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fitted for the task than myself, would have long habits of intimacy, be more thoroughly remarked upon the letter of Senex, and acquainted with the various characters and pointed ont to the mass of your numerous dispositions of his people; and, consequentreaders, the ntter insufficiezcy of the pleasly, must he not best know how to adapt his advanced by him for the necessity of the instructions to their advantage. May we not Residence Act being reperled. No no ice, also suppose, without any disparagement to however, having been taken of it in your the younger clergy, that a conscientious succeeding number, I feel myself called upon minister, who has long resided among liis thus to become your correspondent; and parishioners, will be looked up to with trust that my undertaking will not prove al- more reverence and respect? That in risi'together unsatisfactory.--The well establish- ing the sick, one of the most important of ed impartiality of your Register emboldens the ministerial duties, bis exhortations, ads me to bope, that having presented your monitions, and consolations, will be applied readers with one side of a question, you will more appropriately, and more ettectually? not refuse to let the other be submitted and ibat, in fine, his general conduct, which to their inspection through the same channel. we may reasonably conclude, will, in the It is said, by Senex, that“ the present law decline of life, be more circumspect, will " is more oppressive than the Act of Henry carry with it greater weight, and that it will “ the sth., because the informer can now be more readily and carefully imitated? “ recover five times as much as he could by “ Bishops and the superior clergy may, « that Act." This is not altogether a fair most of them, have been curates in their stateinent; for by the present law the in- yonuger days." But we hope that, as

former cannot recover one farthing; if the they rise in years and in 'preferment, they ; bishop's licence for non-residence be obtain- do not sink in their regard to their duty, or

ed; and, it remains with Senex to mention that that respectability which they possessed an instance where that licence has been re- when young, and which perchance aided fused where a sufficient plea was offered. them in their advancement, is, now that The parallel between the clergy, and the they have attained the wished-for eminence, country gentlemen will not hold out.---That forfeited by any change of conduct. Such the latter should reside part of the year upon livellous opinions we cannot entertain. It

his estates, may be a inoral duty, but that may be that “ no complaint was ever i the clergy should reside the whole is a moral brought against the clergy in parliament

duty -The law has certainly " made pro- for non-residence." But, surely, there « vision for the duti's of the clergy;" but was abundant ground for it before the passnot " by allowing cirates.” The office of ing of the late act; and much as we reprocurate was originallynot so much to supply bate the qui tam measures, still we are of the place of incumbeit, as to assist him: as opinion that those measures have eventually in the case of pluralites of livings, or where þeen of service: those measures caused to the clergyman was od and infirm. --Tbat be brought forward the late act, and that act, young curates" may be." respectalile," we inasmuch as it has caused a more general reare far from denying, nay, we have the ho- sidence of the clergy, is, we maintain, nour (for an honour we esteem it) of being salutary. Whether its powers have been intimately connected with many that are committed in every instance to the most such; but, why, we would ask, may not old proper hands, and whether those powers incumlents be equally so? Young curates have been sufficiently defined, are questions may have greater powers of yoice; but there with which we are not now concerned. The are few old clergymen, we believe, whose only point insisted upon, is that the resivice is not loud enough to be heard in a dence of the clergy is a duty which ought church in the country, where in general the to be enforced, and every act which tends churches are not very large, neither are the to that, unless indeed it be cruelly opprescongregations very numerous. And, let it sive, is to be commended, and its supporters be here observed, that Senex alludes chiefly deserve well of the public. Inclina to incumbents in the country, as appears

“ tion and duty" we allow are better “ mo. from his lamenting their wanting “ the aid " tives than what are enforced by an act ;" “ and comfort of the society in towns." but why with inclination and duty, bas SeBesides, it happens not very unfrequently, nex coupled that seryile term “ interest 9"* that the curate is as old as the incumbent. If by interest be meant, the bare saving of As to all the other parochial duties, it were. the salary allowed to a curate, or any other madness to suppose that they would not be such consideration, in what consists the diseven better performed by the old than by the ference between residing from such motives, young for, must not the former, from and“ from dread of pains and penaltics?

