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the events we have seen ; anid, as far as they such as this country nerer yet experienced.

have becn effected, there can be no doubt -In reflecting upon the result of ail ile -- but it has been the will of the Almigly that wars that have taken place since the French

they should come to pass. Le certainly revolution, the fact inost prominent is, the “ rides in the whirlwind, and directs the miserolle insufficiency of a regular army, to storm;" but this does not in the sinallest de- defend a country: not one in Europe has gree lessen the duty of every power resist- trusted to it, that has not been ruined. ing, to the uttermost, the attacks that are [Hear! hear! Mr. IV indham!) The exmade upon their liberty and independence. pense of supporting an army in a marching No country has so much reason, as tiris hap: state, and actually ready for a campaign is py one, to be jealous, in the extreme, of so so great, that one or two hundred thousand dreadful a neighbour, and whose peculiar men swallow up the public revenue of tweuvengeance is whetted against it. It is our ty millions of people; and if this army is demanitest duty to hope that the providence feated, a kingdom is conquered. Five milof God will be in our favour, and enable us jions capable of bearing arms, are as so many

to resist a torrent that has overwhelmed sheep driven to slaughter : if it be the will every thing else, and left this island the of the victor they lick the dusi.---There last refuge of liberty, property, and religion. wants no military knowledge to enable us to it is the duty of every subject of this realm see that there inust be something radically to exert whatever power, influence, or ta- rotten in such a species of defence. [Hear! lent, he may possesi, in the service of the hear! ye advocaies for standing armies!} public, at the most fearful moment Europe | If it be said that the attack is by a regular has seen for many ages.

Ile that can grasp

army, I reply, that it must be so; it is of al weapon, should wield one ; and, he that recessity. No general can nıarch a whole can only reflect on the means of resistance, people out of their country; but the ques. should well consider them, and give his tion is, whether a whole people cannot be thoughts to those whose stations may make brought to act at home.- -But the regular them useful. I wish I could say that all can troops, of the necessity of which in this pray; but, all that know what prayer is, country we have heard so much in parliashould pray fervently for their King, their ment, have little more dependence placed in country, their altars their liberty, and the them, in the bour of need, than if they were safety of theirfanulies. Well would it be armed peasantry. The Emperor of Gerwith us were tris ncans of satety more rc- many laid down his neck to be trodden Jieel on and bater practised. Bui thanks to on, while the Archduke Charles was at the the griçious percy of the Supreme Ruler of liead of ninety thousand men, and the ArchEvents, truf Cliristians do abound in this duke Ferdinand had forty or fifty thousand kingdoin; and they finish no inconsider

He had more troops in the field than ahle reasonic hope that we shall still be pre- fought for him at Austerlitz. And, if the served. Of all the political evils that can King of Prussia, with two hundre:l and fiftybefal a natin, that of foreign conquest is, theusand men, were, at the head of eighty beyond comparison, the worst; and of all or ninety thousand, to be defeated, there is the classes of a state to whom this misery not a man in this couniry but would say, comes, to none is it so ruinous as to the land, • There is an end of Prussia! What, then, is ed interest. Merchants, manufacturers, the efficiency of thui dejence which is annihis monied men, and professions, can convey lated by a single l'altie? But, whatever our their

property and their skill to other coun- reasoning may be, the fact remains great and tries; but those who depend on land lose all glaring : Enrope has trusted her defence to if they fly, and are ruined if they stay. In troops of the line, and Europe is conquered. the present state of things between France | Foriy millions of men, TEN MILLIONS of and England, a conquest would transfer the whom are able to bear arms, are now tram, soil of the kingdom to French landlords: pled on, as if they were sheep and pigs, by Buonaparté would portion it out gradually two baudred thousand Frenchimen !-Are with more than Norman rapacity; and the we to trust the tremendous adventure of the farmers would be the slaves, the villains, of lives, liberty, and property, of this country, the new possessors. The consequences of on the same broken reed that has deceived such a revolarion cannot be foreseen with every neighbour we have upon earth ? In too clerr an eye, nor make too deep an im- conversation on the late events, it has rarely pression on every heart. Whatever mea, been omitted to notice the treachery or imsures of prevention are adopted, should be becility of some of those who served the obeyed and promoted with an unsleeping vi- Fuperor. The remark is nearly related to gilance;' for the evil of final defeat would be the dependence placed on a stunding army,


the King.

