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interwovery in the general interest of the plancy, and venal prostitution have raised to enspire. Let it not be attempted to excuse the national pride of a more prosperous peosupineness or indifference, by any supposed ple. Let him be well assured, that neither 'inefficacy of literary effort to awaken slum- wit, nor imagination, nor the powers of lanbering apathy, and give attraction and inte. guage, can save him from being himself, in rest to a calise labitually and criminally so some degree, affected by the impression, much neglected. The British mind is not which in the extravagancy of caricature, he so callous, so) degenerated, as to be, unin- las foolishiy and disingenuously produced. fluenced by the lessons of wisdom, and the A little reflection will repress or extinguisha dictates of policy; to be trimoved by the this tou common vice, or error; and the forceful deductions of cultivated reasoii, and smail dealers in literature will no longer have' the strong impressions of manly virtue, But, any motive to employ a sterile invention, in why so anxiously desire the popular diselis- the fabrication of Irish bulls and liunders; sion of this subject? Because the inpulse of or an arid imagination to decorate with new popular wish may conimuniente motion to a dresses, and Irish scenery, the stale jokes of free gorerament and the coincidence and the worthy Joe Millar. Interested kuavery, approbition of populat: opinion give addi- and perverted intellect will cease to invent tional effect to remedial measures.". Because falsehoods for credulity and self-love, to beinveterate prejudiæs 'exist which must be liere and propagate. Liberal, reflecting Eneradicated, by exposure and argument; and glishmen will blush at the recollection, that that the intellectual and physical powers of the natural and necessary eliecis of a noverthe lower orders of the Irish, must become cal, oppressive systein of government have. beiter understood, and more justly appre- been, hitherto, unjustly and insultingly as, ciated. Their character must no longer be signed as the cause of overbearing insolence, received on the authority of a prosing, prag- and supercilious contempt towards the sister matic doctor, a talking, technical chancellor, country, as Ireland is ustially styled, by an or a pliant and versatile young lord uitti tuo ingratiating figure of rhetoric. They will strings to his low. The garratz and cellars learn to dissolve the unfounded association of of Si. Giles's must not be raked for speci- the naine cf commou Irish, with the odious mens of the lower Irish; scenes where the vices of laziness, drunkeliness, and dishoreaction of an indignant spirit against provo nesty, when they have examined to what exKing insult; and irritating sarcasm, gives to tent those vicious qualities really belong to the poor Irishwas a character not habitual those orders, and to what degree their existto him, and which in fairness ought to be it- ence is im putable to the pature of their go'tributed to his situation and circumstances, vernment, and other moral causes. It will To give unity of etfect to the political unioa be no satisfactory proof of laziness, to obof the two countries; tó weaken, and ulti serve the annual crowds of haymakers, who mately destroy the moral repulsion which possessing a greater spirit of industry than sunites the people, and would burst the ar- scope for its exercise, resort to this country, tificial chain of unequal connexion, a reform, in time of harvest, to seek employment; and in the system of manuers and treatinent pur- return home with their little savings, at the sued towards the Irish, is essentially neces- close of the season. Similar migrations from the sary. The Irish coxcomb too, whatever be Western Counties of Ireland, to the North-, hiš rank and station, who fancies that his ern, and Eastern, and other more opulent elegance and refinement may suit with a parts of the island, afford an additional refuhigher scene of birth, must be convinced, tation of this traditional calumny. Nor will that there is nothing culpable in being born the charge receive much support from the in Ireland. That the distinguishing accent companies of Irish pavers, bricklayers, maof his countrymen is not disgraceful, though sons, and labourers, to be met with in every affectation make it 'ridiculous., Existing street of the metropolis; and those still more fashions must be completely altered. No laborious drudges, the coal-heavers on the unworthy, or time-serving complaisance for River Thames, and the hardy fishermen of the higher civilization, and boasted superio- Newfoundland. Intoxicating liquors are rity of Englishmen, should induce Irishmen too often the resource of pining want, and to misrepresent the character of their native lingering wretchedness, to stimulate an excountry, to fatter the vanity of others, at hausted, prostrate system, into temporary the sacrifice of truth and candour. The man animation; or to susperd the uneasy feelings who is guilty of such intolerable folly, or of cheerless poverty. The exhilarating corabominable apostacy, but sullies his own dial is a powerful anodyne, the sovereign pacharacter, by the sinyke of that incense he nacea for hunian ills. This injurious pracburns on the altar, which parasitical syco- tice is not peculiar to the Irish; and instances