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~It is natural for men to hope to have the amending the Treating Act. As your liberal

privilege of living, in the decline of life, candour has rendered this Register open to * where they please." But, where, it may every writer whose intentions and wishes be asked, could they, " after having spent are directed to the interest of his country, " their best days in the duties of their pa- you will perhaps allow these few remarks to "rish," where could they more wish to be inserted in it. I think you have not, in repose, than in that same parish ? Where deciding on the merits of this bill, extendmay they look for aid, if not at the hand of ed your observations to the great advantage those for whom they have so long laboured? which will result from obliging the electors Where for comfort, if not in contemplating who reside at a distance from the place of those good seeds, which they, themselves, election, to pay their own expenses in bave sown, maturing and bringing forth travelling there. The consideration which fruit? Where shall they find friends, if presses itself strongly on my mind, and not aniongst those, who are endeared to which makes me extremely anxious that them by the strong ties of gratitude ; on this bill should pass; is this: that it will whom they have been conferring the most have the effect of redressing a great grieimportant obligations, viz. Instructing vance in the representation of borough them how to secure those treasures which The cases are numerous in which the inhawill never fail, eternal in the heavens. bitants of boroughs possess all the claims to Where shall they look for society, if not in a representation, which are given by birth, the company of those, who have so long inhabitancy, and property. Clair's been their fellow travellers ihrough lite, and which the principle of representation was with whom they may humbly hope still to go first founded, and on which it ought to cone on, hand in hand, till they arrive at the tinue, and yet are prevented, not only from kingdom of heaven, and their receive the participating in it, but are totally excluded; reward of their labour Surely, to a good whilst, on the other hand, strangers having man, his own parish cannot but afford all none of these claims to constitute their * the aid and comfort of society, all the right, but in every respect unconnected with “ friendships and relationships," which a the interests of the borough, alone enjoy good man can desire. That the clergy the privilege of returning its members. The

of the church of England are subject to representation of boroughis has been called *< hardships" is but too true. We well know the rotten part of this constitution ;' but I many hardships that exist, and, we also do tiot thus opprobriously speak of it, when know some clergymen, who suffer under them; who feel, yet complain not; of benevolence secued the love and affection sigh, yet submit. But such of them as of his tenants and dependents, consulted by "discharge their duty with zeal and abili- them for the choice of a representative for

ty will never, we are persuaded, reckon their borough, neiher would I condeinn the amongst their hardships, the being riquir-system, if a part of the electors were stranged to renféin at their posts, and that too in ers, and even admitted for the sole purpose of to these most critical and trying times of an election, But; Mr. Cobbett, when I per,

public danger:” there it is that duly re- ceive the rights of a borough wrested from quires them, 'for there it is that their zeal the legal proprietors and usurped by a few and ability can be most successfully exerted'. individuals, for the purpose of making an Many other remarks upon the letter of Se. election dictated by the elected, 'who visit nex might be ofiered, but already, Sir, your the place only when this purpose renders it time and patience have been too much in- necessary, and who contribute to none of its iruded upon. Without, therefore, com- burtlens; when these and these only exermenting further, I shall conclude, with sub- cise the privilege of electing representatives, scribing myself, your obedient servant, M. and the innabitants, who have property for N.- -New-Brentford, April 2, 1906. which they claim security, ibat it shall not

be disposed of without their consent, and TREATING BILL.

who are obliged to defray all tlie expenses of Sir, I do not find myself frequently the borough, are denied the right of joining dessenting from your opinions, for they are in the election; then, Sir, I exclaim against founded on principles of too much integrity the system as bring a rotten part of the conof independence, and matured by too much stitution, with this consideration, that, as judgment and reflection, and directed to ob- it is the glory of the British constitution that jects of too great an importance, to be easi'-. its foundation rests on the love of confidence ly controverted. But I cannot coincide in of the people, we must regret whenever your view of the bill of Mr. Tierney for there is a shadow of cause for dissatisfaction.