Whatever the evil might have been, the enrolled that coul: serve, where are substiwhole amount was the loss of an army ; a tutes to be found? lcs3 great enough, without doubt; but the

Population returned by the Act of the 41st of defence of a country rests on a foundation of straw, if the loss of an army is the loss of a

No. 1. Keut kingdom. The men able to bear arms in


Sussex England alone would form five-and-tu'enty

159,311 armies, each of one hundred thousand inen. The same proportion would have given the

401,135 Emperor fifty armies equally numerous. He rested his hope on two, and kept eight-and

Fighting inen 116,333 forty in the state of cattle and sheep: like cattle and sheep they are now eaten up.-

No. 2. Surrey 269.043 1 say nothing of our navy, the glorious and

Hants 219,056 never to be too much commended defence of this kingdom, fus an evident reason. The

458,699 four hundred thousand volunteers, (on paper at least) and the fortifications I have seen in

Fighting men 122,177 Essex, prove that our government is convinced that an intasion is possibile: if so, the

No. 3. Norfolk 273,371 possibility should be guarded against.-- lu

Sutolk 210,431 the battles of Buonaparié, I believe he has invariably fought with [against] inferior

483,502 pumbers; and this accounts for his having wou so many victories, by turning the ranks

Fighting me! 120,950 of his adversaries. This circumstance shews that the command of mumbers is a matter of

No. 4. Essex 226,437

Herts immense consequence. Here it is absolute

97,577 ly our own fault and presumption, if we do

Cambridge 89,346 not oppose him with very superior numbers

413,360 in every cagagement thai could take place. He ought not to land any army without having three upon it, as soon as might be;

Fighting men 103,340 one in front, and one hanging on each of his wings. With troops of the line this may be This is sufficient to explain the idea. Each impossible to ettect; but not so with a gene- maritine district should have another behind ral levy:- - There is one observation which it to call out as a reserve. Were the kingought to be very obvious; exactly in propor- dom thus armed, and for such a purpose, as tion to the talents, skill, and experience in soon as the counties in the vicinity of the in-, command, of those who are to lead an in- vasion were called into the field, all the rest vading army, will be the necessity of sup- would be alert, in exercise every evening plying an inferiority in those respects, by without pay, and ready to obey the call exuumlers, preparation, intrenchments, or pected by themselves.- In the General Desonye counterbalanee; the idea of a lost bat- fence Bill the enrolment was by classes, tle or two deciding the fate of the kingdom, respecting single men, and married with is the last that is to be admitted for a single children, and there were reasons for it : moment. And the same remark is applica- but in the measure now proposed, this would ble to the system of keeping troops in bar- not be praeticable. To call men from Nora racks or quarters till the moment they are thumberland to Kent, because they are sin. wanted. To have armies collected in camps, gle, would never do: they must be called and exercised in large bodies, previous to ac- out by counties, in the immediate vicinity of tual service, appears to be an advantage the one invaded. In regard to the expenser which is lost in the contrary plan.---The of such a measure, the system should be exidea which I would most humbly propose ecuted in the cheapest manner possible. Two for consideration is, to pass an act for a ge- millions of men exercised one day in a peral militia of all men able to bear arms, month, and allowed one shilling per diem' that is to say, one-fourth of the gross popu- each, would amount to no

more than lation of the kingdom, and to arm them im- 1,200,000 per annum. The officers should mediately with pikes; to admit no exemp- receive no more pay for such days of exer. țions but the most absolutely necessary ones, cise than the men; a circumstance which and not adınit of a substitute: when all are would render the measure more popular than

making the common distinction. In regard, All analogy is against them. It would be to dress, regimentals, &c. if it can be con- extremely beneficial to exercise the pike or tended that the use is equal to the expense, bayonet men in large bodies, and once a it may be indulged; but this can hardly be year in still larger, that they miglit have au urged: and when the number of men to be opportunity of learning more than it is posraised is so great, and the duration of the war sible to learn in small masses only. This in every respect so threatening, which makes would be an easy matter if all fighting men every species of economy so necessary, to re- were eurolled and exercised: a short walk duce the expense as low as possible, would be would assemble three or four thousand of a point of essential consequence.