are not unfrequent, among the natives of this lousy and distrust, now divided the higher country, of persons equally addicted to it. It from the lower ranks; the lord from his tea is the hasty resolution of impatient suffering; nant;. the master from his servant. Odious let the faine of life burn brighter while it duplicity and treachery marked the interlasts, and we regard not how soon it be ex. | course of the classes. Affability and condetinguished. But a government cannot, with scension on the rich man's tongue, but con. any colour of justice, complain of habits cealed the suspicion which lay lurking in his which they have themselves chiefly pro- heart. The poor man's gratitude rose no duced ; and from the indulgence of which higher, thiau submissive acquiescence in his they derive an ample revenue. Why has hard condition. The sources of social com not the brewery of ale, and porter, been en- fort were dried up; society was impoisoned couraged in Ireland, rather than the distilla- by fear and hatred, until gradually sapped tion of a fiers, deleterious spirit! The crimp in its foundations, it crumbled into those dis. and the exciseman may explain the secret. jointed ruins, which still mark by their dis, Bue the cheapness of this destructive' beve- tance the violence of the separation. This rage, and those seductive properties usually is the unseeinly heap, in which the mass of ascribed to it, have proved temptations too | Irish population presents itself to our view; strong, even for English sobriety to resist; this is the prospect from which every friend as the Warwickshire militia whilst on duty of bumanity, every friend of the British Em-, in Dublin, in the year 1797, decisively ex- pire, must recoil with horror. Through the perienced, to the no small disadvantage of remote influence of circumstances so inaustheir health and discipline. I do not think. picidus to the practice of the social virtues, that dishonesty is common among the lower some persons inay be found, who, from a classes, in situations of trust or confidence. contusion of morals, are less scrupulous on Bat, surely, abject poverty is a bad school tlre distinctions of property, which, in their for honesty or virtue. Man is the creature view, have not acquired that maturity, which of excitements and circumstances; and in a can countervail the antiquity of former claitu, country where rebellion and confiscation Yet, while their sense of order, and of right, have been familiar, and the violent transfer has been deadened by the violent operation of possession maintained by superior power, of irregular causes, the prisons continue to it is not surprising that the simple, and the be their ovly schools of morality, and the ignorant, should confound the ideas of usurp- executioner the most impressive of its teached title, and legitimate property. That they ers. Unhappily, too, some men, through a should cease to feel this sacred regard tor fatal and perverse disposition, of a mind that first of rights, in man's progress towards varped by the influence of a corrupt governcivilization and improvement, so much che- ment, and deformed by the base passion of rished in this country, where it has, happily, inveterate selfishness, contribute by their poremained so long undisturbed. There, un- licy and conduct to perpetuate those evils. fortunately, society was divided into oppres- of the beneficial effects of the present vicesors, and oppressed; plunderers and plan- regal government in Ireland, we can make dered ; and, as inight be expected in such a Jinle account. The precarious, and uneersituation of things, the plundered, and their ain duration of this sort of government, perdescendants were restrained by the strong petually changing the complexion of its adarm of power alone, from continual inroads ministration, under the direction and inon the newly acquired property, under the fuence of a succession of men, of different notion of retaliation, or rightful resumption.. principles and plans of policy, renders it inBesides, the morals of the people weré ne- capable of producing any extensive or duraglected ; spiritual edification was substituted ble benefit. The power of vice-royalty may for rational instruction. The beneficent undulate from the Castle, and move the flucspirit of the Christian religion was sacrificed , tuating mass of the people; but like the to a blind, devotional attachment to rituals, waves of the ocean, subject to the changes and fornis. The comprehensive code of the and storms of a superior element. I have gospel was, by the comments, and interpre- now considered soine of those causes of jeatations of rival, polemnic doctors, restricted lousy, and alienated affections, which, to the narrow pale of their respective follow- among the lower orders of the Irish, destroy èrs. Heathen philosophy would sigh to be all attachment to this country; and every hold men professing a religion of universal feeling of interest in the general prosperity, charity, and brotherly love, yet sowing the land security of the empire. I have proved seeds of infuriate dissention ; defeating the the injustice of some common reflections on moral and practical tendency of the sublime their pational character ; and shewn, that precepts of uieir Heavenly Master. Jea- those features of it which are most excepo