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It behoves us, Sir, when assailed by foes aş depriving them of their franchises, that from without to guard agairst foes within. they will owe him their lasting gratitude Were you to talk to these inhabitants of for restoring them. I am, Sir, yours, &c. their representatives, you would insult their W. B.-Temple, 19th March. feelings, I have not exaggerated this grie, vance. I was passing through a small borough in the county of Dorset, a few days SIR.-The candour and impartiality of sincer, in which I witnessed its greatest ex- your Weekly Register, and the readiness tent. One of the setting members had va- with which, upon all occasions, you admit cated his seat, or in other words, the stipu- into it any remarks, though in opposition to lated period for which he was to retain it your own sentiments, induce me to give my having expired, he had legally resigned it in: opinion on a subject, which you do not seem to the hands of the donor to be transferred accurately to have understood.--- When to another, and this successor was then to be the charter of the East India Company was elected. The right of election was vested renewed in 1793, the sum of half a million in freemen, the greater number of whom sterling a year was to be paid into the Exresided at a considerable distance from the chequer, provided there should be a surplus horough. The intended representative col- in each year, equal to that sum, after paying jected them on his way from London to the a variety of expences, which were first to place of election, at which the few remain- be made from the resources of the East Ining formalities of the law had required dia Company - It follows, therefore, of their attendance. From the description of course, that if, since 1793, there have not the electors, I should judge they had be- been assets sufficient to pay all the charges came such : on this rule: that the more re. which were to precede the payment of half mote they lived from the borough, and the a million annually to the Exchequer, the anore alienated they were from its interests, Company cannot be said to be indebted se: the more qualified were they to determine veral millions to the public, unless an unex. the njerit of him whom the constitution had pected change should take place prior to the appointed the guardian of the borough. expiration of the charter.—But another Sull, however, they returned the member, question now comes, which is, whether the whilst 100 of the inhabitants, possessed of nation was deluded by a false statement of property, residents from their birth, and the assets of the Company in 1793, and incaring the burthens of the town, were not thereby led to expect a pecuniary aid from even allowed to share in the exercise of India, which it was impossible to realise. that right on which is brmed a branch of To this I answer, that after the fullest inthe government. With what confidence, vestigation of the Company's alfairs, it did they asked, can we give instructions to their not appear at the time, that Lord Melville own representatives, or with what hope can had overstated the expected receipts of reve: we e consider them as the guardians of our nue in India, or the profits of the Com, privileges, when they become such by in- / pany's sales in England. The experience of yading them? This is the grievance of sixteen years has proved, that the revenues which I have always complained in the re- of India have exceeded, in sixteen years, presentation of boroughs, and it appears the amount at which they were estimated by likely to be remedied by Mr. Tierney's bill. Lord Melville, at least in the proportion of If these hongary freemen were obliged to one third. If, then, you should ask, why detray the expenses of travelling to the bo- it is that the half million was paid in a sin, roligh, when their master requirestheir atten- gle year only, the answer would be very dance at an election, you would find that, un- easy; because the erpenses in India have less the individual on whose account they exceeded Lord Melville's calculation, in a are made, çan render them some compen- proportion far greater than that in which the sation, they will be extremely, cautious of revenues have gone beyond his calculation. involving themselves in expense, when they - It is possible that this excess of expendican answer the reproaches of ingratitude for ture, beyond the estimate of 1793, might disregarding this maker of honorary free- have been unavoidable. It is possible that man, by pleading the injustice of violating it might have been occasioned by wars imthe rights of others. You will, at least, prudently waged. It is possible it might have the representatives of boroughs, not the have been occasioned by the unnecessary inrepresentatives of one individual, but of crease of an army, which many thought trat community in whom this right was was, in 1793, fully equal to any service that vested by the constitution; and the electors might have been required from it. It is will be so far from considering Mr. Tierney also possiblş, that the wars in which the

nation has been engaged in India, were un- 1784 and 1805, very far exceed in amount avoidable; that they were commenced on the bills drawn from 1765 to 1784. If the principles of the soundest policy, and con- information stopped here, I should not wonducted with strict economy, and with great der that the question was asked, how has all military skill. --These, Mr. Cobbett, are this happened? Yet the same accounts points which are to be determined by the shew how the revenues have been expended, enquiry now pending in the House of Com- and how the debt has been more than doumons; but most assuredly, as you now