It is them at one spot. ----To many persons of strength of body, and vigour of arm, that do no mean understanding, nothing in modera execution in a close battle, and not the dress warfare appears so astonishing as the disse of a soldier Every occasion that can pre- of the pike in favour of the bayonet, through

sent itself of using the bayonet, will be a long period of time, in which the ineffieagerly and spiritedly siezed on; it is the cacy of the tire of masquetry seems to have weapon of true courage, and most pecil- been graduglly established. Of all the bat

liarly fitted for the nervous arm of a Bri- tles fought through the last century, une in “ ton.” Circular paper, signed H. M. Gor ten were gained either by artillery, by the don, Lieutenant Colonel, and Assistant did- rapid and skilful movement of divisions, by jutant General. The remark is as applicable turning or fianking, or by the bayonet : it to the pike as to the bayonet. Dressing hardly appears that any general was indebted 2,000,000 of men at 301. each, 3,000,0001. for his success to the fire of musquetry. Marshal besides officers, &c. It would be an idle ex- Saxe, in his Reveries, holds itinutter contempt.. rase, But for the first month of exercising

Had the last war continued (says Count it might be thought necessary to have this Saxe) sone time louger, the close fight militia traived for one hour every evening, " would certainly have become the com• or twenty-four times in the month, in com- mon method of engaging; for the insig. panies of 100 inen, which would be assem- " niucancy of small arms began to he diskobled in a few minutes; for this, if each re- "'vered, which make more noise thin they ceived 3 pence, it would amount to 25.000 1. “ do execution, and which must always gr. per diem, and for 21 days 000,0001. ;' atter “ casion the defeat of those who depend ico that, once a week might suffice. Two mil- much


them. I have seen even whole lions of pikes would cost, at 6d. cach “ vollies withiout killing four mes ;

and 600,0001. The difference of espense be- " shall appeal to the experience of all mantween musquets and pikes is considerable. “ kind, if any single dischet was ever so Musquet 11. 125. accoutrements 10s. Od. violent, as to disable an enemy from ad21. 2s. 6d. Pike 6d. Difference il. 16s. 6d. vancing atierwards to take ample reverge, which, for 2,000,000 men, is a difference of " by pouring in his fire, and at the same in3,650,0001.; besides, powder, ball, &c.; "stant rushing in with fixed bayonets: it and, what is sti'l more, one day's exercise “ is by this method onl that numbers are with the pike would equal ten with the mus- to be destroyed, and victories obtained. quet. In exercising and disciplining troops, At the battle of Belgrade I saw two batthere seems to be some rule of conduct “ talions cut to pieces in an instant: they adopted in various countries, which may be gave a general fire upon a large body of a partial cause of such ill success as we have Turkish horse, at the distance of about seen remarkable instances of, When I view

" 30 paces; instantly after which the Turks a volunteer corps of one hundred men on pa- “ rushed forward through the smoke, and rade, going through their exercise with un- “ with their sabres cut the whole to pieces common precision, I cannot help wishing to on the spot. I was on the ground a few know how they would behave when formed “ minutes after, and had the curiosity to into battallions or regiments, and these again “ count the number of Turks destroyed by into numerous bodies. A day's exercise of " the general discharge of two lnttalions and 10,000 of these troops, drawn up on rough, “ found it only mount to 32 ; a circumbroken, or ploughed ground, intersected stance which has by no means increased with numerous hedges, would aítord a much my regard for fire-arms.". Reveries, 410, clearer idea of what they are fit for, than a p. 19.- - If small arms are thus inefficacia month's regular routine without diificulties, ous, the question between the pike and the and uncombined with other troops. And bayonet ought to be decided for close fight, with generals and commanders the same re- iug; for surely a regiment of pikes opposed mark is applicable: those whu never were at to a regiment of bayonets would be decided, the head of 5000 men, how can it be known ly victorious, through the most multiplied what they would do with 500 100,000 ? experiments. The authority just quoted, is

as much in favour of the pike as it is against 'would prove a very bad snere, and finish musquet firing.---" Ny opinion," says with our being oui-peneraled ; but if the Saxe again,“ in regard to the importance or isste be put on close fighting, he must gain

pikes is supported by the general concur- his advantages, whatever they were, it a very rence of inen of reflection and experience; dear price, so that his victories might prore " and the only reasons to be assigned for the his ruin.-How many men, when they read • disuse of it, are such as have also occasion

a proposition of this sort, will be sure to cry " ed ihe abolition of many other excellent out, “ all this is very wild.” If wildness be " customs of the ancients, by which I an entire departure from that system which