ionable, are fairly imputable to other causes, their land would be considerably raised; as than untowardness or depravity of natural the small 'tériants would then have an intedisposition. I have pointed some observa- Test in its proper cultivation, from the imtions to the reformn in British sentiment, probability that any other person could inand manners, 'necessary to conciliate the tercept the advantages of theirimprovements, Irish people ; and to unite and cement, both by stepping between them and their landnations in feelings of amity, and reciprocal lord, when they came to apply for a renew· benevolenice. I shall next proceed to those al of their leases. Uuderleases, on the coninternal regulations, which, in my opinion, trary, check all improvement for some promise fairest to produce unanimity, among years before the expiration of the term ; and the people of Ireland' themselves.' 'On this the farm reverts to the landlord, ratber impart of my subject, my embarrassinent does poverished than improved. A frugal, and not arise from the difficulty of fiuding expe- rigid a'conomy habitual to the farming culcients, but from the perverseness and oppo- tivator, would powerfully contribute to a sition of those likely to obstruct their adop- rapid increase of stock, upon those little tion, conceiving the present state of things farms; which would multiply the annual more conducive to their particular interests. produce to such a degree, as would reduce A new order of things, however, is absolute- the price of articles of prime necessity, very ly necessary. The misery of the labouring considerably. An increasing demand for la poor of Ireland 'is not stationary, but pro- bour would soon take place; wages would, gressive. I now assume the existence of in consequence, be somewhat advanced, and this misery, according to a former statement, the labourer, as in equity be ought, would as an incontrovertible fact, 'a conclusion of enjoy the produce of his labour in greater the senses forced on the attention even of, plenty. But here no interference of the le. the most indifferent observer. Looking gislature is desirable ; for, experience shews round me, and viewing this subject in its va- that all attempts to regulate wages, by, law, rious aspects, I bave weighed possibilities, have utterly fajled, or been productive of and compared them with my object, in the I mischief. Tlve poor man's cabin, now the eager wish to discover some remedy for thie mansion of misery, would become the cheerevil, by the gradual operation of causes, al ful abode of homely plenty: An increasing together independent of the direct interfea | progeny nurtured in wholsome abundance rence of the legislature. Much night be would gladden the father's heart, expanding done through the patriotic exertions of the through a wider sphere of social affection, aristocracy of Ireland; but the firme convie- and conscious of the importance of existe tion of my mind, from past and present ex-. ence. The wealth of the country would ra
perience is, that no voluntary sacrifices of pidly increase, and with it the industry and T that , sufficient re- happiness of the lower orders of the people
more the overwhelming grievances of ivhich for it is with industry, as with other human the poor have to complain. The first object qualities, which improve with encouragethen should be to diminish the number of But to the productive powers of instipendiary labourers, and to increase the dustry, the church establishment would opclass of farming cultivators. To effectuate pose.a formidable check. In Ireland lands this, all underletting for terms of less than are generally let at rack-renis. three lives, or thirty-one years, sliould be therefore, allow one third of the gross prostrictly and effectually prohibited, by an act duce of the farm for the expences of cultiof the legislature. In every case, where he vation, and management; and when we conwho is willing to part with this land, has sider the proportion of the farm necessary himself a shorter term, he should be fur the subsistence of labourers, and labourobliged, by the provisions of the act, ing cattle, we shall not be disposed to think to make a complete assignment of bis this allowance too large. The rent comentire interest ; or, should he wish to moniy rises to four tenulis of the whole proretain a part, then the land to be divided in duce, which, added to the expence above such proportion as may be agreed on between stated, leaves little more than two tenths of the parties, the rent of the farm to be fairly the produce, in the form of profit. Of these apportioned, and the assignee to hold his two tenths, one fulls io the share of the parpart, immediately, of the original landlord, gon! But while the cultivator is thus comexempt from any responsibility whatever for pelled to part with one half of his profit, be or to the assignor. Such a'law would ex- is, moreover, in the manner of delivering it, tinguish the most detestable of the middle- liable to be barrassed, and interrupted in his men; but would be attended with decided business, by bailiffs and proctors; who al. advantage to the land owners. The value of ways have it in their power, on the least ir.