bled. A certain sum has been appropriated, think, the East India Company are free from in each year, to the purchase of investments, all blame, if it should hereafter be proved, and the remaining revenues have been exthat unnecessary wars in India have been pended in paying the civil tand military exexpensively conducted, or that the civil and pences of India. The result then is this, military establishments in India have been that the revenues of India have not been much higher than necessity required. The

sufficient, from 1784 to 1806, to pay the power of fixing those establishments was expences of India, and for the investments actually in his majesty's ministers; and they sent home, in the precise sum that the debe had, in fact, the appointment of governors

has been increased since 1784, in the first and commanders in chief. The Directors place; in the second, to the aniount of the could not even censure a governor without

bullion sent from England to India ; and in the consent of the king's ministers. I know the third, to the amount of the bills drawn of no difference between the bill proposed upon England by the governments of India. by Mr. Fox in 1782, and that of Mr. Pitt It, upon investigation, it shall appear, that which passed into a law in 1784, and was the civil and military establishments of India renewed in 1793, but this ; Mr. Fox's bill have been fixed upon a higher scale - than threw the whole patronage, both at home was necessary, where will the censure fall? and in India, into the hands of commis. Not on the Directors most assuredly; but on sioners nominated by parliament. The bill

the Commissioners. If it shall appear that of Mr. Pitt left to the Company a very con

hostilities were unnecessarily carried an siderable extent of patronage at home, but against the native powers, when the expense it gave to commissioners appointed by his must, in the nature of things, have been Majesty, as complete political power, as was enormous, because a large army in the tiela, to have been given to the parliamentary

at a great distance from our own frontiers, commissioners under Mr. Fox's bill. It is much more expensive than a large army follows, therefore, that his Majesty's late in garrisons and cantonments, on whom ministers are entitled to all the credit, or to must the censure fall ? Certainly not on the all the discredit, that may be due, for the Directors, who could not have been congood or bad government of India from 1784 sulted as to the prudence of those wars, and to this day-1 own it has very much 2sto

whose opinion went for nothing after all, it nished me, to find sensible men, of all par-his Majesty's ministers did not concur in ties, so ignorant on a subject free from every their opinión. -- For the comercial concerns thing like obscurity. Since the year 1784, of the Company, the Directors most ona the most accurate accounts have been deli- doubtedly are responsible ; but his Majesty's vered to parliament, of the receipts and ex- late ministers, and the governments in India, penditure, in each year, in India. If any

who were under the controul of those minigentleman will look at these accounts, he sters, are to be praised or censured, as the will see that the revenues of each year have political transactions in India shall appear, been in a progressive state of increase, until on investigation, to have been wise or inthey amount at present to more than twelve politic.-J. S. W.- Brighton, 14th April, millions sterling a year. They will see, at

1800. the same time, that the debt of India is much more than double, nearly trelle, the

LLOYD'S TUND. amount at which it stood in 1784. They SIR-Your known impartiality indades will observe also, that from 1765 to 1784, me to hope that you will insert the followno bullion was sent from England to Indin, ing observations addressed to the Committhough within that period a very considera- tee at Lloyd's in your weekly paper. ble quantity of bullion was brought from Impressed as I was, in common with all India to England. They will observe also, my countrymen, with sentimerits of gratis that since 1784, bullion to a very considera- Tude and respect towards the heroes who ble amount has been sent from England to in the brilliant victories off Trafalgar, raisIndia, and that the Lills drawn upon Eng- ed the British flag to an unparallelled land, by the governments in India, between pitch of renown,