Dtan neglect and indolence.” If fir- has bitherto been depended on for the deing, which is the only apparent motive fence of Europe, I hope it is exceeding wild: for preferring the musquet to the pike, it cannot in this respect be too wild. Troups be thus inetficacious, and if the pike le sue of the line have lost Europe ; in the name of perior to the bayonet, as nobody can doubt, common sense let us not trust to them alone. what possible reason can be produced för -If it was within the verge of possibility to arming all our troops with musquets, at the bring into the field five or ten arnies of expence of 2 or 3 guineas, instead of with

troops of the line, it might be very well to pikes, at that of shillings? But with rely upon them; but we have not 100,000 200,000 of soldiers this would be insaniiy. such, it the debates in parliament are to be -A measure very requisite before the land. relied on; that is, we have a suficient nume ing of an invading army, would be, to pass ler for one latile-Lose it---and the kingan act of parliament, declaring it to be high dom is gone.--But the great principle for treason to receive a flag of truce, or any which I contend does not depend on the proposition whaterer, from any person arms, or on the description of troops to be mongst the hostile troops. Who can read raised: let every man le armer and exercisthe details of the late campaign without see- ell; if with musquets, well; if not, with ing the immense mischief which resulted pikes. Permit not the nation to be in a from these insidious and most ruinous ne- state of Austrian inibecility; a regular argociations? But whatever may be the re- my defeated, and the foot of the conqueror on sult of comparing weapons, the case of a ge- the neck of the nation. The fortification Sneral levy seems to preclude any mode of tem has been so much ridiculed, that it is arming except with pikes: the expence and not likely to be effected to the extent that the time necessary to discipline troops armed might be of real consequence; but to plain with musquets, must render pikes essential meu it should seem, that if such intrenchto the plan, at least for the greater part of ments as have been thrown up for some the forces thus levied. And if the vast im- miles near Chelmsford are considered as an portance of having such numbers in the important defence, and that they are so field as may enable our generals not only to considered is evident, or they would not hare out flank, but absolutely to surround the foe, been made), such, or more efective oncs, on be well considered, it will surely appear, that the coast, ile artillery bearing directly on to liase army behind army, so posted as to the sene of landing, would be much more be called readily into action, ought speedily formidable to an approaching foe. The exto decide the result of the contest. If it be pense might be very moderate. There are supposed that a French army landed on our 1730 yards in a mile; a ditch 6 yards decp, coast, it is difficult to conceive that the cam- and 10 yards wide, and 1700 yards long, at: paign would be of any long duration. . De- Is a cubic yar!, amounts to 52801. which tended by a regular army, two battles, per- sum wonld dig a mile of such intrenchiment, baps one, would decide ile fate of London ; and consequently, 160 miles oi it would cost for the vicinity of the coast, approached ei- only 523,000). A broad rond for the rapid ther from Boulogne or Holland, is such to advance of troops and artillery, and kept for that capital, that the struggle must be a very that purpose only, siculd run parallel to the

But with as many armies uf entrenchment; and the expense of this at pikemen as you please to call out, nothing 100l. per mile, would add only 10,000). for would prevent the action being unintendit. the 100 milts: double or treile it, the ob. ted from the shore to the Thames, with ihe i ject as to the expense is small. If a fourgreat advantage of being able absolutely to änd-twenty pounder were mounted at every surround the enemy at every point ; and it O yards, there would be 263, say 300 in a would not be very good policy to let him mile; at 501. each, these would cost 15,000i. close his eyes from the very instant he forc- or for a 100 miles 1,500,000l. Evident ed a landing. If three or four of the best enough it is, that for less than 2,000.0001, generals of France were in the invading ar- sterling a post formidable entrenchment, iny, perbaps any plan of maneuvering liard with artillery, might be executed

short one.

through the extent of 100 miles ; and t Europe were in safety, the spectacle Coasts of Sussex, Kent, Essex, and Suffolk, would be lamentable indeed, and we should secured for 6,000,0001.