regularity on his part, to drag him into the cent of their annual income. But, this subecclesiastical court, and involve him in the ject has been so ably discussed by Mr. Fra. the ruinous expences of an oppressive litiga- cis and yourself, (in p. 720) that any farther tion. Such is the system of tythes; the observations upon it run this occasion are unmost grievous and vexatious of all con- necessary. Neither shall I recapitulate those 'ceivable burdens as they affect the Irish ca. argunjen's in my former letter, in favour of tholics. Unnoticed, and unknown, by the a prog essive scale of contribution, since man who riots in luxury on the produce of their justice has been admitted by all your bis labour, how often is he led to exclaim last week's correspondents, on the same with bitterness, as he contemplates the pros- subject; and they have been sanctioned by pect of an abundant barrest, the bountiful the very respectable anthority of Mr. Wil. reward of industrious labour; and shall the berfurce, and Mr. W. Smitb, when honournuan wlio liates, who despises, who traduces abiy and huinanely pleading 'fór á still farme reap the profit of this !--Shail the barpy ther extension of those exemptions which hand of the rapacious ttle-proctor swatch Lord H, Petty (actuated by the same just from my just grasp tlie benefit of my in- and liberal sentiments) has állowed to those ercased exertion ! He broods orer the dispi- who by great exertions could earn 55.-His riting thought; the reflection lies heavy on lordship's specch on this occasion, dres his mind; the distressing load presses like į great credit to his head and heart. It afforils an incubus on the heart of bis industry, a gratifying expectation that he will exert to stops the circulation, and benumbs its ener. the utmost, his very respectable abilities in gies. The reader must have anticipated the still farther alleviating the severe pressure of rernedy,--I mean a commutation. This ar- the income tax on the lower orders of the ticle has already grown to an inconvenient community; that he will rather be influenced length, I must therefore defer my obscrva- by the eloquent pleadings of justice and hations on the best plan of commutation, on nianity, iu behalf of suutering millions, thaa a system of parochial instructiou, &c.--I am, by the interested clamours and grdan dess Sir, yours ANGLO-HIBERNICUS.
alarms of opulent land proprietors. Is it
just, is it decent, that those who are by the PROPERTY AND INCOME TAX. intended property tax, required only to pay LETTER II.
a tithe of she annual interest of their imSIR;
-As my former letter on the mense property to secure the principal neabove subject, has been honoured with the impaired, should complain of the injury they notice and approbation of two correspon- suffer from the exemption to the journey. dents in your last weck's Register, (see p. man, mechanic, or artisan, who by unremit29 and 79.4) and I cannot but consider the ted exertions can earn 59. per day!! No subject itself as of the highest importance; Ione, Sir, can be more fully convinced than beg leave to offer some farther observations myself, of the necessity for disparity of rank upon it. This tax being levied for the pur- and condition, for the exercise of delegated, pose of securing all the landed, funded, and responsible power, and for the observance of other property in the United Kingdom of due subordination arnong the ditferent chassGreat Britain, (whether belonging to sub. es of civilised society. - -Nay, farther, I jects or aliens) by a payment of 10 per cent. will readily admit, that where there is most of the annual interest arising from such pro- freedom in the constitution of a government, perty, may be aptly denominated a " Pro-- most clemency in the exercise of its authoperty Tax." But, as the same annual im- rity, most wisdoın, liberality, and humanity, post of 10 per cent, is by this tax indiscria in the August. Representative, and the cominately laid upon all income, from what- existent members of its sovereign power, ever source derived, (thonglı subject to cer- there must also exist, the highest obligations tain exemptions) it is, as you justly observe, of loyalty, subordination, and obedience. to all intents and purposes, an “income Such is still the government, and such the tax."---The former appellation, therefore, subjects of these favoured islands, that such applies to its institution ; the latter to its thing may continue to the end of time, must operation. This distinction is of more im- be the wish of every one who is worthy the portance than on a transient view it may ap- name of Briton. But the government pear to be: because it applies immediately whose stability rests on the equipoise of difto the case of foreign stock-holders, for the ferent principles and powers, is equally ensecurity of whose sunded property, all classes dangered by despotism, as by licentiousness. of Brith subjects are obliged to pay 10 per
(10 lo Continued.) Printed by Cox and Baylis, No. 75, Great Queen Street, and published by R. Bagshaw, Bow Street Cororit
Garden, where former Numbers may be had; sold also by J. Budd, Crown and Mitre, Pall Mall.