'I seiz: I wish eagerness the earliest opportunity of offering | existence; the second connecting with the iny mite to the Patriotic Fund: a fund, Loire and the Vilaine, will terminate in four both nominally and virtually endower for channels at the sea, and will convey from the benefit of the widows and orphans all quarters to the esterni departments, the of those who fell iri the action.. What

productions of commerce, and wat al stores. then 'was my surprise when I perused Several oihers are projected, as that of the the resolutions which proved the douation Censee, destined to cute the Sanwe and the of swords, and other expolisive rewarşls to Scheldt; that of Ypres, which will shorten the commanders of the respective ships : the conmunication of Lisle with the sea and how much is that surprise now encreas- those which are to be carried along the ed, when I perceive the continuation of the Haisne, the Vesie, and the Aishe; and, same system manifested in the large sums lastly, the lateral canal of the Loire, going voted to Sir T. Duckworth, Admiral Coch

from Cigouin to Briare, and renderirgeasy rane, &c for their conduct in the late deci

iand practicable, in every season, tiie na ignsive action in the West Indies. Far be it tion of the most beautiful and changeable of from me to depreciate in the slightest degree, our rivers. - History has preserved the names the merits of the gallant coinmauders of our of the princes, who, in ancient times senifleets :-I respect them as the saviours of dered their reigns illustrious by similar my country. But, I appeal to every one of works; he must flourishing states are inthem, (and I am confident in the justice of debted to them for their internal prosperity. my appeal) whether they would not prefer What a glorious futurity is promised to the soothing reflection that the families of French ind:ustry, by a solicitude which thus

their brave departed messmates are provided extends and multiplies them, amidst so many 'with the cornforts and blessings of life, to other cares, in every part of the empire.the possession of gaudy trinkets, and useless If you cast your eyes on our ports, you will decorations? Let it not be said, that the

see that exertions are making on both seas, funds are adequate to both purposes ; for to render them more accessible, more coniwere it not infinitely preferable to encrease modious, and more secure.

Basins are digthe charitable benefactions, beyond what is ging at Antwerp; sluices and canals are necessary for mere subsistence, than to offer forming Antwerp, Dieppe, Ostend, Dun'superfluous rewards to those whose glory is kirk, and Harre." At Horfleur, Bordeaux, elevated far above the remuneration, which Nice, Hulingnen, Beile-isle, Ajaccio, and such trivial ornaments can bestow ? More.

Bastia, quays are constructed, asid jetties or over, in a constitutional point of view, I noles lengthened or rebuilt. All these difwould ask, whether a self-created com- ferent kinds of works are carrying on at Romittee is empowered to award the recom- chelle. The deapsing of the ports of Cette pence of military merit, which has hitherto

and Marscilles is continued, and that of Oles been considered a privilege inherent in the

run is enlarging. The ports of Diclette and Crown and Scnate ? -When the committee

Casteret are prepared in such a nanner as to thought fit to promote a general coll ion

be capable of receiving a geat pumber of at the parish churchos, many thinking men

vessels and gun-boats, wbich will alarm the objected to such a precedent, but the ob

inhabitants of the English islands of Jersey jection was overruled by the supposed be

and Guernsey, as those at Boulogne menace nevolence of the intention. Can it for a

Dover and London. The soundings taken at morrent be supposed, that either public or Bruc have asforded satisiactory results; the private contributions to the fund, had in

Rhone will have a pori. Engineers hare contemplation the objects now pursued examined what improvements it is possible and would not the ends of benevolence,

to make in that of Genoa. Six millions justice, and sound policy, be infinitely bet- eight hundred and fifty thousand francs lave ter answered, by alleviating misery to the been expended on the military ports. This ntmest limits of liberality, than by offering

sum has been principally applied in the exinadequate rewards to superior meirt

cavations, the jetties of the Mole, the conI remain, Sir, your faithful and devotot

struction of the outer port and basin, and the servant,

W. C.

foundation of the new port, Bonaparte; FOREIGN OFFICIAL PAPER. which, destined to coinplete this beautiful FRENCH ANNUAL EXPOSÉ, at the Opening maritime creation, and worthy of his name,

of the Session of the Legislative Body at will be, on the Channel, the terror of Eng. Paris, March 3, 1905. (Concluded from land; at Boulogne, the basin and the sluice, p. 480.)

the completion of the works which constiThe first has already enlivened all those túte the whole of the port, and the construcbu countriey, to which it proiniscs a new tiot of the establishments by which it is suso

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