Cases are very truly have reason to exclaim, this is not the numerous of raw and undisciplined troops conduct that can avert the thunder which standing 19 their arms steadily behind even a yet rolls at a distance. All pleasure and discommon breast-work.--" I have frequently, sipation that absorb the money and divert says Saxe, p. ! 17, seen brick towers, hollow, the energy wanting for the defence of the and weakly constructed, that have sustained country, is high treason against the indethe fire of 20 picces of large cannon for 3 or pendency of the kingdom. Nothing can 4 entire days together, at the distance of save this country but a long, steady, and only 400 paces, widont laring been de- patient perseverance in supporting the nestroyed."'

"--Such cases seem to prove that cessary burthens of such a war as shall bc every species of cortication is valuable necessary to keep insidious and mischievous when properly applied; and in cases ui em- truces, armistices, and all preliminaries, at ploying raw troops, of the first consequence. a distance. If the inoment arrives in which No conclusions against fortifications are to we mwestruke peace, that moment closes the be drawn from she successes of Buonaparte. career of Britain ; but at all events, let it be Had General Mak's armıy been employed peace or war, and not negociation. Our in garrisoning stilig and well provided enemy has made as much by these treacherfortified posts, the event of the can paign ous steps as by victories in the field. No would probably, have been very different; suspension of liostilities for a single nioment. but great and straggling towns, that demand This is what I will grant, this is what I will an arnıy to mun, the works, and these, pro- accent, peice or war. England is 3 years bably, unprovided with a single article requi- preparing for war: Buonaparté not 3 liours, site for standing a siege, can be noihing We know our danger in war, and it is possible more than spares in which to find your to guard against it. With such a foe we know troops captured. A regular siege is a tedious little of our danger in peace, and if it be business for an invading arıy; and it is guarded against, peace becomes as expenone, besides, in which the assailants must sive as war. But all such language is vanity lose more nen than the defenders. We and folly, if it rest not on the basis of an have had no sinall experience of the efficacy ability to continue the war. If money be of batteries extended for many miles on the wanted and cannot be had, if the navy, decoast of France, near which we have rarely | mand supplies that cannnot be procured, then approached but to be torn in pieces by their musi peace be made, or England fought foron bre. If our

enemy has made these, English ground. The first inay for a noexertions for collecting troops to attack ment postpone the latter, and it would be us, surely we ought not to hesitate at the ex- only for a moment. Where then would our pense of any measures of defence! Two trust be? In a hundred thousand troops of millions sterling converting 100 miles of the line, or in five-and-twenty times as many coast into a formidable intrenchiment, lined pikemen ?-In such an inquiry it is not easy with artillery, seems to allow the very prac- to sink entirely, as I could have wished, all ticable plan of rendering a descent from references to the Volunteers; but experience Boulogne absolutely impossible. If 100 has given us a lesson to which I hope the miles will not give security treble the ex- new ministry will not be inattentive. Voluntent, what are six millions, when the secu- tary exertions are adınirable for a certain rity of the kingdom is the question ?-I am period, and they do, for such a period, not enough in the world to know what is much honour to individuals : at the long practising in it's nor whether the movements run, if I may use the expression, they are of vanity, and extravagance, and pleasure, not to be depended on. The spirit tires and and what is commonly called lexury, flow evaporales; the attendance on days of exerin the same tide at present which they have cise has so fallen off in many corps that they done in former periods. I hope not; and remain troops upon paper only in the prethat there is not such an unfeeling inatten- sent situation of the kingdom ; its defence is tion to the tremendous events taking place the first business of every man that can caron the Continent, every one of which is ry arms, and the necessity of exertion is fraught with motives of alarm to those who such that every man should be forced to bear have hitherto escaped these frarful judg- his share in the burther, and those ments of the Almighty. If grand dinners, whose years exceed or fall short of the librilliant balls and masquerades, elegant en- mited:

pay a personal tax, that the tertainments, private and public theatricals, burthen may fall universally. Give protecand all the channels in which fortunes can tion, or enable the public to pay those that be dissipated or misapplied, fourishi as if can with their arm protect. Whatever the

dave, should

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