Vol. IX. No. 23.)
LONDON, SATURDAY, JUNE 7, 1806.
“ Fire shall consume the tabernacles of bribery."-JOB. cap. xv. 833]
-[834 TO THE ELECTORS OF HONITON. directly, one single farthing of the public LETTÉR II.
money ; but, without emolument, compenGentlemen; Perceiving that Mr. sation, or reward of any kind or in any Cavendish Bradshaw has, since by your voice shape, will, to the utmost of my ability, he was constituted one of the guardians of watch over and defend the property, the lithe public purse, taken care to obtain a place berties and the privileges of the people, neby the means of which he will draw into his ver therefrom separating, a3 1 never yet own pocket some thousands a year out of that have, the just and constitutional rights and purse, and this, too, at a time when the load prerogatives of the crown. -This declaraof indispensible taxes is pressing his honest tion, Gentlemen, is not made without due and industrious constituents to the earth; reflection as to the future as well as to the perceiving this, and being fully persuaded, present, as to public men in general as well that, whenever the electors of any place re- as to myself. It proceeds, first, from an choose representatives under similar circum- opinion, that the representatives of the peostances, the cause is not so much in their own ple ought never to be exposed to the temptadisposition as in the apathy and lukewarm- tion of betraying their trust; secondly, from ness of those independent men who may long observation, that those who live upon have the ability to rescue them from such the public are amongst the most miserable of hands; with this truth being deeply im- men; and, thirdly, from that experience in pressed, I did, upon hearing of the ap- the various walks of life, which has convinced proaching vacancy, use my efforts to prevail me of the wisdom of Hagar, who prayed for upon other men of this description to afford neither riches nor poverty ; not riches, lest you an opportunity of evincing your good he should forget God; not poverty, lest be sense and uprightness, and, having failed in should be tenrpted to steal : and, to receive those efforts, I have thought it my duty to af- the public money imjustly, is not only steal
you this opportunity myself ; it being ing, but stealing of the worst and basest sort, mavifestly true, that, unless men of inde- | inciuding a breach of the most sacred trust, pendence and of public-spirit will offer accompanied with the cowardly consciousthemselves as candidates, to rail at electors ness of impunity. From reflections like for choosing and re-choosing the dependent these, Gentlemen, it is, that the declaration and the mercenary is, in the highest degree, now made has proceeded, and, when I deunreaconable and unjust.--As to profes- part, in word or in deed, from this declarasions, Gentlemen, so many and so loud, upon tion, may I become the scorn of my country; such occasions, have they been; so nume- wherein to be remembered with esteem, I rous are the instances, in which the foulness prize beyond all the riches and all the hoand shamelessness of the apostacy hare borne nours of this world. But, Gentlemen, as an exact proportion to the purity and solem-, it is my frm deterinination never to receive nity of the vow; so completely, and with a farthing of the public money, so it is my such fatal effect, have the grounds of conti- detremination equally firmi, never, in any dence been destroyed, that, it is now be- way whatever, to give one farthing of mý come necessary, upon all occasions like the
own money to any man, in order to induce present, to give a pledge, such as everyo man him to vote, or to cause others to vote, for can clearly understand, and such as it is im- me; and, being convinced, that it is this possible to violate without exposing the vio- practice of giving, or promising to give, mosator to detection and to all the consequen- ney, or money's worth, at elections; being ces of detected hypocrisy and falsehood; convinced, that it is this disgraceful, this unand, such a pledge I now give in declaring, lawful, this profligate, this impious praethat, whether you elect me or not, I never, tice, to which are to be ascribed all our calaas long as I live, either for myself, or for, or mities and all the dangers that now stare us through the means of, any one of my fami- in the face, I cannot refrain from exhorting ly, will receive, under any name, whether of you to be, against all attempts at sich pracsalary, pensiou or other, either directly or in- tices, constantly and watchfully upon your