for the first time, formation which in the judgment of your departed from, there having been on that couimittee will make it necessary to prefer dy 45,0001. issued from the Exchequer to an additional article or additional articles of the Treasurer of the Navy for naval services, impeachment against Lord Melville, they of which sum only 40,000 1. was paid to his think it their duty previously to submit the account at the Bank, the remaining 5,000 1. bame to the consideration of the House -being, by the treasurer's order, deposited by The attention of your committee bas been the paymaster in an iron chest, then kept in particularly directed so a sum of £10,000 in the ortice cash-room, and called by him the which Lord Melville stated himself to be in- Treasurer's Iron Chest. Ud the 22d of debted to the Navy Pay Office, when Mr. the same month the sum of 50,000). was Trotter was first appointed Paymáster in Jan. issued from the Exchequer to the Treasurer 1786. How, when, and for wbat puposes of the Navy; of which only 47,000 l. was


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